Ferris wheel
Overview
 
A Ferris wheel is a nonbuilding structure
Nonbuilding structure
Nonbuilding structures, also referred to simply as structures, are those not designed for continuous human occupancy. The term is used by architects and structural engineers to distinctly identify structures that are not buildings....

 consisting of a rotating upright wheel with passenger cars (sometimes referred to as gondolas
Gondola (disambiguation)
A gondola is a traditional Venetian rowing boat, best known today for transporting tourists.Gondola may also refer to:-Fixed structures:...

 or capsules) attached to the rim in such a way that as the wheel turns, the cars are kept upright, usually by gravity.

Some of the largest and most modern Ferris wheels have cars mounted on the outside of the rim, and electric motors to independently rotate each car to keep it upright.
Encyclopedia
A Ferris wheel is a nonbuilding structure
Nonbuilding structure
Nonbuilding structures, also referred to simply as structures, are those not designed for continuous human occupancy. The term is used by architects and structural engineers to distinctly identify structures that are not buildings....

 consisting of a rotating upright wheel with passenger cars (sometimes referred to as gondolas
Gondola (disambiguation)
A gondola is a traditional Venetian rowing boat, best known today for transporting tourists.Gondola may also refer to:-Fixed structures:...

 or capsules) attached to the rim in such a way that as the wheel turns, the cars are kept upright, usually by gravity.

Some of the largest and most modern Ferris wheels have cars mounted on the outside of the rim, and electric motors to independently rotate each car to keep it upright. These wheels are sometimes referred to as observation wheels, and their cars referred to as capsules, however these alternative names are also sometimes used for wheels with conventional gravity-oriented cars.

The original Ferris Wheel
Ferris Wheel
The original Ferris Wheel, sometimes also referred to as the Chicago Wheel, was the centerpiece of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois....

 was designed and constructed by George Washington Gale Ferris, Jr.
George Washington Gale Ferris, Jr.
George Washington Gale Ferris, Jr. was an American engineer. He is most famous for creating the original Ferris Wheel for the 1893 Chicago World's Columbian Exposition.-Early life:...

 as a landmark for the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition
World's Columbian Exposition
The World's Columbian Exposition was a World's Fair held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World in 1492. Chicago bested New York City; Washington, D.C.; and St...

 in Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

. The term Ferris wheel later came to be used generically for all such structures.

Since the original 1893 Chicago Ferris Wheel, there have been eight subsequent world's tallest-ever Ferris wheels. The current record holder is the 165 metres (541 ft) Singapore Flyer
Singapore Flyer
The Singapore Flyer is a giant Ferris wheel located in Singapore, constructed in 2005–2008. Described by its operators as an observation wheel, it reaches 42 stories high, with a total height of , making it the tallest Ferris wheel in the world, taller than the Star of Nanchang and taller than...

, which opened to the public in March 2008.

Early history

Early pleasure wheels depicted in 17th century engravings, to the left by Adam Olearius
Adam Olearius
Adam Olearius , born Adam Ölschläger or Oehlschlaeger, was a German scholar, mathematician, geographer and librarian...

, to the right a Turkish design, apparently for adults

"Pleasure wheels", whose passengers rode in chairs suspended from large wooden rings turned by strong men, may have originated in 17th century Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Bulgaria , officially the Republic of Bulgaria , is a parliamentary democracy within a unitary constitutional republic in Southeast Europe. The country borders Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, as well as the Black Sea to the east...

.

The travels of Peter Mundy
Peter Mundy
-Life:He came from Penryn in Cornwall. In 1609 he accompanied his father to Rouen, and was then sent to Gascony to learn French. In May 1611 he went as a cabin-boy in a merchant ship, and gradually rose in life until he became of independent circumstances....

 in Europe and Asia, 1608-1667
describes and illustrates "severall Sorts of Swinginge used in their Publique rejoyceings att their Feast of Biram" on 17 May 1620 at Philippopolis
Plovdiv
Plovdiv is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia with a population of 338,153 inhabitants according to Census 2011. Plovdiv's history spans some 6,000 years, with traces of a Neolithic settlement dating to roughly 4000 BC; it is one of the oldest cities in Europe...

 in the Ottoman Balkans. Among means "lesse dangerous and troublesome" was one:

Five years earlier, in 1615, Pietro Della Valle
Pietro Della Valle
Pietro della Valle was an Italian who traveled throughout Asia during the Renaissance period. His travels took him to the Holy Land, the Middle East, Northern Africa, and as Far as India.-Biography:...

, a Roman traveller who sent letters from Constantinople
Constantinople
Constantinople was the capital of the Roman, Eastern Roman, Byzantine, Latin, and Ottoman Empires. Throughout most of the Middle Ages, Constantinople was Europe's largest and wealthiest city.-Names:...

, Persia, and India, attended a Ramadan festival in Constantinople. He describes the fireworks, floats, and great swings, then comments on riding the Great Wheel:
Similar wheels also appeared in England in the 17th century, and subsequently elsewhere around the world, including India, Romania, and Siberia.

A Frenchman, Antonio Manguino, introduced the idea to America in 1848, when he constructed a wooden pleasure wheel to attract visitors to his start-up fair in Walton Spring, Georgia
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state located in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1732, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies. The state is named after King George II of Great Britain. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788...

. Ferris wheels are now the most common type of carnival ride at state fair
State fair
A state fair is a competitive and recreational gathering of a U.S. state's population. It is a larger version of a county fair, often including only exhibits or competitors that have won in their categories at the more-local county fairs....

s in the USA.

Somers' Wheel

In 1892, William Somers installed three fifty-foot wooden wheels at Asbury Park, New Jersey
Asbury Park, New Jersey
Asbury Park is a city in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States, located on the Jersey Shore and part of the New York City Metropolitan Area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city population was 16,116. The city is known for its rich musical history, including its association with...

; Atlantic City, New Jersey
Atlantic City, New Jersey
Atlantic City is a city in Atlantic County, New Jersey, United States, and a nationally renowned resort city for gambling, shopping and fine dining. The city also served as the inspiration for the American version of the board game Monopoly. Atlantic City is located on Absecon Island on the coast...

; and Coney Island
Coney Island
Coney Island is a peninsula and beach on the Atlantic Ocean in southern Brooklyn, New York, United States. The site was formerly an outer barrier island, but became partially connected to the mainland by landfill....

, New York. The following year he was granted the first U.S. patent for a "Roundabout". It was Somers' wheel in Atlantic City that George Washington Gale Ferris, Jr.
George Washington Gale Ferris, Jr.
George Washington Gale Ferris, Jr. was an American engineer. He is most famous for creating the original Ferris Wheel for the 1893 Chicago World's Columbian Exposition.-Early life:...

 was ordered by the planners of Chicago's World's Columbian Exposition
World's Columbian Exposition
The World's Columbian Exposition was a World's Fair held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World in 1492. Chicago bested New York City; Washington, D.C.; and St...

 to study, that they could challenge the magnitude of the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
The Eiffel Tower is a puddle iron lattice tower located on the Champ de Mars in Paris. Built in 1889, it has become both a global icon of France and one of the most recognizable structures in the world...

 of France's 1889 Paris Exposition
Exposition Universelle (1889)
The Exposition Universelle of 1889 was a World's Fair held in Paris, France from 6 May to 31 October 1889.It was held during the year of the 100th anniversary of the storming of the Bastille, an event traditionally considered as the symbol for the beginning of the French Revolution...

.

The original Ferris Wheel

The original Ferris Wheel, sometimes also referred to as the Chicago Wheel, opened to the public on June 21, 1893, at the World's Columbian Exposition
World's Columbian Exposition
The World's Columbian Exposition was a World's Fair held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World in 1492. Chicago bested New York City; Washington, D.C.; and St...

 in Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

, Illinois
Illinois
Illinois is the fifth-most populous state of the United States of America, and is often noted for being a microcosm of the entire country. With Chicago in the northeast, small industrial cities and great agricultural productivity in central and northern Illinois, and natural resources like coal,...

. Intended to rival the 324 metres (1,063 ft) Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
The Eiffel Tower is a puddle iron lattice tower located on the Champ de Mars in Paris. Built in 1889, it has become both a global icon of France and one of the most recognizable structures in the world...

, the centerpiece of the 1889 Paris Exposition
Exposition Universelle (1889)
The Exposition Universelle of 1889 was a World's Fair held in Paris, France from 6 May to 31 October 1889.It was held during the year of the 100th anniversary of the storming of the Bastille, an event traditionally considered as the symbol for the beginning of the French Revolution...

, it was the Columbian Exposition's largest attraction, with a height of 80.4 metres (264 ft).

It was designed and constructed by George Washington Gale Ferris, Jr.
George Washington Gale Ferris, Jr.
George Washington Gale Ferris, Jr. was an American engineer. He is most famous for creating the original Ferris Wheel for the 1893 Chicago World's Columbian Exposition.-Early life:...

, graduate of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Stephen Van Rensselaer established the Rensselaer School on November 5, 1824 with a letter to the Rev. Dr. Samuel Blatchford, in which van Rensselaer asked Blatchford to serve as the first president. Within the letter he set down several orders of business. He appointed Amos Eaton as the school's...

 and a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, bridge-builder. He began his career in the railroad industry and then pursued an interest in bridge building. Ferris understood the growing need for structural steel and founded G.W.G. Ferris & Co. in Pittsburgh, a firm that tested and inspected metals for railroads and bridge builders.

The wheel rotated on a 71-ton
Short ton
The short ton is a unit of mass equal to . In the United States it is often called simply ton without distinguishing it from the metric ton or the long ton ; rather, the other two are specifically noted. There are, however, some U.S...

, 45.5-foot axle comprising what was at that time the world's largest hollow forging, manufactured in Pittsburgh by the Bethlehem Iron Company
Bethlehem Steel
The Bethlehem Steel Corporation , based in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, was once the second-largest steel producer in the United States, after Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania-based U.S. Steel. After a decline in the U.S...

 and weighing 89,320 pounds, together with two 16 feet (4.9 m) cast-iron spiders weighing 53,031 pounds.

There were 36 cars, each fitted with 40 revolving chairs and able to accommodate up to 60 people, giving a total capacity of 2,160. The wheel carried some 38,000 passengers daily and took 20 minutes to complete two revolutions, the first involving six stops to allow passengers to exit and enter and the second a nine-minute non-stop rotation, for which the ticket holder paid 50 cents.

The Exposition ended in October 1893, and the wheel closed in April 1894 and was dismantled and stored until the following year. It was then rebuilt on Chicago's North Side, near Lincoln Park, next to an exclusive neighborhood. This prompted William D. Boyce
William D. Boyce
William Dickson "W. D." Boyce was an American newspaper man, entrepreneur, magazine publisher, and explorer. He was the founder of the Boy Scouts of America and the short-lived Lone Scouts of America . Born in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, he acquired a love for the outdoors early in his life...

