Exclusive Economic Zone
Overview
 
Under the law of the sea
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea , also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty, is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea , which took place from 1973 through 1982...

, an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a seazone over which a state
Sovereign state
A sovereign state, or simply, state, is a state with a defined territory on which it exercises internal and external sovereignty, a permanent population, a government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states. It is also normally understood to be a state which is neither...

 has special rights over the exploration and use of marine
Marine (ocean)
Marine is an umbrella term. As an adjective it is usually applicable to things relating to the sea or ocean, such as marine biology, marine ecology and marine geology...

 resources
Natural resource
Natural resources occur naturally within environments that exist relatively undisturbed by mankind, in a natural form. A natural resource is often characterized by amounts of biodiversity and geodiversity existent in various ecosystems....

, including production of energy from water and wind. It stretches from the seaward edge of the state's territorial sea out to 200 nautical miles from its coast. In casual usage, the term may include the territorial sea and even the continental shelf
Continental shelf
The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain. Much of the shelf was exposed during glacial periods, but is now submerged under relatively shallow seas and gulfs, and was similarly submerged during other interglacial periods. The continental margin,...

 beyond the 200-mile limit.
Generally, a state's EEZ extends to a distance of 200 nautical miles (370 km) out from its coastal baseline
Baseline (sea)
A baseline is the line from which the seaward limits of a State's territorial sea and certain other maritime zones of jurisdiction are measured. Normally, a sea baseline follows the low-water line of a coastal State...

.
Encyclopedia
Under the law of the sea
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea , also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty, is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea , which took place from 1973 through 1982...

, an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a seazone over which a state
Sovereign state
A sovereign state, or simply, state, is a state with a defined territory on which it exercises internal and external sovereignty, a permanent population, a government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states. It is also normally understood to be a state which is neither...

 has special rights over the exploration and use of marine
Marine (ocean)
Marine is an umbrella term. As an adjective it is usually applicable to things relating to the sea or ocean, such as marine biology, marine ecology and marine geology...

 resources
Natural resource
Natural resources occur naturally within environments that exist relatively undisturbed by mankind, in a natural form. A natural resource is often characterized by amounts of biodiversity and geodiversity existent in various ecosystems....

, including production of energy from water and wind. It stretches from the seaward edge of the state's territorial sea out to 200 nautical miles from its coast. In casual usage, the term may include the territorial sea and even the continental shelf
Continental shelf
The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain. Much of the shelf was exposed during glacial periods, but is now submerged under relatively shallow seas and gulfs, and was similarly submerged during other interglacial periods. The continental margin,...

 beyond the 200-mile limit.

Definition

Generally, a state's EEZ extends to a distance of 200 nautical miles (370 km) out from its coastal baseline
Baseline (sea)
A baseline is the line from which the seaward limits of a State's territorial sea and certain other maritime zones of jurisdiction are measured. Normally, a sea baseline follows the low-water line of a coastal State...

. The exception to this rule occurs when EEZs would overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than 400 nautical miles (740 km) apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual maritime boundary
Maritime boundary
Maritime boundary is a conceptual means of division of the water surface of the planet into maritime areas that are defined through surrounding physical geography or by human geography. As such it usually includes areas of exclusive national rights over the mineral and biological resources,...

. Generally, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the nearest state.

A state's exclusive economic zone starts at the seaward edge of its territorial sea and extends outward to a distance of 200 nautical miles (370,4 km) from the baseline. Thus, the EEZ includes the contiguous zone. States also have rights to the seabed
Seabed
The seabed is the bottom of the ocean.- Ocean structure :Most of the oceans have a common structure, created by common physical phenomena, mainly from tectonic movement, and sediment from various sources...

 of what is called the continental shelf
Continental shelf
The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain. Much of the shelf was exposed during glacial periods, but is now submerged under relatively shallow seas and gulfs, and was similarly submerged during other interglacial periods. The continental margin,...

 up to 350 nautical miles (648 km) from the coastal baseline, beyond the EEZ, but such areas are not part of their EEZ. The legal definition of the continental shelf does not directly correspond to the geological meaning of the term, as it also includes the continental rise and slope, and the entire seabed within the EEZ.

Origin of EEZ

The idea of allotting nations EEZs to give better control of maritime affairs outside territorial limits gained acceptance in the late 20th century.

Initially, a country's sovereign territorial waters extended 3 nautical miles or 6 km (range of cannon shot) beyond the shore. In modern times, a country's sovereign territorial waters extend to 12 nautical miles (~19 km) beyond the shore. In the early 1970s, Ecuador
Ecuador
Ecuador , officially the Republic of Ecuador is a representative democratic republic in South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and by the Pacific Ocean to the west. It is one of only two countries in South America, along with Chile, that do not have a border...

 claimed territorial waters extending to 200 nautical miles. They began seizing U.S. tuna-fishing boats and charging heavy fines (that the U.S. government paid). Eventually the U.S. agreed to submit the issue to the International Court of Justice at The Hague. This eventually led to the recognition of 12 nautical miles as normal for the territorial sea/waters and international recognition of the 200 mile exclusive economic zone by the Third United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea , also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty, is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea , which took place from 1973 through 1982...

 in 1982.

Part V, Article 55 of the Convention states:
Specific legal regime of the exclusive economic zone
The exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, subject to the specific legal regime established in this Part, under which the rights and jurisdiction of the coastal State and the rights and freedoms of other States are governed by the relevant provisions of this Convention.

