Eupen
Overview
 
Eupen is a municipality
Municipality
A municipality is essentially an urban administrative division having corporate status and usually powers of self-government. It can also be used to mean the governing body of a municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district...

 in the Belgian
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

 province of Liège
Liège (province)
Liège is the easternmost province of Belgium and belongs to the Walloon Region. It is an area of French and German ethnicity. It borders on the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, and in Belgium the provinces of Luxembourg, Namur, Walloon Brabant , and those of Flemish Brabant and Limburg . Its...

, 15 km (9.32 mi) from the German
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 border (Aachen
Aachen
Aachen has historically been a spa town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Aachen was a favoured residence of Charlemagne, and the place of coronation of the Kings of Germany. Geographically, Aachen is the westernmost town of Germany, located along its borders with Belgium and the Netherlands, ...

), from the Dutch
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

 border (Maastricht
Maastricht
Maastricht is situated on both sides of the Meuse river in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands, on the Belgian border and near the German border...

) and from the "High Fens
High Fens
The High Fens , which were declared a nature reserve in 1957, are an upland area, a plateau region in the province of Liège, in the east of Belgium and nearby parts of Germany, lying between the Ardennes and the Eifel highlands. It is the largest nature reserve or park in Belgium, with an area of ;...

" nature reserve (Ardennes
Ardennes
The Ardennes is a region of extensive forests, rolling hills and ridges formed within the Givetian Ardennes mountain range, primarily in Belgium and Luxembourg, but stretching into France , and geologically into the Eifel...

). The town is also the capital of the Euroregion
Euroregion
In European politics, the term Euroregion usually refers to a transnational co-operation structure between two contiguous territories located in different European countries. Euroregions represent a specific type of cross-border region.-Scope:...

 Meuse-Rhine
Meuse-Rhine Euroregion
The Meuse-Rhine Euregion is a Euroregion created in 1976, with judicial status achieved in 1991. It comprises 11.000 km² and has around 3.9 million inhabitants around the city-corridor of Aachen-Maastricht-Hasselt-Liège...

.

After the end of the First World War, the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The other Central Powers on the German side of...

 transferred Eupen and the neighbouring municipality of Malmedy from Germany to Belgium.

On 1 January 2006 Eupen had a total population of 18,248 (8,892 males and 9,356 females).
Encyclopedia
Eupen is a municipality
Municipality
A municipality is essentially an urban administrative division having corporate status and usually powers of self-government. It can also be used to mean the governing body of a municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district...

 in the Belgian
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

 province of Liège
Liège (province)
Liège is the easternmost province of Belgium and belongs to the Walloon Region. It is an area of French and German ethnicity. It borders on the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, and in Belgium the provinces of Luxembourg, Namur, Walloon Brabant , and those of Flemish Brabant and Limburg . Its...

, 15 km (9.32 mi) from the German
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 border (Aachen
Aachen
Aachen has historically been a spa town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Aachen was a favoured residence of Charlemagne, and the place of coronation of the Kings of Germany. Geographically, Aachen is the westernmost town of Germany, located along its borders with Belgium and the Netherlands, ...

), from the Dutch
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

 border (Maastricht
Maastricht
Maastricht is situated on both sides of the Meuse river in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands, on the Belgian border and near the German border...

) and from the "High Fens
High Fens
The High Fens , which were declared a nature reserve in 1957, are an upland area, a plateau region in the province of Liège, in the east of Belgium and nearby parts of Germany, lying between the Ardennes and the Eifel highlands. It is the largest nature reserve or park in Belgium, with an area of ;...

" nature reserve (Ardennes
Ardennes
The Ardennes is a region of extensive forests, rolling hills and ridges formed within the Givetian Ardennes mountain range, primarily in Belgium and Luxembourg, but stretching into France , and geologically into the Eifel...

). The town is also the capital of the Euroregion
Euroregion
In European politics, the term Euroregion usually refers to a transnational co-operation structure between two contiguous territories located in different European countries. Euroregions represent a specific type of cross-border region.-Scope:...

