Egon Freiherr von Eickstedt
Egon Freiherr von Eickstedt (10 April 1892, Jersitz
Poznań is a city on the Warta river in west-central Poland, with a population of 556,022 in June 2009. It is among the oldest cities in Poland, and was one of the most important centres in the early Polish state, whose first rulers were buried at Poznań's cathedral. It is sometimes claimed to be...

, Province of Posen
Province of Posen
The Province of Posen was a province of Prussia from 1848–1918 and as such part of the German Empire from 1871 to 1918. The area was about 29,000 km2....

 – 20 December 1965) was a German
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 physical anthropologist
Physical anthropology
Biological anthropology is that branch of anthropology that studies the physical development of the human species. It plays an important part in paleoanthropology and in forensic anthropology...

 who classified humanity into races
Race (historical definitions)
Historical race concepts have varied across cultures and over time, and have been controversial for social, political and scientific reasons. Until the 19th century, race was thought by many to constitute an immutable and distinct type or species which shared particular racial characteristics, such...


Racial typology

In his book, Rassenkunde und Rassengeschichte der Menschheit (Ethnology and the Race History of Mankind) he agreed somewhat with anthropologist William Z. Ripley
William Z. Ripley
William Zebina Ripley was an American economist, lecturer at Columbia University, professor of economics at MIT, professor of political economics at Harvard University, and racial theorist...

, author of The Races of Europe
The Races of Europe
The Races of Europe is the title of two anthropological publications*The Races of Europe by William Z. Ripley*The Races of Europe by Carleton S. Coon...

(1899), but claimed Europeans had four basic "racial types": "Nordics" who lived in Northern Europe, "Osteuropid
East Baltic race
The East Baltic race is one of the subcategories of the Europid race into which it was divided by anthropologists in the early 20th century....

s" who lived in eastern and central Europe, "Alpines
Alpine race
The Alpine race is an historical racial classification or sub-race of humans, considered a branch of the Caucasian race. The term is not commonly used today, but was popular in the early 20th century.-History:...

" who lived in the mountainous belt that stretched from western to eastern Europe, and "Mediterraneans
Mediterranean race
The Mediterranean race was one of the three sub-categories into which the Caucasian race and the people of Europe were divided by anthropologists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, following the publication of William Z. Ripley's book The Races of Europe...

" who stretched from Southern Europe, North Africa, the Middle East and the Indian Subcontinent.

Unlike Ripley, he divided these major European races into "subraces". According to Eickstedt's racial typology, Nordics were divided into the "Teuto-Nordic subrace" in the west, the "Dalo-Nordic" in the center and the "Fenno-Nordic" in the east. Eickstedt regarded the "Teuto-Nordic" as the "purest Nordic racial type," while he claimed that the "Dalo-Nordic" were mixed with Cro-Magnons. Furthermore, he divided the so-called "Alpine race" into four other subgroups: those in western Europe, the "Dinarics
Dinaric race
The Dinaric race is one of the sub-categories of the Europid race into which it was divided by physical anthropologists in the early 20th century...

" in eastern Europe, "Armenoids" in Southwest Asia and "Turanids" in Central Asia. Finally, he purported that the "Mediterranean race" was composed of the "Mediterranean subrace" in the Northern Africa, the "Orientalid subrace" in the Middle East and the "Indid subrace" in the Indian Subcontinent.

Eickstedt believed some of the European subraces were progressive and others were primitive. He believed the "primitive Alpine subrace" had ceased evolving, but the progressive "Dinaric subrace" would keep evolving.

Eickstedt believed the "races of Europe" originated south of Europe in the Mesolithic
The Mesolithic is an archaeological concept used to refer to certain groups of archaeological cultures defined as falling between the Paleolithic and the Neolithic....

 Era. He claimed that the "Mediterranean race" arrived in Europe during Mesolithic times, while the "Alpine race" would have arrived from eastern Europe across Switzerland shortly after the Mediterranean race, but still in Mesolithic times. Later, the "Nordic race" would allegedly have entered Scandinavia from the east. Von Eickstedt finally claimed that the "Osteuropids
East Baltic race
The East Baltic race is one of the subcategories of the Europid race into which it was divided by anthropologists in the early 20th century....

" entered eastern and central Europe in modern times.

Egon von Eickstedt, Historia Mundi Volume 1, "Frühe Menschheit" (Early humanity); an attempt of classifying the species Homo sapiens dividing it into racial circles (subspecies), racial groups (series), races (varieties) and subraces (subvarieties), in binary and common nomenclature.