EEZ disputes

The exact extent of exclusive economic zones is a common source of conflicts between states over marine waters.
  • One well-known example of such dispute was the Cod Wars between the United Kingdom and Iceland
    Iceland
    Iceland , described as the Republic of Iceland, is a Nordic and European island country in the North Atlantic Ocean, on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Iceland also refers to the main island of the country, which contains almost all the population and almost all the land area. The country has a population...

    .
  • Norway and Russia dispute both territorial sea and EEZ with regard to the Svalbard
    Svalbard
    Svalbard is an archipelago in the Arctic, constituting the northernmost part of Norway. It is located north of mainland Europe, midway between mainland Norway and the North Pole. The group of islands range from 74° to 81° north latitude , and from 10° to 35° east longitude. Spitsbergen is the...

     archipelago as it affects Russia's EEZ due to its unique treaty status. A treaty was agreed in principle in April 2010 between the two states that promises to resolve this boundary dispute. The agreement was signed in Murmansk on September 15, 2010.
  • The dispute over Rockall
    Rockall
    Rockall is an extremely small, uninhabited, remote rocky islet in the North Atlantic Ocean. It gives its name to one of the sea areas named in the shipping forecast provided by the British Meteorological Office....

     is mainly due to its effect on EEZ, not on its resources or strategic benefits.
  • The South China Sea
    South China Sea
    The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Singapore and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around...

     (and the Spratly Islands
    Spratly Islands
    The Spratly Islands are a group of more than 750 reefs, islets, atolls, cays and islands in the South China Sea. The archipelago lies off the coasts of the Philippines and Malaysia , about one third of the way from there to southern Vietnam. They comprise less than four square kilometers of land...

    ) is the site of an ongoing dispute between several neighboring nations.
  • There is an ongoing dispute between Turkey
    Turkey
    Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

     and Greece
    Greece
    Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

     over the extent of the continental shelf and the EEZ.
  • Croatia
    Croatia
    Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

    's ZERP (Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone
    Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone
    The Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone is a protected fishing area over Croatia's Exclusive Economic Zone.ZERP was initiated by the Croatian Peasant Party, then a member of Croatia's governing coalition. It was then legislated by the Croatian Government of Ivica Račan on October 3, 2003, and...

    ) in the Adriatic Sea caused friction with Italy
    Italy
    Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

     and Slovenia
    Slovenia
    Slovenia , officially the Republic of Slovenia , is a country in Central and Southeastern Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. Slovenia borders Italy to the west, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north, and also has a small portion of...

    , threatening Croatia's accession to the European Union
    Accession of Croatia to the European Union
    Croatia applied for European Union membership in 2003, and the European Commission recommended making it an official candidate in early 2004. Candidate country status was granted to Croatia by the European Council in mid-2004...

    .
  • A wedge-shaped section of the Beaufort Sea
    Beaufort Sea
    The Beaufort Sea is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located north of the Northwest Territories, the Yukon, and Alaska, west of Canada's Arctic islands. The sea is named after hydrographer Sir Francis Beaufort...

     is disputed between Canada
    Canada
    Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

     and the United States
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

    , as the area reportedly contains substantial oil reserves
    Oil reserves
    The total estimated amount of oil in an oil reservoir, including both producible and non-producible oil, is called oil in place. However, because of reservoir characteristics and limitations in petroleum extraction technologies, only a fraction of this oil can be brought to the surface, and it is...

    .
  • France
    France
    The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

     claims a portion of Canada's EEZ for Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon based on a new definition of the continental shelf and EEZ between the two countries. Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon is entirely surrounded by Canada's EEZ.


Regions where a permanent ice shelf
Ice shelf
An ice shelf is a thick, floating platform of ice that forms where a glacier or ice sheet flows down to a coastline and onto the ocean surface. Ice shelves are only found in Antarctica, Greenland and Canada. The boundary between the floating ice shelf and the grounded ice that feeds it is called...

 extends beyond the coastline are also a source of potential dispute.

Transboundary stocks

Fisheries management
Fisheries management
Fisheries management draws on fisheries science in order to find ways to protect fishery resources so sustainable exploitation is possible. Modern fisheries management is often referred to as a governmental system of appropriate management rules based on defined objectives and a mix of management...

, usually adhering to guidelines set by the FAO
Fão
Fão is a town in Esposende Municipality in Portugal....

, provides significant practical mechanisms for the control of EEZs. Transboundary fish stocks are an important concept in this control.
Transboundary stocks are fish stock
Fish stock
Fish stocks are subpopulations of a particular species of fish, for which intrinsic parameters are the only significant factors in determining population dynamics, while extrinsic factors are considered to be insignificant.-The stock concept:All species have geographic limits to their...

s that range in the EEZs of at least two countries. Straddling stocks, on the other hand, range both within an EEZ as well as in the high seas, outside any EEZ. A stock can be both transboundary and straddling.

Argentina

The area is 1,159,063 km2.

Australia

  • Seas and Submerged Lands Act 1973

Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

 has the third largest exclusive economic zone, behind the United States and France, but ahead of Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

, with the total area actually exceeding that of its land territory. As per the UN convention, Australia's EEZ generally extends 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the coastline of Australia and its external territories
States and territories of Australia
The Commonwealth of Australia is a union of six states and various territories. The Australian mainland is made up of five states and three territories, with the sixth state of Tasmania being made up of islands. In addition there are six island territories, known as external territories, and a...

, except where a maritime delimitation agreement exists with another state.