 Meuse-Rhine
Meuse-Rhine Euroregion
The Meuse-Rhine Euregion is a Euroregion created in 1976, with judicial status achieved in 1991. It comprises 11.000 km² and has around 3.9 million inhabitants around the city-corridor of Aachen-Maastricht-Hasselt-Liège...

.

After the end of the First World War, the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The other Central Powers on the German side of...

 transferred Eupen and the neighbouring municipality of Malmedy from Germany to Belgium.

On 1 January 2006 Eupen had a total population of 18,248 (8,892 males and 9,356 females). The total area is 103.74 km² (40.05 sq mi) which gives a population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 of 175.90 inhabitants per km².

Eupen is the seat of the Council of the German speaking community in Belgium and the official language in Eupen is German
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

. There is also a small University College in Eupen, the Autonome Hochschule in der deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft, offering bachelor degrees in Education and Nursing. Eupen has an association football team, K.A.S. Eupen
K.A.S. Eupen
Königliche Allgemeine Sportvereinigung Eupen is a Belgian association football club based in the city of Eupen in the German-speaking Community of Belgium, in the province of Liège. They are a Belgian German-speaking club. They first reached the Belgian Pro League in the 2010–11 season. Eupen...

 promoted to Belgian Pro League after winning promotion-relegation play-offs in 2010.

Eupen is considered in Belgium to be a Roman Catholic region with strongly conservative views.

Historical sketch

  • 1213 First documentary mention of Eupen and the St. Nikolaus Chapel in the Duchy of Limburg
    Duchy of Limburg
    The Duchy of Limburg, situated in the Low Countries between the river Meuse and the city of Aachen, was a state of the Holy Roman Empire. Its territory is now divided between the Belgian provinces of Liège and Limburg , the Dutch province of Limburg , and a small part of North Rhine-Westphalia in...

    .
  • 1288 Following the Battle of Worringen
    Battle of Worringen
    The Battle of Worringen was fought on June 5, 1288, near the town of Worringen , which is now the northernmost borough of Cologne...

     the Duchy of Limburg is annexed by John I. of Brabant
    Duchy of Brabant
    The Duchy of Brabant was a historical region in the Low Countries. Its territory consisted essentially of the three modern-day Belgian provinces of Flemish Brabant, Walloon Brabant and Antwerp, the Brussels-Capital Region and most of the present-day Dutch province of North Brabant.The Flag of...

    .
  • 1387 Brabant and Limburg fall to the house of Burgundy
    Duchy of Burgundy
    The Duchy of Burgundy , was heir to an ancient and prestigious reputation and a large division of the lands of the Second Kingdom of Burgundy and in its own right was one of the geographically larger ducal territories in the emergence of Early Modern Europe from Medieval Europe.Even in that...

    . Eupen is burned to the ground during the war against the Guelders
    Guelders
    Guelders or Gueldres is the name of a historical county, later duchy of the Holy Roman Empire, located in the Low Countries.-Geography:...

    .
  • 1477 Brabant and Limburg (with Eupen) become (Austrian) Habsburg
    Habsburg
    The House of Habsburg , also found as Hapsburg, and also known as House of Austria is one of the most important royal houses of Europe and is best known for being an origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740, as well as rulers of the Austrian Empire and...

     possessions.
  • 1544 Emperor Charles V grants Eupen the privilege to conduct two markets per year.
  • 1555 Brabant and Limburg (with Eupen) become a Spanish-Habsburg possession.
  • 1565 First mention of Protestantism
    Protestantism
    Protestantism is one of the three major groupings within Christianity. It is a movement that began in Germany in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices, especially in regards to salvation, justification, and ecclesiology.The doctrines of the...

     in Eupen.
  • 1582 Eupen is burned down by Dutch troops.
  • 1635 The plague devastates the town's population.
  • 1648 Eupen obtains its own court of law.
  • 1674 Eupen obtains city rights
    City status in Belgium
    City status in Belgium is granted to a select group of municipalities by a royal decree or by an act of law.-History:During the Middle Ages, towns had defined privileges over surrounding villages. As the nobility strengthened their power over regions in feudal Europe, they bestowed on towns the...