Family: Hominidae

Genus: Homo

Species: Homo sapiens Modern human

Subspecies I: Homines sapientes albi Europids

Series A:
Homines s. albi xanthochroici Blond race belt

Variety 1:
Homo sapiens europaeus Nordid

a) H. s. eu. nordicus Teuto-Nordid
b) H. s. eu. dalofaelicus Dalo-Phalid
c) H. s. eu. finnus Fenno-Nordid

Variety 2:
H. s. slavonicus (intermedius) Easteuropid (Baltid)

Series B:
Homines s. albi melanochroici Brown race belt

Variety 1:
Homo s. pelagius (meridionalis) Mediterranid
a) H. s. p. mediterraneus Gracil-Mediterranid
b) H. s. p. eurafricanus Eurafricanid
c) H. s. p. atlanticus Berberid

Variety 2:
Homo s. arabicus Orientalid

Variety 3:
Homo s. indicus Indid
a) H. s. i. indogracilis Gracil-Indid
b) H. s. i. indoafghanus North-Indid
c) H. s. i. indobrachimorphus Indo-Brachid

Variety 4:
Homo s. occidentalis Polynesid
a) H. s. o. polinesianus Polynesid
b) H. s. o. carolinensis Micronesid

Series C:
Homines s. albi brachimorphi Mountain race belt

Variety 1: H. s. alpinus Alpinid
a) H. s. a. cevenolicus West-Alpinid
b) H. s. a. lappo Lappid

Variety 2: H. s. dinaricus Dinarid

Variety 3: H. s. syriacus Armenid

Variety 4: H. s. eurasicus Turanid
a) H. s. eur. turanicus Aralid
b) H. s. eur. pamiriensis Pamirid

Series D: Homines s. albi protomorphi Old-Europids

Variety 1:
H. s. veddalis Veddid
a) H. s. v. ceylonensis West-Veddid
b) H. s. v. gondicus Gondid
c) H. s. v. malicus Malid
d) H. s. v. toala Toalid
e) H. s. v. siamesis East-Veddid

Variety 2:
H. s. curilanus Ainuid

Subspecies II: Homines sapientes leiotrichi
part a: H. s. asiaticus Mongolid

Series A:
Homines s. asiatici arctici Polar belt

Variety 1:
H. s. hyperboreus Sibirid
a) H. s. h. ugrianus West-Sibirid
b) H. s. h. palaeasiaticus East-Sibirid

Variety 2:
H. s. groenlandus Eskimid

Series B:
Homines s. a. badii North-Mongolids

Variety 1:
H. s. tatarus Tungid

Variety 2:
H. s. sinicus Sinid
a) H. s. s. borealis North-Sinid
b) H. s. s. medius Middle-Sinid
c) H. s. s. meridianus South-Sinid

Series C:
H. s. asiatici meridionalis South-Mongolids

Variety 3:
H. s. palaemongolicus Paleo-Mongolid
a) Homo s. p. palaunicus Palaungid
b) H. s. p. shanicus Shanid
c) H. s. p. protomalayus Protomalayid
d) H. s. p. deuteromalayus Deuteromalayid

Series D:
H. s. subnigri Khoisanids

Variety 1:
H. s. hottentotus Khoisanid
a) H. s. h. austroafricanus Khoid
b) H. s. h. huzuana Sanid

Subspecies II: Homines sapientes leiotrichi
part b: H. s. americani Indianids

Series E:
H. s. americani cuprei North-Indianids

Variety 1:
H. s. pacificus Pacifid

Variety 2:
H. s. centralis Centralid

Variety 3:
H. s. colombicus Silvid
a) H. s. c. planidus Planid
b) H. s. c. apalacidus Appalachid

Variety 4:
H. s. marginalis Margid

Series F:
H. s. americani mesembrini South-Indianids

Variety 1:
H. s. andinus Andid

Variety 2:
H. s. patagonus Patagonid

Variety 3:
H. s. brasilianus Brazilid

Variety 4:
H. s. lagoanus Lagid

Variety 5:
H. s. lagol-maritimus Fuegid
a) H. s. l. fuegidus South-Fuegid
b) H. s. l. huarpidus Huarpid

Subspecies III: H. sapientes afri Negrids

Series A: H. s. europoafri Contact belt

Variety 1:
H. s. africanus Ethiopid
a) H. s. a. nuba North-Ethiopid
b) H. s. a. abessomalis East-Ethiopid
c) H. s. a. massaicus South-Ethiopid
d) H. s. a. saharicus Central-Ethiopid
e) H. s. a. maurusianus West-Ethiopid

Variety 2:
H. s. indomelanicus Indomelanid
a) H. s. i. karnaticus South-Melanid
b) H. s. i. kolidus North-Melanid

Series B: H. s. cafro-madegassi West-Negrids

Variety 1:
H. s. niger Sudanid

Variety 2:
H. s. niloticus Nilotid

Variety 3:
H. s. cafer Cafrid

Variety 4:
H. s. palaeniger Paleo-Negrid

Series C: H. s. alfuri East-Negrids

Variety 1:
H. s. papuensis Neo-Melanesid

Variety 2:
H. s. melaninus Paleo-Melanesid

Variety 3:
H. s. australasicus Australid

Series D: H. s. pygmaei Pygmid

Variety 1:
H. s. akkalis Bambutid

Variety 2:
H. s. negrito Negritid
a) H. s. n. philippinensis Aetid
b) H. s. n. semang Semangid
c) H. s. n. mineopaeus Andamanid

See also

  • Historical definitions of race
  • Typology (anthropology)
  • Unilineal evolution
    Unilineal evolution
    Unilineal evolution is a 19th century social theory about the evolution of societies and cultures. It was composed of many competing theories by various sociologists and anthropologists, who believed that Western culture is the contemporary pinnacle of social evolution...

     and decadence
    Decadence can refer to a personal trait, or to the state of a society . Used to describe a person's lifestyle. Concise Oxford Dictionary: "a luxurious self-indulgence"...

External links

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