The United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf confirmed, in April 2008, Australia's rights over an additional 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed beyond the limits of Australia's EEZ. Australia also claimed, in its submission to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, an EEZ of 200 nautical miles (370 km) from its Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
The Australian Antarctic Territory is a part of Antarctica. It was claimed by the United Kingdom and placed under the authority of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1933. It is the largest territory of Antarctica claimed by any nation...

, but has requested it not be acted upon at the time in accordance with the spirit of cooperation embodied in the Antarctic Treaty. Nevertheless, Australia maintains the right to explore and exploit the seabed and water column within its EEZ.
EEZ 2)
Heard and McDonald Islands  410,722
 Christmas Island 463,371
 Cocos (Keeling) Islands 325,021
 Norfolk Island 428,618
Macquarie Island
Macquarie Island
Macquarie Island lies in the southwest corner of the Pacific Ocean, about half-way between New Zealand and Antarctica, at 54°30S, 158°57E. Politically, it has formed part of the Australian state of Tasmania since 1900 and became a Tasmanian State Reserve in 1978. In 1997 it became a world heritage...

 
471,837
Mainland Australia and Tasmania and minor islands 6,048,681
Total 8,148,250

Brazil

Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

's exclusive economic zone covers 3,660,995 km2.

In 2004, the country submitted its claims to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS)
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea , also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty, is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea , which took place from 1973 through 1982...

 to extend its maritime continental margin.

Canada

Canada is unusual in that its exclusive economic zone, covering 2,755,564 km2, is slightly smaller than its territorial waters. The latter generally extend only 12 nautical miles from the shore, but also include inland marine waters such as Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay , sometimes called Hudson's Bay, is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada. It drains a very large area, about , that includes parts of Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Alberta, most of Manitoba, southeastern Nunavut, as well as parts of North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota,...

 (about 300 nautical miles (555.6 km) across), the Gulf of Saint Lawrence
Gulf of Saint Lawrence
The Gulf of Saint Lawrence , the world's largest estuary, is the outlet of North America's Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean...

 and the internal waters of the Arctic archipelago.

Chile

Chile's EEZ includes areas around the Desventuradas Islands
Desventuradas Islands
thumb|Map of Desventuradas Islands The Desventuradas Islands, also known as Islas de los Desventurados, is a group of four small islands located off the coast of Chile, northwest of Santiago in the Pacific Ocean...

, Easter Island
Easter Island
Easter Island is a Polynesian island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian triangle. A special territory of Chile that was annexed in 1888, Easter Island is famous for its 887 extant monumental statues, called moai, created by the early Rapanui people...

 and the Juan Fernández Islands
Juan Fernández Islands
The Juan Fernández Islands are a sparsely inhabited island group reliant on tourism and fishing in the South Pacific Ocean, situated about off the coast of Chile, and is composed of three main volcanic islands; Robinson Crusoe Island, Alejandro Selkirk Island and Santa Clara Island, the first...

.
Region EEZ Area (km2) Land area Total
Mainland 2 009 299 755 757 2 765 056
Desventuradas 449 805
Easter 720 395 164 720 559
Juan Fernandez 502 490
Total 3 681 989 756 102 4 438 091


There is a dispute with Peru over the extension of Chile's EEZ: Chilean–Peruvian maritime dispute
Chilean–Peruvian maritime dispute
The Chilean–Peruvian maritime dispute is a dispute between the Republic of Peru and the Republic of Chile on the sovereignty of an area at sea of approximately in the Pacific Ocean, from the Peruvian version that boundary delimitation between the two countries is still not fixed...


People's Republic of China


Denmark

The Kingdom of Denmark includes the two autonomous provinces of Greenland
Greenland
Greenland is an autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark, located between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for...

 and the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
The Faroe Islands are an island group situated between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, approximately halfway between Scotland and Iceland. The Faroe Islands are a self-governing territory within the Kingdom of Denmark, along with Denmark proper and Greenland...

. The EEZs of the latter two do not form part of the EEZ of the European Union.
Region EEZ & TW Area (km2) Land area Total
 Denmark 105 989 42 506 149 083
 Faroe Islands 260 995 1 399 262 394
 Greenland 2 184 254 2 166 086 4 350 340
Total 2 551 238 2 210 579 4 761 817

France

Due to its numerous Overseas departments and territories
Overseas departments and territories of France
The French Overseas Departments and Territories consist broadly of French-administered territories outside of the European continent. These territories have varying legal status and different levels of autonomy, although all have representation in the Parliament of France , and consequently the...

 scattered on all oceans of the planet, France possesses the second-largest EEZ in the world, covering 11,035,000 km2 (4,260,000 mi2), just behind the EEZ of the United States (11,351,000 km2 / 4,383,000 mi2), but ahead of the EEZ of Australia (8,148,250 km2 / 4,111,312 mi2).
The EEZ of France covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area of the Earth.
Region EEZ & TW Area (km2) Land area Total
 Early Modern France 334 604 551 695 886 299
 French Guiana 133 949 83 846 217 795
 Guadeloupe 95 978 1 628 97 606
 Martinique 47 640 1 128 48 768
 Réunion 315 058 2 512 317 570
 French Polynesia 4 767 242 4 167 4 771 409
12 334 242 12 576
 Mayotte 63 078 376 63 454
 Wallis and Futuna 258 269 264 258 533
 Saint Martin (France) 1 000 53 1 053
 Saint Barthélemy 4 000 21 4 021
 New Caledonia 1 422 543 18 575 1 441 118
 Clipperton Island 431 263 6 431 269
Crozet Islands
Crozet Islands
The Crozet Islands are a sub-antarctic archipelago of small islands in the southern Indian Ocean. They form one of the five administrative districts of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.-Geography:...