, then a local resident, to file a Circuit Court action against the owners of the wheel to have it removed, but without success. It operated there from October 1895 until 1903, when it was again dismantled, then transported by rail to St. Louis
St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis is an independent city on the eastern border of Missouri, United States. With a population of 319,294, it was the 58th-largest U.S. city at the 2010 U.S. Census. The Greater St...

 for the 1904 World's Fair
Louisiana Purchase Exposition
The Louisiana Purchase Exposition, informally known as the Saint Louis World's Fair, was an international exposition held in St. Louis, Missouri, United States in 1904.- Background :...

 and finally destroyed by controlled demolition using dynamite on May 11, 1906.

Antique Ferris wheels

Wiener Riesenrad, Vienna, built in 1897, originally had 30 passenger cabins but was rebuilt with 15 cabins following a fire in 1944


The Wiener Riesenrad (German
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

 for "Viennese Giant Wheel") is a surviving example of nineteenth century Ferris wheels. Erected in 1897 in the Wurstelprater
Wurstelprater
The Wurstelprater is an amusement park and section of the Wiener Prater in the second district of Vienna, Leopoldstadt.This institution dates back to the time of the Austro-Hungarian empire, when Emperor Josef II. made the Prater open to public in 1766...

 section of Prater
Prater
The Wiener Prater is a large public park in Vienna's 2nd district . The amusement park, often simply called "Prater", stands in one corner of the Wiener Prater and includes the .-Name:...

 public park in the Leopoldstadt
Leopoldstadt
Leopoldstadt is the 2nd municipal District of Vienna . There are inhabitants over . It is situated in the heart of the city and, together with Brigittenau , forms a large island surrounded by the Danube Canal and, to the north, the Danube. It is named after Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor...

 district of Vienna
Vienna
Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

, Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

, to celebrate Emperor Franz Josef I
Franz Joseph I of Austria
Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I was Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, King of Croatia, Apostolic King of Hungary, King of Galicia and Lodomeria and Grand Duke of Cracow from 1848 until his death in 1916.In the December of 1848, Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria abdicated the throne as part of...

's Golden Jubilee
Golden Jubilee
A Golden Jubilee is a celebration held to mark a 50th anniversary.- In Thailand :King Bhumibol Adulyadej, the world's longest-reigning monarch, celebrated his Golden Jubilee on 9 June 1996.- In the Commonwealth Realms :...

, it has a height of 64.75 metres (212 ft) and originally had 30 passenger cars. A demolition permit for the Riesenrad was issued in 1916, but due to a lack to funds with which to carry out the destruction, it survived.

Following the demolition of the 100 metres (328 ft) Grande Roue de Paris in 1920, the Riesenrad became the world's tallest extant Ferris wheel. In 1944 it burnt down, but was rebuilt the following year with 15 passenger cars, and remained the world's tallest extant wheel until its 97th year, when the 85 metres (279 ft) Technocosmos
Technocosmos
Technocosmos, later renamed Technostar, was an tall giant Ferris wheel, originally built for the Expo '85 World Fair in Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. It carried almost 3 million passengers during the exposition....

 was constructed for Expo '85
Expo '85
Expo '85, officially called , was a world's fair held in Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan between Sunday, March 17 and Monday, September 16, 1985. The theme of the fair was "Dwellings and Surroundings - Science and Technology for Man at Home"...

, at Tsukuba, Ibaraki
Tsukuba, Ibaraki
is a city located in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. It is known as the location of the , a planned city developed in the 1960s.As of 2008, the city has an estimated population of 207,394 and a population density of 730 persons per km². Its total area is 284.07 km².Mount Tsukuba, particularly well-known...

, Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

.

Still in operation today, it is one of Vienna's most popular tourist attraction
Tourist attraction
A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit, typically for its inherent or exhibited cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, or amusement opportunities....

s, and over the years has featured in numerous films (including Madame Solange d`Atalide (1914), Letter from an Unknown Woman
Letter from an Unknown Woman (1948 film)
Letter from an Unknown Woman is a film directed by Max Ophüls. It was based on the novella of the same name, which was written by Stefan Zweig...

(1948), The Third Man
The Third Man
The Third Man is a 1949 British film noir, directed by Carol Reed and starring Joseph Cotten, Alida Valli, Orson Welles, and Trevor Howard. Many critics rank it as a masterpiece, particularly remembered for its atmospheric cinematography, performances, and unique musical score...

(1949), The Living Daylights
The Living Daylights
The Living Daylights is the fifteenth entry in the James Bond series and the first to star Timothy Dalton as the fictional MI6 agent 007. The film's title is taken from Ian Fleming's short story, "The Living Daylights"...

(1987), Before Sunrise
Before Sunrise
Before Sunrise is a 1995 romantic drama film directed by Richard Linklater and written by Linklater and Kim Krizan. The film follows Jesse , a young American, and Céline , a young French woman, who meet on a train and disembark in Vienna, where they spend the night walking around the city and...

(1995)) and novels.

World's tallest Ferris wheels

Chronology of world's tallest-ever wheels
  • 1893: the original Ferris Wheel
    Ferris Wheel
    The original Ferris Wheel, sometimes also referred to as the Chicago Wheel, was the centerpiece of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois....

     was 80.4 metres (264 ft) tall. Built for the World's Columbian Exposition
    World's Columbian Exposition
    The World's Columbian Exposition was a World's Fair held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World in 1492. Chicago bested New York City; Washington, D.C.; and St...

     in Chicago
    Chicago
    Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

    , Illinois
    Illinois
    Illinois is the fifth-most populous state of the United States of America, and is often noted for being a microcosm of the entire country. With Chicago in the northeast, small industrial cities and great agricultural productivity in central and northern Illinois, and natural resources like coal,...

    , it was moved to St. Louis, Missouri
    St. Louis, Missouri
    St. Louis is an independent city on the eastern border of Missouri, United States. With a population of 319,294, it was the 58th-largest U.S. city at the 2010 U.S. Census. The Greater St...

    , in 1904 for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
    Louisiana Purchase Exposition
    The Louisiana Purchase Exposition, informally known as the Saint Louis World's Fair, was an international exposition held in St. Louis, Missouri, United States in 1904.- Background :...

    , and demolished there in 1906.
  • 1895: the Great Wheel
    Great Wheel
    The Great Wheel was a Ferris wheel built for the Empire of India Exhibition at Earls Court in London in 1895.Great Wheel may also refer to:* Beijing Great Wheel, a Ferris wheel proposed for Beijing, China...

     was built for the Empire of India Exhibition at Earls Court
    Earls Court
    Earls Court is a district in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in London, England. It is an inner-city district centred on Earl's Court Road and surrounding streets, located 3.1 miles west south-west of Charing Cross. It borders the sub-districts of South Kensington to the East, West...

    , London
    London
    London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

    , UK
    United Kingdom
    The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

    , and was 94 metres (308 ft) tall. Construction began in March 1894 and it opened to the public on July 17, 1895. It stayed in service until 1906 and was demolished in 1907, having carried over 2.5 million passengers.
  • 1900: the Grande Roue de Paris was built for the Exposition Universelle
    Exposition Universelle (1900)
    The Exposition Universelle of 1900 was a world's fair held in Paris, France, from April 15 to November 12, 1900, to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next...

    , a world's fair held in Paris
    Paris
    Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

    , France
    France
    The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

    . It was demolished in 1920, but its 100 metres (328 ft) height was not surpassed until almost 90 years after its construction.
  • 1989: the Cosmo Clock 21
    Cosmo Clock 21
    Cosmo Clock 21 is a giant Ferris wheel located in Yokohama, Japan. It is also the world's largest clock.Built for the YES '89 Yokohama Exposition at Minato Mirai 21 in 1989, Cosmo Clock 21 was originally constructed with a height of ....

     was built for the YES '89 Yokohama Exposition at Minato Mirai 21
    Minato Mirai 21
    , often shortened to Minato Mirai or MM is a large urban development in Yokohama, Japan. Minato Mirai 21 area is designated for new urban center planned to connect city's traditional center of Kannai and Yokohama Station area....

    , Yokohama
    Yokohama
    is the capital city of Kanagawa Prefecture and the second largest city in Japan by population after Tokyo and most populous municipality of Japan. It lies on Tokyo Bay, south of Tokyo, in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshu...

    , Japan
    Japan
    Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

    . Originally constructed with a height of 107.5 metres (353 ft), it was dismantled in 1997 and then in 1999 relocated onto a taller base which increased its overall height to 112.5 metres (369 ft).
  • 1997: the Tempozan Ferris Wheel, in Osaka
    Osaka
    is a city in the Kansai region of Japan's main island of Honshu, a designated city under the Local Autonomy Law, the capital city of Osaka Prefecture and also the biggest part of Keihanshin area, which is represented by three major cities of Japan, Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe...

    , Japan
    Japan
    Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

    , opened to the public on July 12, and is 112.5 metres (369 ft) tall.
  • 1999: the Daikanransha
    Daikanransha
    is a tall Ferris wheel at Palette Town in Odaiba, Tokyo, Japan.When it opened in 1999, it was the world's tallest Ferris wheel. It has the same diameter as its world record predecessor, the Tempozan Ferris Wheel, at Osaka, but its overall height is greater...

     at Palette Town in Odaiba
    Odaiba
    is a large artificial island in Tokyo Bay, Japan, across the Rainbow Bridge from central Tokyo. It was initially built for defensive purposes in the 1850s, dramatically expanded during the late 20th century as a seaport district, and has developed since the 1990s as a major commercial, residential...

    , Japan
    Japan
    Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

    , is 115 metres (377 ft) tall.
  • 2000: the London Eye
    London Eye
    The London Eye is a tall giant Ferris wheel situated on the banks of the River Thames, in London, England.It is the tallest Ferris wheel in Europe, and the most popular paid tourist attraction in the United Kingdom, visited by over 3.5 million people annually...

    , in London
    London
    London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

    , UK
    United Kingdom
    The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

    , is 135 metres (443 ft) tall. Although officially opened on December 31, 1999, it did not open to the public until March 2000, because of technical problems. It is still the tallest wheel in Europe
    Europe
    Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

     and the Western Hemisphere
    Western Hemisphere
    The Western Hemisphere or western hemisphere is mainly used as a geographical term for the half of the Earth that lies west of the Prime Meridian and east of the Antimeridian , the other half being called the Eastern Hemisphere.In this sense, the western hemisphere consists of the western portions...

    .
  • 2006: the Star of Nanchang
    Star of Nanchang
    The Star of Nanchang is a tall giant Ferris wheel located in the eastern Chinese city of Nanchang, the capital of Jiangxi Province.The Star of Nanchang opened for business in May 2006, having cost 57 million Yuan to build...

