Extracellular fluid
Extracellular fluid usually denotes all body fluid outside of cells. The remainder is called intracellular fluid.

In some animals, including mammal
Mammals are members of a class of air-breathing vertebrate animals characterised by the possession of endothermy, hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands functional in mothers with young...

s, the extracellular fluid can be divided into two major subcompartments, interstitial fluid
Interstitial fluid
Interstitial fluid is a solution that bathes and surrounds the cells of multicellular animals. It is the main component of the extracellular fluid, which also includes plasma and transcellular fluid...

 and blood plasma
Blood plasma
Blood plasma is the straw-colored liquid component of blood in which the blood cells in whole blood are normally suspended. It makes up about 55% of the total blood volume. It is the intravascular fluid part of extracellular fluid...

. The extracellular fluid also includes the transcellular fluid
Transcellular fluid
Transcellular fluid is the portion of total body water contained within epithelial lined spaces. It is the smallest component of extracellular fluid, which also includes interstitial fluid and plasma. It is often not calculated as a fraction of the extracellular fluid, but it is about 2.5% of the...

; making up only about 2.5 percent of the ECF.

In humans, the normal glucose
Glucose is a simple sugar and an important carbohydrate in biology. Cells use it as the primary source of energy and a metabolic intermediate...

 concentration of extracellular fluid that is regulated by homeostasis
Homeostasis is the property of a system that regulates its internal environment and tends to maintain a stable, constant condition of properties like temperature or pH...

 is approximately 5 mM.

The pH
In chemistry, pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. Pure water is said to be neutral, with a pH close to 7.0 at . Solutions with a pH less than 7 are said to be acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic or alkaline...

 of extracellular fluid is tightly regulated by buffers
Buffer solution
A buffer solution is an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acid. It has the property that the pH of the solution changes very little when a small amount of strong acid or base is added to it. Buffer solutions are used as a...

 around 7.4.

The volume of ECF is typically 15L (of which 12L is interstitial fluid and 3L is plasma)

Contents of Extracellular fluid

Main Cations:
Sodium is a chemical element with the symbol Na and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal and is a member of the alkali metals; its only stable isotope is 23Na. It is an abundant element that exists in numerous minerals, most commonly as sodium chloride...

  (Na+ = 136-145 mEq/L)
Potassium is the chemical element with the symbol K and atomic number 19. Elemental potassium is a soft silvery-white alkali metal that oxidizes rapidly in air and is very reactive with water, generating sufficient heat to ignite the hydrogen emitted in the reaction.Potassium and sodium are...

 (K+ = 3.5-5.5 mEq/L)
Calcium is the chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It has an atomic mass of 40.078 amu. Calcium is a soft gray alkaline earth metal, and is the fifth-most-abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust...

 (Ca2+ = 8.4-10.5 mEq/L)

Main Anions:
The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine, a halogen, picks up one electron to form an anion Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. The chloride ion, and its salts such as sodium chloride, are very soluble in water...

 (Cl- = 99-109 mEq/L)
Hydrogen Carbonate
In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid...

(HCO3- 22-26 mM)

It is poorer in proteins compared to intracellular fluid
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