574 558 352 574 910
Kerguelen Islands
Kerguelen Islands
The Kerguelen Islands , also known as the Desolation Islands, are a group of islands in the southern Indian Ocean constituting the emerged part of the otherwise submerged Kerguelen Plateau. The islands, along with Adélie Land, the Crozet Islands and the Amsterdam and Saint Paul Islands are part of...

567 732 7 215 574 947
Saint-Paul-et-Amsterdam 509 015 66 509 081
Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean
Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean
The Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean consist of four small coral islands, an atoll, and a reef in the Indian Ocean, and have constituted the 5th district of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands since February 2007. They have no permanent population...

352 117 44 352 161
Tromelin Island
Tromelin Island
Tromelin Island is a low, flat 0.8-square-kilometre island in the Indian Ocean, about east of Madagascar . There are no harbours or anchorages and access by sea is difficult. The island has a 1,200-metre airstrip. It is a French territory...

270 455 1 270 456
Total 11 035 000 675 417 11 710 417

Greece

Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

 has not yet claimed an exclusive economic zone, although it is entitled to do so, as per UNCLOS 1982 as well as customary international law. This had led to direct threat by Turkey of casus belli if Greece was to declare her exclusive economic zone, although Greece restrained from any kind of declaration so far.

Turkey's declaration of casus belli
Casus belli
is a Latin expression meaning the justification for acts of war. means "incident", "rupture" or indeed "case", while means bellic...

 is not related to the EEZ issue. Turkey claims that the Aegean Sea's status as a semi-closed sea affords it a special nature (unlike other semi-closed seas as the Adriatic or even fully enclosed seas as the Black Sea
Black Sea
The Black Sea is bounded by Europe, Anatolia and the Caucasus and is ultimately connected to the Atlantic Ocean via the Mediterranean and the Aegean seas and various straits. The Bosphorus strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, and the strait of the Dardanelles connects that sea to the Aegean...

). Moreover, Turkey is not among the signatories of UNCLOS which allows countries to expand the width of their territorial waters up to 12 nautical miles (22.2 km). Even though Turkey is a persistent objector to the relevant article of UNCLOS, it has expanded its own territorial waters in the Black Sea to 12 nautical miles (22.2 km). And moreover, in 1995 just after Greek parliament ratifications of UNCLOS (as every signatory state was entitled), Turkey declared that if Greece expands the width of her territorial waters over 6 nautical miles (11.1 km), Turkey would conceive this action as a containment attempt and a direct offense to her sovereignty and thus threatened Greece with a war (casus belli).

According to published maps, the Israeli government has recognized the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) of Greece and Cyprus. They describe the course of the gas pipeline which will transfer gas produced by American Νoble Εnergy Ltd. from the Leviathan reservoir to Europe, through an undersea pipeline crossing Greece. The gas pipeline should traverse the sea area, which according to international law, is part of the Greek EEZ. By this proposal, Israel recognizes the Greek EEZ in the area and offers an advantage that Greece can use during negotiation procedures to support its claims on the area. In practice, this cooperation will set up a powerful energy coalition between Greece, Cyprus and Israel. The mining and operating part will be undertaken by an American company. "The substance of the issue is that in an effort to protect and secure vital Israeli interests in the Mediterranean Sea, Israel has been left with no choice other than to officially delimit its maritime borders," an Israeli diplomat told the Hürriyet Daily News & Economic Review.

India

  • 1,641,514 km2
  • Andaman Islands
    Andaman Islands
    The Andaman Islands are a group of Indian Ocean archipelagic islands in the Bay of Bengal between India to the west, and Burma , to the north and east...

    , 663,629 km2
  • Total: 2,305,143 km2

Japan

  • Marcus Island: 428,875 km2
  • Ogasawara Islands
    Ogasawara Islands
    The Bonin Islands, known in Japan as the are an archipelago of over 30 subtropical and tropical islands, some directly south of Tokyo, Japan. Administratively, they are part of Ogasawara Municipality of Ogasawara Subprefecture, Tokyo...

    : 862,782 km2
  • Pacific Ocean
    Pacific Ocean
    The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south, bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, and the Americas in the east.At 165.2 million square kilometres in area, this largest division of the World...

     (Japan): 1,162,334 km2
  • Ryukyu Islands
    Ryukyu Islands
    The , also known as the , is a chain of islands in the western Pacific, on the eastern limit of the East China Sea and to the southwest of the island of Kyushu in Japan. From about 1829 until the mid 20th century, they were alternately called Luchu, Loochoo, or Lewchew, akin to the Mandarin...

    : 1,394,676 km2
  • Sea of Japan
    Sea of Japan
    The Sea of Japan is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, between the Asian mainland, the Japanese archipelago and Sakhalin. It is bordered by Japan, North Korea, Russia and South Korea. Like the Mediterranean Sea, it has almost no tides due to its nearly complete enclosure from the Pacific...

    : 630,721 km2
  • Total: 4,479,358


Japan has disputes over its EEZ boundaries with all its Asian neighbors (Russia, Republic of Korea, PRC
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 and ROC
Republic of China
The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan , is a unitary sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan , which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor...

). The above, and relevant maps at the Sea Around Us Project both indicate Japan's claimed boundaries, and do not take into account neighboring powers' claims.