    , in Nanchang
    Nanchang
    Nanchang is the capital of Jiangxi Province in southeastern China. It is located in the north-central portion of the province. As it is bounded on the west by the Jiuling Mountains, and on the east by Poyang Lake, it is famous for its scenery, rich history and cultural sites...

    , Jiangxi Province
    Jiangxi
    ' is a southern province in the People's Republic of China. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to...

    , China
    China
    Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

    , opened for business in May and is 160 metres (525 ft) tall.
  • 2008: the Singapore Flyer
    Singapore Flyer
    The Singapore Flyer is a giant Ferris wheel located in Singapore, constructed in 2005–2008. Described by its operators as an observation wheel, it reaches 42 stories high, with a total height of , making it the tallest Ferris wheel in the world, taller than the Star of Nanchang and taller than...

    , in Singapore
    Singapore
    Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

    , is 165 metres (541 ft) tall, and currently the world's tallest Ferris wheel. It started rotating on February 11 and officially opened to the public on March 1.


Timeline
Name
 
Height
   m (ft)  
Completed
 
Country
 
Location
 
Coordinates
 
Remarks
 
Singapore Flyer
Singapore Flyer
The Singapore Flyer is a giant Ferris wheel located in Singapore, constructed in 2005–2008. Described by its operators as an observation wheel, it reaches 42 stories high, with a total height of , making it the tallest Ferris wheel in the world, taller than the Star of Nanchang and taller than...

 
165 (165 metres (541 ft))
2008
Marina Centre
Marina Centre
Marina Centre is a zone of reclaimed land within the Downtown Core in the southern part of Singapore. Together with the Marina South area, it encloses the sheltered Marina Bay....

, Downtown Core
Downtown Core
The Downtown Core is a 266-hectare urban planning area in the south of the city-state of Singapore. The Downtown Core surrounds the mouth of the Singapore River and southeastern portion of its watershed, and is part of the Central Area, Singapore's central business district...

 
1.289397°N 103.863231°E World's tallest 2008-current
Star of Nanchang
Star of Nanchang
The Star of Nanchang is a tall giant Ferris wheel located in the eastern Chinese city of Nanchang, the capital of Jiangxi Province.The Star of Nanchang opened for business in May 2006, having cost 57 million Yuan to build...

 
160 (160 metres (525 ft))
2006
 Mainland China Nanchang
Nanchang
Nanchang is the capital of Jiangxi Province in southeastern China. It is located in the north-central portion of the province. As it is bounded on the west by the Jiuling Mountains, and on the east by Poyang Lake, it is famous for its scenery, rich history and cultural sites...

, Jiangxi
Jiangxi
' is a southern province in the People's Republic of China. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to...

 
28.659332°N 115.845568°E World's tallest 2006-2008
London Eye
London Eye
The London Eye is a tall giant Ferris wheel situated on the banks of the River Thames, in London, England.It is the tallest Ferris wheel in Europe, and the most popular paid tourist attraction in the United Kingdom, visited by over 3.5 million people annually...

 
135 (135 metres (443 ft))
2000
South Bank
South Bank
South Bank is an area of London, England located immediately adjacent to the south side of the River Thames. It forms a long and narrow section of riverside development that is within the London Borough of Lambeth to the border with the London Borough of Southwark and was formerly simply known as...

, Lambeth
London Borough of Lambeth
The London Borough of Lambeth is a London borough in south London, England and forms part of Inner London. The local authority is Lambeth London Borough Council.-Origins:...

, London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

 
51.50334°N 0.1197821°W World's tallest 2000-2006
Suzhou Ferris Wheel
Suzhou Ferris Wheel
Suzhou Ferris Wheel is a tall giant Ferris wheel on the east bank of Jinji Lake in Suzhou, Jiangsu, China. It has 60 passenger cabins, a maximum capacity of 300 passengers, and takes approximately 20 minutes to complete each revolution....

 
120 (120 metres (394 ft))
2009
 Mainland China Suzhou
Suzhou
Suzhou , previously transliterated as Su-chou, Suchow, and Soochow, is a major city located in the southeast of Jiangsu Province in Eastern China, located adjacent to Shanghai Municipality. The city is situated on the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and on the shores of Taihu Lake and is a part...

, Jiangsu
Jiangsu
' is a province of the People's Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. The name comes from jiang, short for the city of Jiangning , and su, for the city of Suzhou. The abbreviation for this province is "苏" , the second character of its name...

 
31.3162939°N 120.7084501°E
The Southern Star 
120 (120 metres (394 ft))
2008
 Australia Waterfront City, Melbourne
Melbourne
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city in the state of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia. The Melbourne City Centre is the hub of the greater metropolitan area and the Census statistical division—of which "Melbourne" is the common name. As of June 2009, the greater...

 
37.8110723°S 144.9368763°E Closed January 2009 for repairs
Tianjin Eye
Tianjin Eye
Tianjin Eye is a tall giant Ferris wheel built above the Yongle Bridge , over the Hai River in Tianjin, China. It is claimed to be the only such wheel to have been constructed over a bridge....

 
120 (120 metres (394 ft))
2008
 Mainland China Chihai Bridge, Tianjin
Tianjin
' is a metropolis in northern China and one of the five national central cities of the People's Republic of China. It is governed as a direct-controlled municipality, one of four such designations, and is, thus, under direct administration of the central government...

 
39.1533636°N 117.1802616°E Tallest built over a bridge
Changsha Ferris Wheel
Changsha Ferris Wheel
Changsha Ferris Wheel is a tall giant Ferris wheel in Changsha, Hunan, China.It was completed on September 30, 2004, and officially opened to the public on October 1, 2004...

 
120 (120 metres (394 ft))
2004
 Mainland China Changsha, Hunan
Hunan
' is a province of South-Central China, located to the south of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting...

 
28.1821772°N 112.9800886°E
Zhengzhou Ferris Wheel
Zhengzhou Ferris Wheel
Zhengzhou Ferris Wheel is a tall giant Ferris wheel at Century Amusement Park in Zhengzhou, Henan, China.When it was completed in 2003, Zhengzhou Ferris Wheel was the tallest Ferris wheel in China, and the second tallest in the world, after the London Eye...

 
120 (120 metres (394 ft))
2003
 Mainland China Century Amusement Park, Henan
Henan
Henan , is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Its one-character abbreviation is "豫" , named after Yuzhou , a Han Dynasty state that included parts of Henan...

34.7645138°N 113.6549377°E
Sky Dream Fukuoka
Sky Dream Fukuoka
The is a giant Ferris wheel at Evergreen Marinoa in the city of Fukuoka, Japan. It stands high.The gondolas are all air conditioned and accessible for wheelchair-using patrons...

 
120 (120 metres (394 ft))
2002
 Japan 33.5956845°N 130.3225279°E Closed September 2009
Diamond and Flower Ferris Wheel
Diamond and Flower Ferris Wheel
is a tall Ferris wheel in Kasai Rinkai Park in Edogawa, Tokyo, Japan. It is named for its light shows, which have the appearance of a sparkling diamond or flower....

117 (117 metres (384 ft))
2001
 Japan Kasai Rinkai Park
Kasai Rinkai Park
Kasai Rinkai Park is a park in Edogawa, Tokyo, Japan, which officially opened on June 1, 1989. The park includes an aquarium and a bird sanctuary, and was built on reclaimed land which includes two manmade islands, a viewing tower and a hotel.The tall Diamond and Flower Ferris Wheel opened at the...

, Tokyo
Tokyo
, ; officially , is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan. Tokyo is the capital of Japan, the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, and the largest metropolitan area of Japan. It is the seat of the Japanese government and the Imperial Palace, and the home of the Japanese Imperial Family...

, Honshū
Honshu
is the largest island of Japan. The nation's main island, it is south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Strait...

 
35.6439052°N 139.8572257°E
Star of Lake Tai 
115 (115 metres (377 ft))
2008
 Mainland China Lake Tai, Wuxi
Wuxi
Wuxi is an old city in Jiangsu province, People's Republic of China. Split in half by Lake Tai, Wuxi borders Changzhou to the west and Suzhou to the east. The northern half looks across to Taizhou across the Yangtze River, while the southern half also borders the province of Zhejiang to the south...

, Jiangsu
Jiangsu
' is a province of the People's Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. The name comes from jiang, short for the city of Jiangning , and su, for the city of Suzhou. The abbreviation for this province is "苏" , the second character of its name...

31.5208296°N 120.260945°E Picture
Daikanransha
Daikanransha
is a tall Ferris wheel at Palette Town in Odaiba, Tokyo, Japan.When it opened in 1999, it was the world's tallest Ferris wheel. It has the same diameter as its world record predecessor, the Tempozan Ferris Wheel, at Osaka, but its overall height is greater...

 
115 (115 metres (377 ft))
1999
 Japan Palette Town, Odaiba
Odaiba
is a large artificial island in Tokyo Bay, Japan, across the Rainbow Bridge from central Tokyo. It was initially built for defensive purposes in the 1850s, dramatically expanded during the late 20th century as a seaport district, and has developed since the 1990s as a major commercial, residential...

, Honshū
Honshu
is the largest island of Japan. The nation's main island, it is south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Strait...

 
35.6263915°N 139.7822902°E World's tallest 1999-2000
Cosmo Clock 21
Cosmo Clock 21
Cosmo Clock 21 is a giant Ferris wheel located in Yokohama, Japan. It is also the world's largest clock.Built for the YES '89 Yokohama Exposition at Minato Mirai 21 in 1989, Cosmo Clock 21 was originally constructed with a height of ....

 (2nd installation)
112.5 (112.5 metres (369 ft))
1999
 Japan Minato Mirai 21
Minato Mirai 21
, often shortened to Minato Mirai or MM is a large urban development in Yokohama, Japan. Minato Mirai 21 area is designated for new urban center planned to connect city's traditional center of Kannai and Yokohama Station area....

, Yokohama
Yokohama
is the capital city of Kanagawa Prefecture and the second largest city in Japan by population after Tokyo and most populous municipality of Japan. It lies on Tokyo Bay, south of Tokyo, in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshu...

, Honshū
Honshu
is the largest island of Japan. The nation's main island, it is south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Strait...

 
35.4553872°N 139.6367347°E
Tempozan Ferris Wheel 
112.5 (112.5 metres (369 ft))
1997
 Japan Osaka
Osaka
is a city in the Kansai region of Japan's main island of Honshu, a designated city under the Local Autonomy Law, the capital city of Osaka Prefecture and also the biggest part of Keihanshin area, which is represented by three major cities of Japan, Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe...

, Honshū
Honshu
is the largest island of Japan. The nation's main island, it is south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Strait...

 
34.6561657°N 135.431031°E World's tallest 1997-1999
Harbin Ferris Wheel
Harbin Ferris Wheel
Harbin Ferris Wheel is a tall giant Ferris wheel in Harbin amusement park, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.At the time of its construction in 2003, at a cost 20 million yuan , it was the tallest Ferris wheel in China and the sixth tallest in the world. It has 63 passenger gondolas, each able to carry...