    , giving it greater recognition and autonomy.
  • 1680 Introduction of textile manufacture.
  • 1713 With the Treaty of Utrecht
    Treaty of Utrecht
    The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, comprises a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713...

     Brabant and Limburg (with Eupen) revert to the Austrian Habsburgs.
  • 1794 Eupen is annexed by Revolutionary France and becomes part of the Département Ourthe, préfecture Liège
    Liège
    Liège is a major city and municipality of Belgium located in the province of Liège, of which it is the economic capital, in Wallonia, the French-speaking region of Belgium....

    , sous-préfecture Malmedy
    Malmedy
    Malmedy is a municipality of Belgium. It lies in the country's Walloon Region, Province of Liège. It belongs to the French Community of Belgium, within which it is French-speaking with facilities for German-speakers. On January 1, 2006 Malmedy had a total population of 11,829...

    .
  • 1815 Following the Congress of Vienna
    Congress of Vienna
    The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from September, 1814 to June, 1815. The objective of the Congress was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars,...

    , Eupen becomes part of Prussia
    Prussia
    Prussia was a German kingdom and historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organized and effective army. Prussia shaped the history...

    's Rhine Province
    Rhine Province
    The Rhine Province , also known as Rhenish Prussia or synonymous to the Rhineland , was the westernmost province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia, within the German Reich, from 1822-1946. It was created from the provinces of the Lower Rhine and Jülich-Cleves-Berg...

    .
  • 1870 Eupen becomes part of the German Empire and a popular spa.
  • 1919 Treaty of Versailles
    Treaty of Versailles
    The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The other Central Powers on the German side of...

     transfers Eupen to Belgium.
  • 1920s Extreme right Nazi-like groups form in Eupen.
  • 1940 Germany, under the Third Reich, invades Belgium; Eupen annexed to the Third Reich.
  • 1940 Eupen declared to be a city "Free from Jews"; the entire Eupen Jewish population dies in concentration camps.
  • 1944 The US army arrives in Eupen in September. Eupen becomes a centre of fierce fighting in the Battle of the Bulge
    Battle of the Bulge
    The Battle of the Bulge was a major German offensive , launched toward the end of World War II through the densely forested Ardennes mountain region of Wallonia in Belgium, hence its French name , and France and...

    .
  • 1945 Eupen again becomes part of Belgium; first lawsuit against an Eupen Nazi because of crimes against Jews.
  • 1949 The left tower of St Nikolaus church burns down.
  • 1952 Last lawsuit against an Eupen Nazi who returned from a Soviet gulag.
  • 1953 The centre of the municipality is flooded.
  • 1970 The German Cultural Community is formed under the first Belgian state reform.
  • 1973 The historical centre of the city is demolished for parking lots.
  • 1976 Fusion of the municipalities of Eupen and Kettenis (under protest of population of Kettenis).
  • 1980 The German Cultural Community becomes The German-speaking Community with Eupen as its capital.

Museums

  • Municipal Museum, Gospertstrasse
  • IKOB: Museum of Contemporary Art
    IKOB International Art Centre East Belgium
    The International Art Centre , founded in 1993 by the current IKOB director Francis Feidl, is a museum of contemporary art in the German speaking city of Eupen in Belgium .-Exhibitions and collection:...

  • Permanent exhibition of paintings at the Christian Silvain Foundation

Sport

  • The K.A.S. Eupen
    K.A.S. Eupen
    Königliche Allgemeine Sportvereinigung Eupen is a Belgian association football club based in the city of Eupen in the German-speaking Community of Belgium, in the province of Liège. They are a Belgian German-speaking club. They first reached the Belgian Pro League in the 2010–11 season. Eupen...

      reached the Belgian Pro League in the 2010–11 season. It's the first football club of the German-speaking community, which is represented in this league.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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