Mexico

Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

's exclusive economic zones comprise a total surface area of 5,144,295 km2, and places Mexico among the countries with the largest areas in the world.

New Zealand

New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

's EEZ covers 4,083,744 km2, according to the Sea Around Us Project, which is approximately fifteen times the land area of the country. Sources vary significantly on the size of New Zealand's EEZ; for example, a recent government publication gave the area as roughly 4,300,000 km2. These figures are for the EEZ of New Zealand proper, and do not include the EEZs of other territories in the Realm of New Zealand
Realm of New Zealand
The Realm of New Zealand is the entire area in which the Queen in right of New Zealand is head of state. The Realm comprises New Zealand, the Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau and the Ross Dependency in Antarctica, and is defined by a 1983 Letters Patent constituting the office of Governor-General of New...

 (Tokelau, Niue, the Cook Islands and the Ross Dependency).

Norway

Norway has a large exclusive economic zone of 819 620 km2 around its coast. The country has a fishing zone of 1,878,953 km2, including fishing zones around Svalbard
Svalbard
Svalbard is an archipelago in the Arctic, constituting the northernmost part of Norway. It is located north of mainland Europe, midway between mainland Norway and the North Pole. The group of islands range from 74° to 81° north latitude , and from 10° to 35° east longitude. Spitsbergen is the...

 and Jan Mayen
Jan Mayen
Jan Mayen Island is a volcanic island in the Arctic Ocean and part of the Kingdom of Norway. It is long and 373 km2 in area, partly covered by glaciers . It has two parts: larger northeast Nord-Jan and smaller Sør-Jan, linked by an isthmus wide...

 . The fact that the European Union shares its economic zones was a big reason why Norway did not enter the EU as a member.

In April 2009, the United Nations Commission for the Limits of the Continental Shelf approved Norway's claim to an additional 235,000 square kilometres of continental shelf. The commission found that Norway and Russia both had valid claims over a portion of shelf in the Barents Sea.
Region EEZ & TW Area (km2) Land area Total
Mainland 1 273 482 323 802 1 597 284
Svalbard
Svalbard
Svalbard is an archipelago in the Arctic, constituting the northernmost part of Norway. It is located north of mainland Europe, midway between mainland Norway and the North Pole. The group of islands range from 74° to 81° north latitude , and from 10° to 35° east longitude. Spitsbergen is the...

402 574 61 002 463 576
Jan Mayen
Jan Mayen
Jan Mayen Island is a volcanic island in the Arctic Ocean and part of the Kingdom of Norway. It is long and 373 km2 in area, partly covered by glaciers . It has two parts: larger northeast Nord-Jan and smaller Sør-Jan, linked by an isthmus wide...

273 118 373 273 491
Bouvet Island
Bouvet Island
Bouvet Island is an uninhabited Antarctic volcanic island in the South Atlantic Ocean, 2,525 km south-southwest of South Africa. It is a dependent territory of Norway and, lying north of 60°S latitude, is not subject to the Antarctic Treaty. The centre of the island is an ice-filled crater of an...

436 004 49 436 053
Total 2 385 178 385 226 2 770 404

Philippines

Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

' EEZ covers 2,265,684 (135,783) km2

Poland

The Polish EEZ covers the area of 30,533 km2 within the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
The Baltic Sea is a brackish mediterranean sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. It is bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainland of Europe, and the Danish islands. It drains into the Kattegat by way of the Øresund, the Great Belt and...

.

Portugal

Continental Portugal
Continental Portugal
Continental Portugal or Mainland Portugal is the designation of the mainland Portuguese territory, located on Europe's Iberian Peninsula....

 327,667 km2 953,633 km2 446,108 km2
  • Total : 1,727,408 km2


Portugal submitted a claim to extend its jurisdiction over additional 2.15 million square kilometers of the neighboring continental shelf in May 2009, resulting in an EEZ with a total of more than 3,877,408 km2.

Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 has the 20th largest EEZ in the world.

The southern boundary between the EEZs of Portugal and Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 is disputed. Spain maintains that the southernmost EEZ border between Spain and Portugal should consist on an equidistant line drawn halfway between Madeira
Madeira
Madeira is a Portuguese archipelago that lies between and , just under 400 km north of Tenerife, Canary Islands, in the north Atlantic Ocean and an outermost region of the European Union...

 and the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
The Canary Islands , also known as the Canaries , is a Spanish archipelago located just off the northwest coast of mainland Africa, 100 km west of the border between Morocco and the Western Sahara. The Canaries are a Spanish autonomous community and an outermost region of the European Union...

. But Portugal exercises sovereignty over the Savage Islands
Savage Islands
The Savage Islands, also referred to as the Salvage Islands or the Selvagens Islands, of Sé. They are designated a Nature Reserve, comprising two areas: one on Selvagem Grande Island and the second on Selvagem Pequena Island.-Geography:...

 (a small archipelago north of the Canaries), and claims this pushes the EEZ border further south. Spain objects on the basis that the Savage Islands do not have a separate continental shelf, according to the article 121 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea , also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty, is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea , which took place from 1973 through 1982...

:
"Rocks which cannot sustain human habitation or economic life of their own shall have no exclusive economic zone or continental shelf."

Russia

  • Asia: 6,
  • Baltic: 24,549
  • Barents Sea: 1,159,594
  • Total 7,566,673 km2

South Africa

South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

's EEZ includes both that next to the African mainland and that around the Prince Edward Islands
Prince Edward Islands
The Prince Edward Islands are two small islands in the sub-antarctic Indian Ocean that are part of South Africa. The islands, named Marion Island and Prince Edward Island, are located at ....