 
110 (110 metres (361 ft))
2003
 Mainland China Harbin
Harbin
Harbin ; Manchu language: , Harbin; Russian: Харби́н Kharbin ), is the capital and largest city of Heilongjiang Province in Northeast China, lying on the southern bank of the Songhua River...

, Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
For the river known in Mandarin as Heilong Jiang, see Amur River' is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. "Heilongjiang" literally means Black Dragon River, which is the Chinese name for the Amur. The one-character abbreviation is 黑...

 
Picture
Shanghai Ferris Wheel 
108 (108 metres (354 ft))
2002
 Mainland China Jinjiang Action Park, Shanghai
Shanghai
Shanghai is the largest city by population in China and the largest city proper in the world. It is one of the four province-level municipalities in the People's Republic of China, with a total population of over 23 million as of 2010...

 
31.1401286°N 121.4030752°E Picture
Cosmo Clock 21
Cosmo Clock 21
Cosmo Clock 21 is a giant Ferris wheel located in Yokohama, Japan. It is also the world's largest clock.Built for the YES '89 Yokohama Exposition at Minato Mirai 21 in 1989, Cosmo Clock 21 was originally constructed with a height of ....

 (1st installation)
1989
 Japan Minato Mirai 21
Minato Mirai 21
, often shortened to Minato Mirai or MM is a large urban development in Yokohama, Japan. Minato Mirai 21 area is designated for new urban center planned to connect city's traditional center of Kannai and Yokohama Station area....

, Yokohama
Yokohama
is the capital city of Kanagawa Prefecture and the second largest city in Japan by population after Tokyo and most populous municipality of Japan. It lies on Tokyo Bay, south of Tokyo, in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshu...

, Honshū
Honshu
is the largest island of Japan. The nation's main island, it is south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Strait...

 
?
World's tallest 1989-1997
Space Eye 
100 (100 metres (328 ft))
?
 Japan Space World
Space World
is a theme park in Yahatahigashi-ku, Kitakyūshū, Japan. Created in 1990 by Nippon Steel when the company was downsizing its steel plant in the ward, it is currently operated by Space World Inc., a subsidiary of Kamori Kankō....

, Kitakyūshū, Kyūshū
Kyushu
is the third largest island of Japan and most southwesterly of its four main islands. Its alternate ancient names include , , and . The historical regional name is referred to Kyushu and its surrounding islands....

 
33.8716939°N 130.8099014°E Picture
Grande Roue de Paris 
100 (100 metres (328 ft))
1900
 Early Modern France Champ de Mars, Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

 
48.852222°N 2.299167°E World's tallest 1900-1920
Great Wheel
Great Wheel
The Great Wheel was a Ferris wheel built for the Empire of India Exhibition at Earls Court in London in 1895.Great Wheel may also refer to:* Beijing Great Wheel, a Ferris wheel proposed for Beijing, China...

 
094
94 (94 metres (308 ft))
1895
Earls Court
Earls Court
Earls Court is a district in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in London, England. It is an inner-city district centred on Earl's Court Road and surrounding streets, located 3.1 miles west south-west of Charing Cross. It borders the sub-districts of South Kensington to the East, West...

, London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

 
51.48835°N 0.19889°W World's tallest 1895-1900
Aurora Wheel  090
90 (90 metres (295 ft))
?
 Japan Nagashima Spa Land
Nagashima Spa Land
is a major amusement park in Kuwana, Mie Prefecture, Japan. It features several roller coasters, a giant Ferris wheel, and a water park.-Roller coasters:*Children Coaster*Corkscrew*Jet Coaster*Looping Star*Shuttle Loop*Steel Dragon 2000*Ultra Twister...

, Mie
Mie Prefecture
is a prefecture of Japan which is part of the Kansai regions on Honshū island. The capital is the city of Tsu.- History :Until the Meiji Restoration, Mie prefecture was known as Ise Province and Iga Province....

, Honshū
Honshu
is the largest island of Japan. The nation's main island, it is south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Strait...

 
35.0298207°N 136.7336351°E Picture
Eurowheel
Eurowheel
Eurowheel is a tall Ferris wheel at the Mirabilandia amusement park near Ravenna, in Emilia–Romagna, Italy. It is famous for its spectacular views over Ravenna and nearby beaches, and its 50,000 light bulbs are said to make it the brightest Ferris wheel in the world.When constructed in 1999,...

 
090
90 (90 metres (295 ft))
1999
 Italy Mirabilandia
Mirabilandia (Italy)
Mirabilandia is an Italian amusement park, located at Savio, frazione of Ravenna, in Emilia-Romagna.It has an area of 30 hectares, with an additional waterworld area of 10 hectares, called Mirabilandia Beach...

, Ravenna
Ravenna
Ravenna is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy and the second largest comune in Italy by land area, although, at , it is little more than half the size of the largest comune, Rome...

 
44.3392161°N 12.2622228°E Tallest extant in Europe 1999
Sky Wheel  088
88 (88 metres (289 ft))
?
 Republic of China Janfusun Fancyworld
Janfusun Fancyworld
Janfusun Fancyworld is an amusement park located on the island of Taiwan, Republic of China near the city of Douliu. It features a movie theater and costume shops. There is a water park section of Janfusun where you can enjoy a Hawaiian-like stage and many water rides...

, Gukeng
Gukeng, Yunlin
Gukeng is a rural township in eastern Yunlin County, Taiwan. It is famous for agricultural produce, most notably arabica coffee.* Area: 116.61 km²* Population: 35,525 people...

 
23.6202611°N 120.5763352°E
Technostar
Technocosmos
Technocosmos
Technocosmos, later renamed Technostar, was an tall giant Ferris wheel, originally built for the Expo '85 World Fair in Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. It carried almost 3 million passengers during the exposition....

 
085
85 (85 metres (279 ft))
1985
?
1985
 Japan Expoland
Expoland
Expoland, located in Suita, Osaka, Japan, was opened as the amusement zone at the International Exposition in 1970 and thrived for over 30 years as an amusement park...

, Osaka
Osaka Prefecture
is a prefecture located in the Kansai region on Honshū, the main island of Japan. The capital is the city of Osaka. It is the center of Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto area.- History :...

, Honshū
Honshu
is the largest island of Japan. The nation's main island, it is south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Strait...

(?-2009)
Expo '85
Expo '85
Expo '85, officially called , was a world's fair held in Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan between Sunday, March 17 and Monday, September 16, 1985. The theme of the fair was "Dwellings and Surroundings - Science and Technology for Man at Home"...

, Tsukuba
Tsukuba, Ibaraki
is a city located in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. It is known as the location of the , a planned city developed in the 1960s.As of 2008, the city has an estimated population of 207,394 and a population density of 730 persons per km². Its total area is 284.07 km².Mount Tsukuba, particularly well-known...

, Honshū
Honshu
is the largest island of Japan. The nation's main island, it is south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Strait...

(1985-?)
34.803772°N 135.535916°E
36.061203°N 140.073055°E
World's tallest extant 1985-1989
World's tallest extant 1985-1989
The original Ferris Wheel
Ferris Wheel
The original Ferris Wheel, sometimes also referred to as the Chicago Wheel, was the centerpiece of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois....

080.40
80.4 (80.4 metres (264 ft))
1893
 United States
 Ferris Wheel coordinates
World's tallest 1893-1894

Future wheels

Current proposals
The 167.6 m (550 ft) High Roller
High Roller (Ferris wheel)
High Roller Observation Wheel is a tall giant Ferris wheel announced in August 2011 as part of Caesars Entertainment Corporation's $550 million Project Linq on the Las Vegas Strip, Nevada...

, to be built on the Las Vegas Strip
Las Vegas Strip
The Las Vegas Strip is an approximately stretch of Las Vegas Boulevard in Clark County, Nevada; adjacent to, but outside the city limits of Las Vegas proper. The Strip lies within the unincorporated townships of Paradise and Winchester...

, Nevada
Nevada
Nevada is a state in the western, mountain west, and southwestern regions of the United States. With an area of and a population of about 2.7 million, it is the 7th-largest and 35th-most populous state. Over two-thirds of Nevada's people live in the Las Vegas metropolitan area, which contains its...

, was announced in August 2011. Part of Caesars Entertainment Corporation's Project Linq, construction was scheduled to begin in September 2011 and completion expected in late 2013.The 150 m (492 ft) Jeddah Eye proposed for Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

 is part of a development begun in 2008 and scheduled to open in 2012.The 145 m (476 ft) Skyvue Las Vegas Super Wheel, to be built on the Las Vegas Strip
Las Vegas Strip
The Las Vegas Strip is an approximately stretch of Las Vegas Boulevard in Clark County, Nevada; adjacent to, but outside the city limits of Las Vegas proper. The Strip lies within the unincorporated townships of Paradise and Winchester...

, Nevada
Nevada
Nevada is a state in the western, mountain west, and southwestern regions of the United States. With an area of and a population of about 2.7 million, it is the 7th-largest and 35th-most populous state. Over two-thirds of Nevada's people live in the Las Vegas metropolitan area, which contains its...

, was approved by Clark County Commission
Clark County Commission (Nevada)
The Clark County Board of County Commissioners is the governmental organization that runs the unincorporated areas of Clark County, Nevada. The commission is considered by many to be the most powerful governmental body in the state of Nevada....

 in March 2011. It was announced at a media event and groundbreaking ceremony in May 2011 by Howard Bulloch of Compass Investments, who stated "We expect it to be up and running in time for New Year's 2012." Its 40 gondolas will each carry 20-25 people.
  • A 120 m (394 ft) wheel for Manchester
    Manchester
    Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. According to the Office for National Statistics, the 2010 mid-year population estimate for Manchester was 498,800. Manchester lies within one of the UK's largest metropolitan areas, the metropolitan county of Greater...

    , England
    England
    England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

    , was proposed by Manchester City Council
    Manchester City Council
    Manchester City Council is the local government authority for Manchester, a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. It is composed of 96 councillors, three for each of the 32 electoral wards of Manchester. Currently the council is controlled by the Labour Party and is led by...

     in 2010 as a replacement for the transportable 60 m (197 ft) Wheel of Manchester
    Wheel of Manchester
    The Wheel of Manchester is a transportable Ferris wheel installation at Exchange Square, Manchester, England.The first wheel was first installed in 2004...

     installation, with Piccadilly Gardens
    Piccadilly Gardens
    Piccadilly Gardens is a green space in Manchester city centre, England, situated at one end of Market Street and on the edge of the Northern Quarter...

     the possible site and completion expected by Christmas 2011.The 88 m (289 ft) Malaysia Eye is to replace the transportable 60 m (197 ft) Eye on Malaysia
    Eye on Malaysia
    Eye on Malaysia was a transportable Ferris wheel installation in Malaysia. It began operating in Kuala Lumpur in 2007, was then moved to Malacca in 2008, and operated there until 2010....

     installation, which was dismantled in October 2010, in Malacca
    Malacca
    Malacca , dubbed The Historic State or Negeri Bersejarah among locals) is the third smallest Malaysian state, after Perlis and Penang. It is located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, on the Straits of Malacca. It borders Negeri Sembilan to the north and the state of Johor to the south...

    , Malaysia. It will occupy a new site on Malacca Island, and is scheduled to open on December 1, 2011. It will have 54 air-conditioned gondolas, each able to carry six people.

Incomplete, delayed, or cancelled proposals

Wheels for which no completion date has been announced, or whose original completion date has already passed:
The 220 m (722 ft) Moscow View, proposed in 2011, would feature 48 monorail-mounted passenger capsules, each able to carry 48 passengers, travelling round a centreless non-rotating rim. The site of the structure within Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

 has yet to be selected, and the timeframe for its construction unknown.
  • The 208 m (682 ft) Beijing Great Wheel
    Beijing Great Wheel
    The Beijing Great Wheel is a tall giant Ferris wheel project. Located in eastern Beijing's Chaoyang Park, one of the 2008 Summer Olympics venues, its planned height exceeds that of the current world's tallest Ferris wheel record holder, the Singapore Flyer....

    , construction begun 2007 and originally due to open 2008, went into receivership
    Receivership
    In law, receivership is the situation in which an institution or enterprise is being held by a receiver, a person "placed in the custodial responsibility for the property of others, including tangible and intangible assets and rights." The receivership remedy is an equitable remedy that emerged in...

     in 2010.The 198 m (650 ft) Baghdad Eye was proposed for Baghdad
    Baghdad
    Baghdad is the capital of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Governorate. The population of Baghdad in 2011 is approximately 7,216,040...

    , Iraq
    Iraq
    Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

    , in August 2008. At that time, three possible locations had been identified, but no estimates of cost or completion date were given. In October 2008, it was reported that Al-Zawraa Park was expected to be the site, and a 60 m (197 ft) wheel was installed there in March 2011.
  • The 185 m (607 ft) Great Dubai Wheel proposed for Dubailand, Dubai
    Dubai
    Dubai is a city and emirate in the United Arab Emirates . The emirate is located south of the Persian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsula and has the largest population with the second-largest land territory by area of all the emirates, after Abu Dhabi...

    , United Arab Emirates
    United Arab Emirates
    The United Arab Emirates, abbreviated as the UAE, or shortened to "the Emirates", is a state situated in the southeast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman, and Saudi Arabia, and sharing sea borders with Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and Iran.The UAE is a...

    , was granted planning permission in 2006 and expected to open in 2009.The 183 m (600 ft) Voyager has been proposed several times for Las Vegas
    Las Vegas metropolitan area
    The Las Vegas Valley is the heart of the Las Vegas-Paradise, NV MSA also known as the Las Vegas–Paradise–Henderson MSA which includes all of Clark County, Nevada, and is a metropolitan area in the southern part of the U.S. state of Nevada. The Valley is defined by the Las Vegas Valley landform, a ...

    , Nevada
    Nevada
    Nevada is a state in the western, mountain west, and southwestern regions of the United States. With an area of and a population of about 2.7 million, it is the 7th-largest and 35th-most populous state. Over two-thirds of Nevada's people live in the Las Vegas metropolitan area, which contains its...

    .The 176 m (577 ft) Bangkok Eye, to be located near the Chao Phraya River
    Chao Phraya River
    The Chao Phraya is a major river in Thailand, with its low alluvial plain forming the centre of the country. It runs through Bangkok, the capital city, and then empties into the Gulf of Thailand.-Etymology:...

     in Bangkok
    Bangkok
    Bangkok is the capital and largest urban area city in Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or simply Krung Thep , meaning "city of angels." The full name of Bangkok is Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahintharayutthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom...

    , Thailand
    Thailand
    Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

    , was announced by the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration on 13 October 2010, at which time the actual site and means of funding the 30-billion baht
    Thai baht
    The baht is the currency of Thailand. It is subdivided into 100 satang . The issuance of currency is the responsibility of the Bank of Thailand.-History:The baht, like the pound, originated from a traditional unit of mass...

     project had yet to be determined.
  • The 175 m (574 ft) Great Berlin Wheel
    Great Berlin Wheel
    The Great Berlin Wheel is a giant Ferris wheel to be built near the Berlin Zoological Garden in Berlin, Germany, by the Great Wheel Corporation....

     was originally planned to open in 2008 but the project encountered financial obstacles.
  • The 122 m (400 ft) Great Orlando Wheel
    Great Orlando Wheel
    The Great Orlando Wheel is a giant Ferris wheel proposed by Great Wheel Corporation for Orange County, Florida, United States, near Orlando....

     was announced in June 2008 but then suspended in early 2009 after losing its funding.
  • A 91.4 m (300 ft) wheel planned for Manchester
    Manchester
    Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. According to the Office for National Statistics, the 2010 mid-year population estimate for Manchester was 498,800. Manchester lies within one of the UK's largest metropolitan areas, the metropolitan county of Greater...

    , England
    England
    England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

    , for 2008, was never constructed.
  • The 87 m (285 ft) Pepsi Globe was proposed for the planned Meadowlands complex in New Jersey
    New Jersey
    New Jersey is a state in the Northeastern and Middle Atlantic regions of the United States. , its population was 8,791,894. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York, on the southeast and south by the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Pennsylvania and on the southwest by Delaware...

     in February 2008 and originally due to open in 2009, then put on hold until 2010. It has since been further delayed, and construction of the host complex, originally due to be completed in 2007, has been stalled since 2009 due to financing problems.

The Shanghai Star, initially planned as a 200 metres (656 ft) tall wheel to be built by 2005, was revised to 170 metres (558 ft), with a completion date set in 2007, but then cancelled in 2006 due to "political incorrectness". An earlier proposal for a 250 metres (820 ft) structure, the Shanghai Kiss, with capsules ascending and descending a pair of towers which met at their peaks instead of a wheel, was deemed too expensive at £100m.

Rus-3000, a 170 metres (558 ft) wheel planned to open in 2004 in Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

, has since been reported cancelled. Subsequently, an approximately 180 metres (591 ft) wheel was considered for Gorky Central Park of Culture and Leisure
Gorky Park (Moscow)
Gorky Central Park of Culture and Leisure is an amusement park in Moscow, named after Maxim Gorky.-History:...

, and a 150 metres (492 ft) wheel proposed for location near Sparrow Hills
Sparrow Hills
Sparrow Hills, Vorobyovy Gory is a hill on the right bank of the Moskva River and one of highest points in Moscow with an altitude up to 220 m ....

.

Observation wheels

The Singapore Flyer
Singapore Flyer
The Singapore Flyer is a giant Ferris wheel located in Singapore, constructed in 2005–2008. Described by its operators as an observation wheel, it reaches 42 stories high, with a total height of , making it the tallest Ferris wheel in the world, taller than the Star of Nanchang and taller than...

, world's tallest Ferris wheel since 2008, has 28 air-conditioned passenger capsules, each able to carry 28 people
The London Eye
London Eye
The London Eye is a tall giant Ferris wheel situated on the banks of the River Thames, in London, England.It is the tallest Ferris wheel in Europe, and the most popular paid tourist attraction in the United Kingdom, visited by over 3.5 million people annually...

's 32 ovoidal
Oval
An oval is any curve resembling an egg or an ellipse, such as a Cassini oval. The term does not have a precise mathematical definition except in one area oval , but it may also refer to:* A sporting arena of oval shape** a cricket field...

 air-conditioned passenger capsules each weigh 10 tonnes (11 ST) and can carry 25 people


Observation wheel is an alternative name for Ferris wheel. In 1892, when the incorporation papers for the Ferris Wheel Company (constructors of the original 1893 Chicago Ferris Wheel) were filed, the purpose of the company was stated as: [construction and operation of] "...wheels of the Ferris or other types for the purpose of observation or amusement".

Some Ferris wheels are marketed as observation wheels, any distinction between the two names being at the discretion of the operator, however the wheels whose operators reject the term Ferris wheel are often those having most in common with the original 1893 Chicago Ferris Wheel, especially in terms of scale and being an iconic landmark for a city or event.

Wheels with passenger cars mounted external to the rim and independently rotated by electric motors, as opposed to wheels with cars suspended from the rim and kept upright by gravity, are those most commonly referred to as observation wheels, and their cars are often referred to as capsules. However, these alternative names are also sometimes used for wheels with conventional gravity-oriented cars.

There are currently only three major Ferris wheels with motorised capsules.

The 165 m (541 ft) Singapore Flyer
Singapore Flyer
The Singapore Flyer is a giant Ferris wheel located in Singapore, constructed in 2005–2008. Described by its operators as an observation wheel, it reaches 42 stories high, with a total height of , making it the tallest Ferris wheel in the world, taller than the Star of Nanchang and taller than...

 has cylindrical
Cylinder (geometry)
A cylinder is one of the most basic curvilinear geometric shapes, the surface formed by the points at a fixed distance from a given line segment, the axis of the cylinder. The solid enclosed by this surface and by two planes perpendicular to the axis is also called a cylinder...

 externally-mounted motorised capsules and is described as an observation wheel by its operators, but credited as "world's largest Ferris wheel" by the media.

The 135 m (443 ft) London Eye
London Eye
The London Eye is a tall giant Ferris wheel situated on the banks of the River Thames, in London, England.It is the tallest Ferris wheel in Europe, and the most popular paid tourist attraction in the United Kingdom, visited by over 3.5 million people annually...

, typically described as a "giant Ferris wheel" by the media, has ovoidal
Oval
An oval is any curve resembling an egg or an ellipse, such as a Cassini oval. The term does not have a precise mathematical definition except in one area oval , but it may also refer to:* A sporting arena of oval shape** a cricket field...

 externally-mounted motorised capsules and is the "world's tallest cantilevered observation wheel" according to its operators, who claim: "The London Eye is often mistakenly called a Ferris wheel. This is not the case: first, the passenger capsules are completely enclosed and are climate controlled; secondly, the capsules are positioned on the outside of the wheel structure and are fully motorised; and third, the entire structure is supported by an A-frame on one side only." However, the operators of the Singapore Flyer claim their wheel is the "world's largest observation wheel" despite it not being supported by an A-frame on one side only.

The 120 m (394 ft) Southern Star (which opened 20 December 2008, then closed the following month, and is currently dismantled for major repairs) has ovoidal
Oval
An oval is any curve resembling an egg or an ellipse, such as a Cassini oval. The term does not have a precise mathematical definition except in one area oval , but it may also refer to:* A sporting arena of oval shape** a cricket field...

 externally-mounted motorised capsules and is described by its operators as "the only observation wheel in the southern hemisphere", but also as a Ferris wheel by the media.