, totalling 1 535 538 km2.
  • Mainland 1 068 659 km2
  • Prince Edward islands 466 879 km2

Republic of Korea (South Korea)

Area: 300,851 (225,214) km2

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom's exclusive economic zone is the fifth largest in the world at 6,805,586 square km. It comprises the exclusive economic zones surrounding the United Kingdom, the Crown Dependencies, and the British Overseas Territories
British overseas territories
The British Overseas Territories are fourteen territories of the United Kingdom which, although they do not form part of the United Kingdom itself, fall under its jurisdiction. They are remnants of the British Empire that have not acquired independence or have voted to remain British territories...

. The figure does not include the EEZ of the British Antarctic Territory
British Antarctic Territory
The British Antarctic Territory is a sector of Antarctica claimed by the United Kingdom as one of its 14 British Overseas Territories. It comprises the region south of 60°S latitude and between longitudes and , forming a wedge shape that extends to the South Pole...

.
Areas of EEZs of the UK, crown dependencies and overseas territories
Territory km2 sq mi Notes
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

773676 sqkm includes Rockall
Rockall
Rockall is an extremely small, uninhabited, remote rocky islet in the North Atlantic Ocean. It gives its name to one of the sea areas named in the shipping forecast provided by the British Meteorological Office....

 (disputed) and the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
The Isle of Man , otherwise known simply as Mann , is a self-governing British Crown Dependency, located in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland, within the British Isles. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who holds the title of Lord of Mann. The Lord of Mann is...

Anguilla
Anguilla
Anguilla is a British overseas territory and overseas territory of the European Union in the Caribbean. It is one of the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles, lying east of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands and directly north of Saint Martin...

92178 sqkm
Ascension Island
Ascension Island
Ascension Island is an isolated volcanic island in the equatorial waters of the South Atlantic Ocean, around from the coast of Africa and from the coast of South America, which is roughly midway between the horn of South America and Africa...

441658 sqkm
Bermuda
Bermuda
Bermuda is a British overseas territory in the North Atlantic Ocean. Located off the east coast of the United States, its nearest landmass is Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, about to the west-northwest. It is about south of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, and northeast of Miami, Florida...

450370 sqkm
British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
The British Indian Ocean Territory or Chagos Islands is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom situated in the Indian Ocean, halfway between Africa and Indonesia...

638568 sqkm
British Virgin Islands
British Virgin Islands
The Virgin Islands, often called the British Virgin Islands , is a British overseas territory and overseas territory of the European Union, located in the Caribbean to the east of Puerto Rico. The islands make up part of the Virgin Islands archipelago, the remaining islands constituting the U.S...

80117 sqkm
Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
The Cayman Islands is a British Overseas Territory and overseas territory of the European Union located in the western Caribbean Sea. The territory comprises the three islands of Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac, and Little Cayman, located south of Cuba and northwest of Jamaica...

119137 sqkm
Channel Islands
Channel Islands
The Channel Islands are an archipelago of British Crown Dependencies in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy. They include two separate bailiwicks: the Bailiwick of Guernsey and the Bailiwick of Jersey...

11658 sqkm
Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
The Falkland Islands are an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean, located about from the coast of mainland South America. The archipelago consists of East Falkland, West Falkland and 776 lesser islands. The capital, Stanley, is on East Falkland...

550872 sqkm disputed with Argentina
Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Gibraltar is a British overseas territory located on the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula at the entrance of the Mediterranean. A peninsula with an area of , it has a northern border with Andalusia, Spain. The Rock of Gibraltar is the major landmark of the region...

426 sqkm disputed with Spain
Montserrat
Montserrat
Montserrat is a British overseas territory located in the Leeward Islands, part of the chain of islands called the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. This island measures approximately long and wide, giving of coastline...

7582 sqkm
Pitcairn Island 836108 sqkm
Saint Helena
Saint Helena
Saint Helena , named after St Helena of Constantinople, is an island of volcanic origin in the South Atlantic Ocean. It is part of the British overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha which also includes Ascension Island and the islands of Tristan da Cunha...

444916 sqkm
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is a British overseas territory and overseas territory of the European Union in the southern Atlantic Ocean. It is a remote and inhospitable collection of islands, consisting of South Georgia and a chain of smaller islands, known as the South Sandwich...

1449532 sqkm disputed with Argentina
Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha is a remote volcanic group of islands in the south Atlantic Ocean and the main island of that group. It is the most remote inhabited archipelago in the world, lying from the nearest land, South Africa, and from South America...

 archipelago†
754720 sqkm
Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
The Turks and Caicos Islands are a British Overseas Territory and overseas territory of the European Union consisting of two groups of tropical islands in the Caribbean, the larger Caicos Islands and the smaller Turks Islands, known for tourism and as an offshore financial centre.The Turks and...

154068 sqkm
Total 6,805,586 2,627,651


†Part of the overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha is a British overseas territory and overseas territory of the European Union consisting of the islands of Saint Helena, Ascension Island and the Tristan da Cunha group...

, which together has an EEZ of 1,641,294 square km.

Only the United Kingdom (including Rockall) and Gibraltar are part of the EU. The Channel Islands, the Isle of Man and the remaining overseas territories (that is, all except Gibraltar) are not part of the EU.