A fourth wheel, the proposed 167.6 m (550 ft) High Roller
High Roller (Ferris wheel)
High Roller Observation Wheel is a tall giant Ferris wheel announced in August 2011 as part of Caesars Entertainment Corporation's $550 million Project Linq on the Las Vegas Strip, Nevada...

, announced in August 2011 and scheduled for completion on the Las Vegas Strip
Las Vegas Strip
The Las Vegas Strip is an approximately stretch of Las Vegas Boulevard in Clark County, Nevada; adjacent to, but outside the city limits of Las Vegas proper. The Strip lies within the unincorporated townships of Paradise and Winchester...

 in late 2013, is to feature externally-mounted motorised spherical capsules, and is described as both a Ferris wheel and an observation wheel by the media.

Transportable wheels

Transportable Ferris wheels are designed to be operated at multiple locations, as opposed to fixed wheels which are usually intended for permanent installation. Small transportable designs may be permanently mounted on trailers
Trailer (vehicle)
A trailer is generally an unpowered vehicle pulled by a powered vehicle. Commonly, the term trailer refers to such vehicles used for transport of goods and materials....

, and can be moved intact. Larger transportable wheels are designed to be repeatedly dismantled and rebuilt, some using water ballast instead of the permanent foundations of their fixed counterparts.

Fixed wheels are also sometimes dismantled and relocated. Larger examples include the original Ferris Wheel
Ferris Wheel
The original Ferris Wheel, sometimes also referred to as the Chicago Wheel, was the centerpiece of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois....

, which operated at two sites in Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

, Illinois
Illinois
Illinois is the fifth-most populous state of the United States of America, and is often noted for being a microcosm of the entire country. With Chicago in the northeast, small industrial cities and great agricultural productivity in central and northern Illinois, and natural resources like coal,...

, and a third in St. Louis
St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis is an independent city on the eastern border of Missouri, United States. With a population of 319,294, it was the 58th-largest U.S. city at the 2010 U.S. Census. The Greater St...

, Missouri
Missouri
Missouri is a US state located in the Midwestern United States, bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Kansas and Nebraska. With a 2010 population of 5,988,927, Missouri is the 18th most populous state in the nation and the fifth most populous in the Midwest. It...

; Technocosmos/Technostar
Technocosmos
Technocosmos, later renamed Technostar, was an tall giant Ferris wheel, originally built for the Expo '85 World Fair in Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. It carried almost 3 million passengers during the exposition....

, which moved to Expoland
Expoland
Expoland, located in Suita, Osaka, Japan, was opened as the amusement zone at the International Exposition in 1970 and thrived for over 30 years as an amusement park...

, Osaka
Osaka
is a city in the Kansai region of Japan's main island of Honshu, a designated city under the Local Autonomy Law, the capital city of Osaka Prefecture and also the biggest part of Keihanshin area, which is represented by three major cities of Japan, Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe...

, after Expo '85
Expo '85
Expo '85, officially called , was a world's fair held in Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan between Sunday, March 17 and Monday, September 16, 1985. The theme of the fair was "Dwellings and Surroundings - Science and Technology for Man at Home"...

, Tsukuba, Ibaraki
Tsukuba, Ibaraki
is a city located in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. It is known as the location of the , a planned city developed in the 1960s.As of 2008, the city has an estimated population of 207,394 and a population density of 730 persons per km². Its total area is 284.07 km².Mount Tsukuba, particularly well-known...

, for which it was built, ended; and Cosmo Clock 21
Cosmo Clock 21
Cosmo Clock 21 is a giant Ferris wheel located in Yokohama, Japan. It is also the world's largest clock.Built for the YES '89 Yokohama Exposition at Minato Mirai 21 in 1989, Cosmo Clock 21 was originally constructed with a height of ....

, which added 5 metres (16 ft) onto its original 107.5 metres (353 ft) height when erected for the second time at Minato Mirai 21
Minato Mirai 21
, often shortened to Minato Mirai or MM is a large urban development in Yokohama, Japan. Minato Mirai 21 area is designated for new urban center planned to connect city's traditional center of Kannai and Yokohama Station area....

, Yokohama
Yokohama
is the capital city of Kanagawa Prefecture and the second largest city in Japan by population after Tokyo and most populous municipality of Japan. It lies on Tokyo Bay, south of Tokyo, in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshu...

, in 1999.

The world's tallest transportable wheel is a 66 metres (217 ft) tall Ronald Bussink
Ronald Bussink
Ronald Bussink Professional Rides is a leading designer of giant Ferris wheels and similar structures. Previously known as Nauta Bussink, the company was renamed when it moved its offices from the Netherlands to Switzerland....

 series R66 design operated by World Carnival
World Carnival
World Carnival is a transportable amusement park. Between 1995 and 2007 it visited China , Dubai , Hong Kong , Malaysia, Oman, Singapore , South Korea, and Thailand.-Ferris wheel:...

.

One of the most famous transportable wheels is the 60 metres (197 ft) tall Roue de Paris
Roue de Paris
The Roue de Paris is a tall Ferris wheel, originally installed on the Place de la Concorde in Paris, France, for the 2000 millennium celebrations...

, originally installed on the Place de la Concorde
Place de la Concorde
The Place de la Concorde in area, it is the largest square in the French capital. It is located in the city's eighth arrondissement, at the eastern end of the Champs-Élysées.- History :...

 in Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

 for the 2000 millennium
Millennium
A millennium is a period of time equal to one thousand years —from the Latin phrase , thousand, and , year—often but not necessarily related numerically to a particular dating system....

 celebrations. Roue de Paris left France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 in 2002 and in 2003–04 operated in Birmingham
Wheel of Birmingham
The Wheel of Birmingham or Birmingham Wheel was a series of transportable Ferris wheel installations at Centenary Square in Birmingham, England. These have been landmarks in central Birmingham, visible from many parts of the City...

 and Manchester
Wheel of Manchester
The Wheel of Manchester is a transportable Ferris wheel installation at Exchange Square, Manchester, England.The first wheel was first installed in 2004...

, England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

. In 2005 it visited first Geleen
Geleen
Geleen is a city in the southern part of the province of Limburg in the Netherlands. With 33,960 inhabitants, it is part of the municipality of Sittard-Geleen. Geleen is situated along the river Geleenbeek, a right tributary to the river Meuse. The town centre is situated at about 60 m above sea...

 then Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Amsterdam is the largest city and the capital of the Netherlands. The current position of Amsterdam as capital city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands is governed by the constitution of August 24, 1815 and its successors. Amsterdam has a population of 783,364 within city limits, an urban population...

, Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

, before returning to England to operate at Gateshead
Gateshead
Gateshead is a town in Tyne and Wear, England and is the main settlement in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead. Historically a part of County Durham, it lies on the southern bank of the River Tyne opposite Newcastle upon Tyne and together they form the urban core of Tyneside...

. In 2006 it was erected at the Suan Lum Night Bazaar
Suan Lum Night Bazaar
Suan Lum Night Bazaar was a market in Bangkok's Pathum Wan district, at the intersection of Rama IV and Wireless/Sathorn Roads, opposite Lumphini Park at the Bangkok Metro's Lumphini Station. Located on land owned by the Crown Property Bureau. It opened in 2001, and had closed by early 2011.The...

 in Bangkok
Bangkok
Bangkok is the capital and largest urban area city in Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or simply Krung Thep , meaning "city of angels." The full name of Bangkok is Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahintharayutthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom...

, Thailand
Thailand
Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

, and by 2008 had made its way to Antwerp, Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

.

Roue de Paris is a Ronald Bussink
Ronald Bussink
Ronald Bussink Professional Rides is a leading designer of giant Ferris wheels and similar structures. Previously known as Nauta Bussink, the company was renamed when it moved its offices from the Netherlands to Switzerland....

 series R60 design using abbr=off 40000 of water ballast to provide a stable base. The R60 weighs 365 tonnes (402.3 ST), and can be erected in 72 hours and dismantled in 60 hours by a specialist team. Transport requires seven 20-foot container lorries, ten open trailer lorries, and one closed trailer lorry. Its 42 passenger cars can be loaded either 3 or 6 at a time, and each car can carry 8 people. Bussink R60 wheels have operated in Australia (Brisbane
Wheel of Brisbane
The Wheel of Brisbane is a tall transportable Ferris wheel installation erected as part of the 20th anniversary of World Expo 88 and the 150th anniversary of the State of Queensland 1859–2009 celebrations....

), Canada (Niagara Falls), France (Paris
Roue de Paris
The Roue de Paris is a tall Ferris wheel, originally installed on the Place de la Concorde in Paris, France, for the 2000 millennium celebrations...

), Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur & Malacca
Eye on Malaysia
Eye on Malaysia was a transportable Ferris wheel installation in Malaysia. It began operating in Kuala Lumpur in 2007, was then moved to Malacca in 2008, and operated there until 2010....

), UK (Belfast
Belfast Wheel
The Belfast Wheel was a tall transportable Ferris wheel installation in the centre of Belfast, Northern Ireland, in the grounds on the east side of Belfast City Hall.-History:...

, Birmingham
Wheel of Birmingham
The Wheel of Birmingham or Birmingham Wheel was a series of transportable Ferris wheel installations at Centenary Square in Birmingham, England. These have been landmarks in central Birmingham, visible from many parts of the City...

, Manchester
Wheel of Manchester
The Wheel of Manchester is a transportable Ferris wheel installation at Exchange Square, Manchester, England.The first wheel was first installed in 2004...

, Sheffield
Wheel of Sheffield
The Wheel of Sheffield was a tall transportable Ferris wheel installation on Fargate, by the Town Hall, in Sheffield, England.It was opened on 20 July 2009, and was intended to remain until January 2010. However, planning permission was sought for a further year of operation, and permission was...

), USA (Myrtle Beach
SkyWheel (Myrtle Beach)
SkyWheel is a Ferris wheel in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, which opened May 20, 2011.It is the tallest Ferris wheel in the United States east of the Mississippi River.-Design:...

), and elsewhere.

Other notable transportable wheels include the 60 metres (197 ft) Steiger Ferris Wheel, which was the world's tallest transportable wheel when it began operating in 1980. It has 42 passenger cars, and weighs 450 tons. On October 11, 2010, it collapsed at the Kramermarkt in Oldenburg
Oldenburg
Oldenburg is an independent city in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated in the western part of the state between the cities of Bremen and Groningen, Netherlands, at the Hunte river. It has a population of 160,279 which makes it the fourth biggest city in Lower Saxony after Hanover, Braunschweig...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, during deconstruction.

Notable transportable Ferris wheel installations:
Name
 
Height
   m (ft)  
Years
 
Country
 
Location
 
Coordinates
 
Belfast Wheel
Belfast Wheel
The Belfast Wheel was a tall transportable Ferris wheel installation in the centre of Belfast, Northern Ireland, in the grounds on the east side of Belfast City Hall.-History:...

 
60 (60 metres (197 ft))
2007-2010
Belfast
Belfast
Belfast is the capital of and largest city in Northern Ireland. By population, it is the 14th biggest city in the United Kingdom and second biggest on the island of Ireland . It is the seat of the devolved government and legislative Northern Ireland Assembly...

 
54°35′48.77"N 5°55′45.06"W
Brighton Wheel
Brighton Wheel
The Brighton Wheel, also known during its planning and construction phase as the Brighton O and the Wheel of Excellence, is a transportable Ferris wheel installation erected in October 2011 on the seafront in Brighton, part of the English city of Brighton and Hove. It has planning permission to...

 
see article
2011-2016
Brighton
Brighton
Brighton is the major part of the city of Brighton and Hove in East Sussex, England on the south coast of Great Britain...

 
50.8191°N 0.1344°W
Eye on Malaysia
Eye on Malaysia
Eye on Malaysia was a transportable Ferris wheel installation in Malaysia. It began operating in Kuala Lumpur in 2007, was then moved to Malacca in 2008, and operated there until 2010....

 
60 or 62 m 
2007-2008
2008-2010

 Malaysia
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the second largest city in Malaysia by population. The city proper, making up an area of , has a population of 1.4 million as of 2010. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million...


Malacca
Malacca
Malacca , dubbed The Historic State or Negeri Bersejarah among locals) is the third smallest Malaysian state, after Perlis and Penang. It is located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, on the Straits of Malacca. It borders Negeri Sembilan to the north and the state of Johor to the south...

 
3°10′39.2"N 101°42′15.68"E
various
Windsor, Berkshire
Windsor, Berkshire
Windsor is an affluent suburban town and unparished area in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in Berkshire, England. It is widely known as the site of Windsor Castle, one of the official residences of the British Royal Family....

 
51.4845°N 0.6119°W
Wheel of Birmingham
Wheel of Birmingham
The Wheel of Birmingham or Birmingham Wheel was a series of transportable Ferris wheel installations at Centenary Square in Birmingham, England. These have been landmarks in central Birmingham, visible from many parts of the City...

 
60 (60 metres (197 ft))
various
Birmingham
Birmingham
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands of England. It is the most populous British city outside the capital London, with a population of 1,036,900 , and lies at the heart of the West Midlands conurbation, the second most populous urban area in the United Kingdom with a...

 
52°28′44.04"N 1°54′32.49"W
Wheel of Brisbane
Wheel of Brisbane
The Wheel of Brisbane is a tall transportable Ferris wheel installation erected as part of the 20th anniversary of World Expo 88 and the 150th anniversary of the State of Queensland 1859–2009 celebrations....

 
60 (60 metres (197 ft))
2008-2012
 Australia Brisbane
Brisbane
Brisbane is the capital and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbane's metropolitan area has a population of over 2 million, and the South East Queensland urban conurbation, centred around Brisbane, encompasses a population of...

 
27.4751833°S 153.0209333°E
Wheel of Dublin
Wheel of Dublin
Wheel of Dublin was a transportable Ferris wheel installation located beside The O2 on the North Wall, Dublin, Ireland. Commissioned by Harry Crosbie and operated by World Tourist Attractions, it opened to the public in July 2010 and was closed and dismantled 16 months later in November...

 
53 or 60 m 
2010-2011
 Republic of Ireland North Wall, Dublin  53.3472°N 6.2276°W
Wheel of Manchester
Wheel of Manchester
The Wheel of Manchester is a transportable Ferris wheel installation at Exchange Square, Manchester, England.The first wheel was first installed in 2004...

 
60 (60 metres (197 ft))
various
53.48433°N 2.24310°W
Wheel of Sheffield
Wheel of Sheffield
The Wheel of Sheffield was a tall transportable Ferris wheel installation on Fargate, by the Town Hall, in Sheffield, England.It was opened on 20 July 2009, and was intended to remain until January 2010. However, planning permission was sought for a further year of operation, and permission was...

 
60 (60 metres (197 ft))
2009-2010
Sheffield
Sheffield
Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough of South Yorkshire, England. Its name derives from the River Sheaf, which runs through the city. Historically a part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, and with some of its southern suburbs annexed from Derbyshire, the city has grown from its largely...

 
53.3810°N 1.4699°W
Yorkshire Wheel
Yorkshire Wheel
Yorkshire Wheel is the name used by two transportable Ferris wheel installations at different locations in York, England.The first installation was at the National Railway Museum, and operated from 12 April 2006 until 2 November 2008....

 
see article
various
York
York
York is a walled city, situated at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England. The city has a rich heritage and has provided the backdrop to major political events throughout much of its two millennia of existence...

 
multiple locations - see article

Double and triple wheels

Swiss manufacturer Intamin produced a series of rides comprising a vertical column supporting multiple horizontal arms, with each arm supporting a Ferris wheel. Custom designed for the Marriott Corporation, each ride had three main components: the wheels with their passenger cars; a set of supporting arms; and a single central supporting column. Each wheel rotated about the end of its own supporting arm. The arms in turn would either pivot or rotate together as a single unit about the top of the supporting column. The axis about which the rotating arms turned was offset from vertical, so that as the arms rotated, each arm and its corresponding wheel was raised and lowered. This allowed one wheel to be horizontal at ground level, and brought to a standstill for simultaneous loading and unloading of all its passenger cars, while the other wheel(s) continued to rotate vertically at considerable height.

The first such ride was Astrowheel, which had two arms and wheels with 8 passenger cars each, and operated at the former Six Flags Astroworld
Six Flags Astroworld
AstroWorld was a seasonally operated theme park located on approximately of land between Kirby Drive and Fannin Avenue, directly south of Loop 610 in Houston, Texas, USA...

, Houston, Texas
Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

, from 1968 until 1980.

Similar wheels included Giant Wheel (Hersheypark
Hersheypark
Hersheypark is an amusement park located in Hershey, Pennsylvania, near the Hershey Chocolate Factory.Hersheypark was opened on April 24, 1907 as a leisure park for the employees of the Hershey Chocolate Company, an American confectionery company. Later, the company decided to open the park to the...

, Hershey, Pennsylvania
Hershey, Pennsylvania
Hershey is a census-designated place in Derry Township, Dauphin County in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The community is located 14 miles east of Harrisburg and is part of the Harrisburg–Carlisle Metropolitan Statistical Area. Hershey has no legal status as an incorporated municipality...

), Zodiac (Kings Island
Kings Island
Kings Island is a amusement park located northeast of Cincinnati in Mason, Ohio. Opened in 1972 by Taft Broadcasting Company and now owned by Cedar Fair Entertainment Company, Kings Island is the most visited seasonal amusement park in the U.S...

, Mason, Ohio
Mason, Ohio
Mason is an affluent city in southwestern Warren County, Ohio, United States, 22 miles away from Cincinnati . As of the 2010 census, Mason's population was 30,712. Mason has experienced fast growth, with its historic Main Street remaining at the center of the community...

), and Galaxy (Six Flags Magic Mountain, Valencia, California
Valencia, California
Valencia is an affluent planned community located in the City of Santa Clarita, California and Los Angeles County, California, U.S. in the northwestern corner of the Santa Clarita Valley, adjacent to Interstate 5. In 1987, it was one of the four unincorporated communities that merged to create the...

). All were Intamin designs; all are now defunct.

Sky Whirl
Sky Whirl
Sky Whirl was an Intamin Triple Giant Ferris wheel that operated at both Marriott's Great America Parks.-History:It was basically 3 arms with 2 wheels always spinning while one was on the ground loading. It gave park guests a chance to relax and get a cool breeze. It was a ride for the whole...

 was the world's first triple Ferris wheel, debuting at both Marriott's Great America parks (now Six Flags Great America
Six Flags Great America
Six Flags Great America is a Six Flags theme park in the Chicago metropolitan area, located in Gurnee, Illinois. It first opened in 1976 as Marriott's Great America. Six Flags purchased the park from the Marriott Corporation in 1984, making it the seventh park in the chain...

, Gurnee, Illinois
Gurnee, Illinois
Gurnee is a village in Lake County, Illinois, United States. The population was 28,834 at the 2000 census, and estimated to be 30,772 in 2005. The village borders the city of Waukegan and is considered a part of the Chicago metropolitan area. Gurnee is perhaps best known for being the location of...

, and California's Great America, Santa Clara
Santa Clara, California
Santa Clara , founded in 1777 and incorporated in 1852, is a city in Santa Clara County, in the U.S. state of California. The city is the site of the eighth of 21 California missions, Mission Santa Clara de Asís, and was named after the mission. The Mission and Mission Gardens are located on the...

) in 1976. Also known as a triple Ferris wheel, Triple Giant Wheel, or Triple Tree Wheel, it was 33 metres (108 ft) in height. The Santa Clara ride, renamed Triple Wheel in post-Marriott years, closed on 1 September 1997. The Gurnee ride closed in 2000.

Eccentric wheels

Eccentric wheels (sometimes called sliding wheels or coaster wheels) differ from conventional Ferris wheels in that some or all of the passenger cars are not fixed directly to the rim of the wheel, but instead slide on rails between the hub and the rim as the wheel rotates.

The two most famous eccentric wheels are Mickey's Fun Wheel
Mickey's Fun Wheel
Mickey's Fun Wheel is a tall Ferris wheel at Disney California Adventure, at the Disneyland Resort in Anaheim, California. The ride was inspired by Coney Island's 1927 Wonder Wheel at Deno's Wonder Wheel Amusement Park. Both attractions feature swinging and stationary gondolas while Mickey's Fun...

 (previously Sun Wheel), at Disney's California Adventure Park, USA, and Wonder Wheel
Wonder Wheel
Wonder Wheel is a tall eccentric Ferris wheel located at Deno's Wonder Wheel Amusement Park, Coney Island, in southernmost Brooklyn, New York City, USA....

, at Deno's Wonder Wheel Amusement Park
Deno's Wonder Wheel Amusement Park
Deno's Wonder Wheel Amusement Park is a small amusement pier located at Coney Island, Brooklyn, New York City featuring mostly family and children's rides with a few adult rides. Their main attraction is the Wonder Wheel, a hundred and fifty foot eccentric Ferris wheel. This wheel was built in 1920...

, Coney Island
Coney Island
Coney Island is a peninsula and beach on the Atlantic Ocean in southern Brooklyn, New York, United States. The site was formerly an outer barrier island, but became partially connected to the mainland by landfill....

. USA.