United States

The United States' exclusive economic zone is the largest in the world, covering 11,351,000 km2. Areas of its EEZ are located not only along the eastern and western seaboards and Gulf of Mexico-bordering region of the continental United States, but are also located in the Caribbean Sea, Pacific Ocean and Arctic Ocean.
  • Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976
    Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976
    The Magnuson–Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, commonly referred to as the Magnuson–Stevens Act, is the primary law governing marine fisheries management in the United States. The law is named after Warren G. Magnuson, former U.S...


Rankings by area

This list includes dependent territories within their sovereign states (including uninhabited territories), but does not include claims on Antarctica. EEZ+TIA is exclusive economic zone (EEZ) plus total internal area (TIA).
Country 2 Shelf km2 EEZ+TIA km2
 United States 11,351,000 2,193,526 21,814,306
 Early Modern France 11,035,000 389,422 11,655,724
 Australia 8,505,348 2,194,008 16,197,464
 Russia 7,566,673 3,817,843 24,664,915
 United Kingdom 6,805,586 722,891 7,048,486
 New Zealand 6,682,503 277,610 6,953,478
 Indonesia 6,159,032 2,039,381 8,019,392
 Canada 5,599,077 2,644,795 15,607,077
 Japan 4,479,388 454,976 4,857,318
 Chile 3,681,989 252,947 4,431,381
 Brazil 3,660,955 774,563 12,175,832
 Kiribati 3,441,810 7,523 3,442,536
 Mexico 3,177,593 419,102 5,141,968
 Federated States of Micronesia 2,996,419 19,403 2,997,121
 Denmark 2,551,238 495,657 4,761,811
 Papua New Guinea 2,402,288 191,256 2,865,128
 Norway 2,385,178 434,020 2,770,404
 India 2,305,143 402,996 5,592,406
 Marshall Islands 1,990,530 18,411 1,990,711
 Portugal 1,727,408 92,090 1,819,498
 Philippines 1,590,780 272,921 1,890,780
 Solomon Islands 1,589,477 36,282 1,618,373
 South Africa 1,535,538 156,337 2,756,575
 Seychelles 1,336,559 39,063 1,337,014
 Mauritius 1,284,997 29,061 1,287,037
 Fiji 1,282,978 47,705 1,301,250
 Madagascar 1,225,259 101,505 1,812,300
 Argentina 1,159,063 856,346 3,939,463
 Ecuador 1,077,231 41,034 1,333,600
 Spain 1,039,233 77,920 1,545,225
 Maldives 923,322 34,538 923,622
 Mainland China 879,666 831,340 10,520,487
 Somalia 825,052 55,895 1,462,709
 Peru 815,915 82,000 2,101,131
 Colombia 808,158 53,691 1,949,906
 Cape Verde 800,561 5,591 804,594
 Iceland 751,345 108,015 854,345
 Tuvalu 749,790 3,575 749,816
 Vanuatu 663,251 11,483 675,440
 Tonga 659,558 8,517 660,305
 The Bahamas 654,715 106,323 668,658
 Palau 603,978 2,837 604,437
 Mozambique 578,986 94,212 1,380,576
 Costa Rica 574,725 19,585 625,825
 Namibia 564,748 86,698 1,388,864
 Yemen 552,669 59,229 1,080,637
 Italy 541,915 116,834 843,251
 Oman 533,180 59,071 842,680
 Myanmar 532,775 220,332 1,209,353
 Sri Lanka 532,619 32,453 598,229
 Angola 518,433 48,092 1,765,133
 Greece 505,572 81,451 637,529
 Venezuela 470,666 107,759 1,382,716
 Vietnam 417,663 365,198 748,875
 Republic of Ireland 410,310 139,935 480,583
 Libya 351,589 64,763 2,111,129
 Cuba 350,751 61,525 460,637
 Panama 335,646 53,404 411,163
 Malaysia 334,671 323,412 665,474
 Nauru 308,480 41 308,501
 Equatorial Guinea 303,509 7,820 331,560
 South Korea 300,851 225,214 400,529
 Thailand 299,397 230,063 812,517
 Morocco (without Western Sahara
Western Sahara
Western Sahara is a disputed territory in North Africa, bordered by Morocco to the north, Algeria to the northeast, Mauritania to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Its surface area amounts to . It is one of the most sparsely populated territories in the world, mainly...