Mickey's Fun Wheel
Mickey's Fun Wheel
Mickey's Fun Wheel is a tall Ferris wheel at Disney California Adventure, at the Disneyland Resort in Anaheim, California. The ride was inspired by Coney Island's 1927 Wonder Wheel at Deno's Wonder Wheel Amusement Park. Both attractions feature swinging and stationary gondolas while Mickey's Fun...

 is 48.8 metres (160 ft) tall and has 24 fully enclosed passenger cars, each able to carry 6 passengers. 16 of the cars slide inward and outward as the wheel rotates, the remainder are fixed to the rim. There are separate boarding queues for sliding and fixed cars, so that passengers may choose between the two. Inspired by Coney Island
Coney Island
Coney Island is a peninsula and beach on the Atlantic Ocean in southern Brooklyn, New York, United States. The site was formerly an outer barrier island, but became partially connected to the mainland by landfill....

's 1920 Wonder Wheel, it was designed by Walt Disney Imagineering
Walt Disney Imagineering
Walt Disney Imagineering is the design and development arm of the Walt Disney Company, responsible for the creation and construction of Disney theme parks worldwide...

 and Intamin, completed in 2001 as the Sun Wheel, and later refurbished and reopened in 2009 as Mickey's Fun Wheel.

Wonder Wheel
Wonder Wheel
Wonder Wheel is a tall eccentric Ferris wheel located at Deno's Wonder Wheel Amusement Park, Coney Island, in southernmost Brooklyn, New York City, USA....

 was built in 1920, is 45.7 metres (150 ft) tall, and can carry 144 people.

Major designers, manufacturers, & operators


Allan Herschell Company (merged with Chance Morgan in 1970)
  • Seattle Wheel (debuted 1962): 16 cars, 2 passengers per car
  • Sky Wheel (debuted 1939; also manufactured by Chance Morgan): a double wheel, with the wheels rotating about opposite ends of a pair of parallel beams, and the beams rotating about their centres; 8 cars per wheel, 2 passengers per car


Chance Morgan 
  • Astro Wheel (debuted 1967): 16 cars (8 facing one way, 8 the other), 2 passengers per car
  • Century Wheel: 20 m (66 ft) tall, 15 cars, 4-6 passengers per car
  • Giant Wheel: 27 m (89 ft) tall, 20 cars, 6-8 passengers per car
  • Niagara SkyWheel: 53.3 m (175 ft) tall, 42 air-conditioned cars, 8 passengers per car


Eli Bridge
W.E. Sullivan, owner of Eli Bridge Company, a bridge building business in Illinois, rode the original 1893 Chicago Ferris Wheel
Ferris Wheel
The original Ferris Wheel, sometimes also referred to as the Chicago Wheel, was the centerpiece of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois....

 at the World's Columbian Exposition
World's Columbian Exposition
The World's Columbian Exposition was a World's Fair held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World in 1492. Chicago bested New York City; Washington, D.C.; and St...

. Inspired by this, he collaborated with machinist James H. Clements and their first Big Eli wheel debuted in Central Park, Jacksonville, Illinois
Jacksonville, Illinois
Jacksonville is a city in Morgan County, Illinois, United States. The population was 18,940 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Morgan County....

, on May 23, 1900. Contemporary models include:
  • Signature Series: 16 cars, 3 passengers per car; transportable
  • Eagle Series: 16 cars, 3 passengers per car; transportable
  • HY-5 Series: 12 cars, 3 passengers per car; transportable
  • Aristocrat Series: 16 cars, fixed site
  • Standard Series: 12 cars, fixed site
  • Lil' Wheel: 6 cars, 3 passengers per car; transportable and fixed site models


Great Wheel Corporation
Great Wheel Corporation
Great Wheel Corporation is a company engaged in the development, building, financing, and operation of observation platforms and observation wheels ....

(merged with World Tourist Attractions in 2009 to form Great City Attractions Ltd.)
  • Singapore Flyer
    Singapore Flyer
    The Singapore Flyer is a giant Ferris wheel located in Singapore, constructed in 2005–2008. Described by its operators as an observation wheel, it reaches 42 stories high, with a total height of , making it the tallest Ferris wheel in the world, taller than the Star of Nanchang and taller than...

    : 165 m (541 ft) tall, completed 2008; currently world's tallest Ferris wheel
  • Beijing Great Wheel
    Beijing Great Wheel
    The Beijing Great Wheel is a tall giant Ferris wheel project. Located in eastern Beijing's Chaoyang Park, one of the 2008 Summer Olympics venues, its planned height exceeds that of the current world's tallest Ferris wheel record holder, the Singapore Flyer....

    : 208 m (682 ft) tall, under construction since 2007, now in receivership
  • Great Dubai Wheel: 185 m (607 ft) tall, planning permission granted in 2006, was supposed to open in 2009
  • Great Berlin Wheel
    Great Berlin Wheel
    The Great Berlin Wheel is a giant Ferris wheel to be built near the Berlin Zoological Garden in Berlin, Germany, by the Great Wheel Corporation....

    : 175 m (574 ft) tall, was supposed to open in 2008
  • Great Orlando Wheel
    Great Orlando Wheel
    The Great Orlando Wheel is a giant Ferris wheel proposed by Great Wheel Corporation for Orange County, Florida, United States, near Orlando....

    : 122 m (400 ft) tall, project halted in 2009


Intamin 
  • Mickey's Fun Wheel
    Mickey's Fun Wheel
    Mickey's Fun Wheel is a tall Ferris wheel at Disney California Adventure, at the Disneyland Resort in Anaheim, California. The ride was inspired by Coney Island's 1927 Wonder Wheel at Deno's Wonder Wheel Amusement Park. Both attractions feature swinging and stationary gondolas while Mickey's Fun...

    : an eccentric (sliding) wheel
  • Giant Wheel: a double wheel
  • Sky Whirl
    Sky Whirl
    Sky Whirl was an Intamin Triple Giant Ferris wheel that operated at both Marriott's Great America Parks.-History:It was basically 3 arms with 2 wheels always spinning while one was on the ground loading. It gave park guests a chance to relax and get a cool breeze. It was a ride for the whole...

    : a triple wheel


Ronald Bussink
Ronald Bussink
Ronald Bussink Professional Rides is a leading designer of giant Ferris wheels and similar structures. Previously known as Nauta Bussink, the company was renamed when it moved its offices from the Netherlands to Switzerland....

 Professional Rides
(formerly Nauta Bussink)
  • R40: 40 metres (131 ft) tall fixed or transportable wheel, 30 cars, 8 passengers per car
  • R50: 50 metres (164 ft) tall fixed or transportable wheel, 36 cars, 8 passengers per car
  • R60: 60 metres (197 ft) tall transportable wheel, 42 cars, 8 passengers per car
  • R66: 66 metres (217 ft) tall transportable wheel, 42 cars; world's tallest transportable wheel, operated by World Carnival
    World Carnival
    World Carnival is a transportable amusement park. Between 1995 and 2007 it visited China , Dubai , Hong Kong , Malaysia, Oman, Singapore , South Korea, and Thailand.-Ferris wheel:...

  • R80: 80 metres (262 ft) tall fixed wheel, 56 cars, 8 passengers per car


Senyo Kogyo Co, Ltd.
  • Cosmo Clock 21
    Cosmo Clock 21
    Cosmo Clock 21 is a giant Ferris wheel located in Yokohama, Japan. It is also the world's largest clock.Built for the YES '89 Yokohama Exposition at Minato Mirai 21 in 1989, Cosmo Clock 21 was originally constructed with a height of ....

    : 107.5 m (353 ft) tall, completed 1989; world's tallest Ferris wheel 1989 to 1997; 112.5 m (369 ft) tall when re-erected in 1999
  • Diamond and Flower Ferris Wheel
    Diamond and Flower Ferris Wheel
    is a tall Ferris wheel in Kasai Rinkai Park in Edogawa, Tokyo, Japan. It is named for its light shows, which have the appearance of a sparkling diamond or flower....

    : 117 m (384 ft) tall, world's second tallest Ferris wheel when completed in 2001
  • Tempozan Ferris Wheel: 112.5 m (369 ft) tall, completed 1997; world's tallest Ferris wheel 1997 to 1999

See also


Four-car 30 m tall drive-in
Drive-in
A drive-in is a facility such as a bank, restaurant, or movie theater where one can literally drive in with an automobile for service. It is usually distinguished from a drive-through. At a drive-in restaurant, for example, customers park their vehicles and are usually served by staff who walk out...

 Ferris wheel at
Harbourfront
Harbourfront
Harbourfront is a neighbourhood on the northern shore of Lake Ontario within the downtown core of the city of Toronto, Canada. Part of the Toronto Waterfront, Harbourfront extends west from Yonge Street to Bathurst Street along Queen's Quay. East of Yonge to Parliament St...

, Toronto, Canada, in 2004

Ferris wheel constructed by the Swedish
contingent at the 21st World Scout Jamboree
21st World Scout Jamboree
The 21st World Scout Jamboree was held in July and August 2007, and formed a part of the Scouting 2007 Centenary celebrations of the world Scout Movement. The event was hosted by the United Kingdom, as 2007 marked the 100th anniversary of the founding of Scouting on Brownsea Island.The event was...


Passenger-powered 2-seat Cyclecide
Cyclecide
Cyclecide is an American bicycle club based in San Francisco, California that is composed of clowns, altered bikes, and a traveling show called "The Bike Rodeo".-In the beginning:...

 wheel
at the 2007 Bumbershoot
Bumbershoot
Bumbershoot is an annual international music and arts festival held in Seattle, Washington. One of North America's largest such festivals, it takes place every Labor Day weekend at the 74-acre Seattle Center, which was built for the 1962 World's Fair. Seattle Center includes indoor theaters,...

 festival in Seattle

  • Amusement park
    Amusement park
    thumb|Cinderella Castle in [[Magic Kingdom]], [[Disney World]]Amusement and theme parks are terms for a group of entertainment attractions and rides and other events in a location for the enjoyment of large numbers of people...

  • Fair
    Fair
    A fair or fayre is a gathering of people to display or trade produce or other goods, to parade or display animals and often to enjoy associated carnival or funfair entertainment. It is normally of the essence of a fair that it is temporary; some last only an afternoon while others may ten weeks. ...

  • Funfair
    Funfair
    A funfair or simply "fair" is a small to medium sized travelling show primarily composed of stalls and other amusements. Larger fairs such as the permanent fairs of cities and seaside resorts might be called a fairground, although technically this should refer to the land where a fair is...

  • Traveling carnival
    Traveling carnival
    A traveling carnival is an amusement show that may be made up of amusement rides, food vendors, merchandise vendors, games of chance and skill, thrill acts, animal acts or sideshow curiosities. A traveling carnival is not set up at a permanent location, like an amusement park, but is moved from...

  • List of amusement parks
  • List of amusement rides
  • List of Ferris wheels
  • List of Ferris wheels in Moscow
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