)
274,577 53,746 721,127
 Egypt 263,451 61,591 1,265,451
 Turkey 261,654 56,093 1,045,216
 Jamaica 258,137 9,802 269,128
 Dominican Republic 255,898 10,738 304,569
 Liberia 249,734 17,715 361,103
 Honduras 249,542 68,718 362,034
 Tanzania 241,888 25,611 1,186,975
 Pakistan 235,999 51,383 1,117,911
 Ghana 235,349 22,502 473,888
 Saudi Arabia 228,633 107,249 2,378,323
 Nigeria 217,313 42,285 1,141,081
 Sierra Leone 215,611 28,625 287,351
 Gabon 202,790 35,020 470,458
 Barbados 186,898 426 187,328
 Côte d'Ivoire 176,254 10,175 498,717
 Iran 168,718 118,693 1,797,468
 Mauritania 165,338 31,662 1,190,858
 Comoros 163,752 1,526 165,987
 Sweden 160,885 154,604 602,255
 Senegal 158,861 23,092 355,583
 Netherlands 154,011 77,246 192,345
 Ukraine 147,318 79,142 750,818
 Uruguay 142,166 75,327 318,381
 Guyana 137,765 50,578 352,734
 North Korea 132,826 54,566 253,364
 São Tomé and Príncipe 131,397 1,902 132,361
 Samoa 127,950 2,087 130,781
 Suriname 127,772 53,631 291,592
 Haiti 126,760 6,683 154,510
 Algeria 126,353 9,985 2,508,094
 Nicaragua 123,881 70,874 254,254
 Guinea-Bissau 123,725 39,339 159,850
 Kenya 116,942 11,073 697,309
 Guatemala 114,170 14,422 223,059
 Antigua and Barbuda 110,089 4,128 110,531
 Tunisia 101,857 67,126 265,467
 Cyprus 98,707 4,042 107,958
 El Salvador 90,962 16,852 112,003
 Finland 87,171 85,109 425,590
 Bangladesh 86,392 66,438 230,390
 Republic of China 83,231 43,016 119,419
 Eritrea 77,728 61,817 195,328
 Trinidad and Tobago 74,199 25,284 79,329
 East Timor 70,326 25,648 85,200
 Sudan 68,148 19,827 1,954,216
 Cambodia 62,515 62,515 243,550
 Guinea 59,426 44,755 305,283
 Independent State of Croatia 59,032 50,277 115,626
 United Arab Emirates 58,218 57,474 141,818
 Germany 57,485 57,485 414,599
 Malta 54,823 5,301 55,139
 Estonia 36,992 36,992 82,219
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 36,302 1,561 36,691
 Belize 35,351 13,178 58,317
 Kingdom of Bulgaria 34,307 10,426 145,186
 Benin 33,221 2,721 145,843
 Qatar 31,590 31,590 43,176
 Republic of the Congo 31,017 7,982 373,017
 Poland 29,797 29,797 342,482
 Dominica 28,985 659 29,736
 Latvia 28,452 27,772 93,011
 Grenada 27,426 2,237 27,770
 Israel 26,352 3,745 48,424
 Kingdom of Romania 23,627 19,303 262,018
 The Gambia 23,112 5,581 34,407
 Georgia (country) 21,946 3,243 91,646
 Lebanon 19,516 1,067 29,968
 Cameroon 16,547 11,420 491,989
 Saint Lucia 15,617 544 16,156
 Albania 13,691 6,979 42,439
 Togo 12,045 1,265 68,830
 Kuwait 11,026 11,026 28,844
 Syria 10,503 1,085 195,683
 Bahrain 10,225 10,225 10,975
 Brunei 10,090 8,509 15,855
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 9,974 653 10,235
 Kingdom of Montenegro 7,745 3,896 21,557
 Djibouti 7,459 3,187 30,659
 Lithuania 7,031 7,031 72,331
 Belgium 3,447 3,447 33,975
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,606 1,593 2,346,464
 Singapore 1,067 1,067 1,772
 Iraq 771 771 439,088
 Monaco 288 290
 Palestinian territories 256 256 6,276
 Slovenia 220 220 20,493
 Jordan 166 59 89,508
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 50 50 51,259
 Kazakhstan 2,724,900
 Mongolia 1,564,100
 Chad 1,284,000
 Niger 1,267,000
 Mali 1,240,192
 Ethiopia 1,104,300
 Bolivia 1,098,581
 Zambia 752,612
 Afghanistan 652,090
 Central African Republic 622,984
|619,745
 Botswana 582,000
 Turkmenistan 488,100
 Uzbekistan 447,400
 Paraguay 406,752
 Zimbabwe 390,757
 Burkina Faso 274,222
 Uganda 241,038
 Laos 236,800
 Belarus 207,600
 Kyrgyzstan 199,951
 Nepal 147,181
 Tajikistan 143,100
 Malawi 118,484
 Hungary 93,028
 Azerbaijan 86,600
 Austria 83,871
 Czech Republic 78,867
 Serbia 77,474
 Slovakia 49,035
 Switzerland 41,284
 Bhutan 38,394
 Moldova 33,846
 Lesotho 30,355
 Armenia 29,743
 Burundi 27,834
 Rwanda 26,338
 Republic of Macedonia 25,713
 Swaziland 17,364
 Republic of Kosovo 10,887
 Luxembourg 2,586
 Andorra 468
 Liechtenstein 160
 San Marino 61
 Vatican City 0.44

See also

  • Air Defense Identification Zone
    Air Defense Identification Zone
    An Air Defense Identification Zone has existed since February 10, 2003, around the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area to restrict air traffic near Washington, D.C....

  • Baseline
    Baseline (sea)
    A baseline is the line from which the seaward limits of a State's territorial sea and certain other maritime zones of jurisdiction are measured. Normally, a sea baseline follows the low-water line of a coastal State...

  • Continental shelf
    Continental shelf
    The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain. Much of the shelf was exposed during glacial periods, but is now submerged under relatively shallow seas and gulfs, and was similarly submerged during other interglacial periods. The continental margin,...

  • International waters
    International waters
    The terms international waters or trans-boundary waters apply where any of the following types of bodies of water transcend international boundaries: oceans, large marine ecosystems, enclosed or semi-enclosed regional seas and estuaries, rivers, lakes, groundwater systems , and wetlands.Oceans,...

  • R. v. Marshall
    R. v. Marshall
    R. v. Marshall [1999] 3 S.C.R. 456 and R. v. Marshall [1999] 3 S.C.R. 533 are two decisions given by the Supreme Court of Canada on a single case regarding a treaty right to fish.-Decisions:...

  • Territorial waters
    Territorial waters
    Territorial waters, or a territorial sea, as defined by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is a belt of coastal waters extending at most from the baseline of a coastal state...


External links

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