Education in the Philippines
Overview
 
During the period of governance of Spain and the United States, education in the Philippines changed radically, mostly modeled on the system of education in the United States
Education in the United States
Education in the United States is mainly provided by the public sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: federal, state, and local. Child education is compulsory.Public education is universally available...

 of the time. After gaining independence in 1946, the system were no longer automatically applied in the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

, which has since moved in various directions of its own.

Filipino children may enter preschool at the ages of three to four, starting from nursery
Nursery school
A nursery school is a school for children between the ages of one and five years, staffed by suitably qualified and other professionals who encourage and supervise educational play rather than simply providing childcare...

, and kindergarten
Kindergarten
A kindergarten is a preschool educational institution for children. The term was created by Friedrich Fröbel for the play and activity institute that he created in 1837 in Bad Blankenburg as a social experience for children for their transition from home to school...

.
Encyclopedia
During the period of governance of Spain and the United States, education in the Philippines changed radically, mostly modeled on the system of education in the United States
Education in the United States
Education in the United States is mainly provided by the public sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: federal, state, and local. Child education is compulsory.Public education is universally available...

 of the time. After gaining independence in 1946, the system were no longer automatically applied in the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

, which has since moved in various directions of its own.

Filipino children may enter preschool at the ages of three to four, starting from nursery
Nursery school
A nursery school is a school for children between the ages of one and five years, staffed by suitably qualified and other professionals who encourage and supervise educational play rather than simply providing childcare...

, and kindergarten
Kindergarten
A kindergarten is a preschool educational institution for children. The term was created by Friedrich Fröbel for the play and activity institute that he created in 1837 in Bad Blankenburg as a social experience for children for their transition from home to school...

. At the ages of six to seven, children enter elementary school
Elementary school
An elementary school or primary school is an institution where children receive the first stage of compulsory education known as elementary or primary education. Elementary school is the preferred term in some countries, particularly those in North America, where the terms grade school and grammar...

 for six or seven (on selected schools) years. This is followed by the high school
High school
High school is a term used in parts of the English speaking world to describe institutions which provide all or part of secondary education. The term is often incorporated into the name of such institutions....

, for four years. Students may then sit for the College Entrance Examinations (CEE), after which they may enter tertiary schools for two to five years.

Ancient times

In pre-Spanish times, education was informal unstructured in some areas. Children were provided more vocational training but less academics by their parents and in the houses of their tribal tutors. They were using a unique system of writing known as the baybayin
Baybayin
Baybayin , is a pre-Spanish Philippine writing system. It is a member of the Brahmic family and is recorded as being in use in the 16th century...

. When the Spanish arrived in Manila, they were surprised to find a population with a literacy rate higher than the literacy rate of Madrid
Madrid
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

.

Spanish period

Under the Spanish colonizers, education of indigenous population was initially left to religious orders, with primary education being overseen by parish friars who generally tolerated the teaching of only religious topics. The friars, recognizing the value of a literate indigenous population, built printing presses to produce material in baybayin. The friars, made tremendous efforts to educate the native population by them learning the local languages and the baybayin script to better communicate with the locals. The Spanish missionaries established schools immediately after reaching the islands and wherever they penetrated, church and school went together. There was no Christian village without its school and all young people attended.

The Augustinians
Augustinians
The term Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo , applies to two separate and unrelated types of Catholic religious orders:...

 opened a school in Cebú
Cebu City
The City of Cebu is the capital city of Cebu and is the second largest city in the Philippines, the second most significant metropolitan centre in the Philippines and known as the oldest settlement established by the Spaniards in the country.The city is located on the eastern shore of Cebu and was...

 in 1565. The Franciscans in 1577 immediately took to the task of teaching the natives how to read and write, besides industrial and agricultural techniques. The Jesuits in 1581 also mainly concentrated on teaching the young. They were followed by the Dominicans in 1587, who started a school in their first mission at Bataan
Bataan
Bataan is a province of the Philippines occupying the whole of the Bataan Peninsula on Luzon. The province is part of the Central Luzon region. The capital of Bataan is Balanga City and it is bordered by the provinces of Zambales and Pampanga to the north...

.

In 1590, the Universidad de San Ignacio was founded in Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

 by the Jesuits, and after the suppression of the Jesuits was incorporated into the University of Santo Tomás
University of Santo Tomas
The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, The Catholic University of the Philippines , is a private Roman Catholic university run by the Order of Preachers in Manila. Founded on April 28, 1611 by archbishop of Manila Miguel de Benavides, it has the oldest extant university charter in the...

 as the College of Medicine and Pharmacy.

The Chinese language version of the Doctrina Christiana (Christian Doctrine) was the first book printed in the Philippines
First book of the Spanish Philippines
In territories under the control of the Spanish Crown, books could not be printed except by royal licence. In 1556 a royal cedula prohibited the printing or sale of books concerning the Indies without a special licence...

 in about 1590 to 1592. A version in Spanish, and in Tagalog
Tagalog language
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a third of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by most of the rest. It is the first language of the Philippine region IV and of Metro Manila...

, in both Latin script and the commonly used baybayin script of the Manila Tagalogs of the time was printed in 1593.

In 1610 Tomas Pinpin
Tomas Pinpin
Tomas Pinpin was a printer, writer and publisher from Abucay, a municipality in the province of Bataan, Philippines, who was the first Filipino printer and is sometimes referred as the "Patriarch of Filipino Printing."...

 a Filipino printer, writer and publisher, who is sometimes referred as the "Patriarch of Filipino Printing", wrote his famous Librong Pagaaralan nang mga Tagalog nang Wicang Castila, that was meant to help Filipinos learn the Spanish language. The prologue read:
In 1640, the Universidad de San Felipe de Austria was established in Manila. It was the first public university in the Philippines. The University of San Ildefonso was founded in Cebú
Cebu City
The City of Cebu is the capital city of Cebu and is the second largest city in the Philippines, the second most significant metropolitan centre in the Philippines and known as the oldest settlement established by the Spaniards in the country.The city is located on the eastern shore of Cebu and was...

 by the Society of Jesus in August 1, 1595 but was closed down after the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1769. On April 28, 1611, the University of Santo Tomás was founded in Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

 as the Colegio de Nuestra Señora del Santísimo Rosario.

By the end of the 16th century, several religious orders had established charity hospitals all over the archipelago and provided the bulk of this public service. These hospitals also became the setting for rudimentary scientific research work on pharmacy and medicine.

The Jesuits also founded the Colegio de San José in 1601 and took over the management in what became Escuela Municipal
Ateneo de Manila University
The Ateneo de Manila University is a private teaching and research university run by the Society of Jesus in the Philippines. It began in 1859 when the City of Manila handed control of the Escuela Municipal de Manila in Intramuros, Manila, to the Jesuits...

 (1859, later renamed Ateneo Municipal de Manila in 1865). The Dominicans on their part had the Colegio de San Juan de Letrán
Colegio de San Juan de Letran
The Colegio de San Juan de Letran, Letran College, or simply Letran is a private Roman Catholic institution of learning located in Intramuros, Manila, in the Philippines. The college was founded in 1620. Colegio de San Juan de Letran has the distinction of being the oldest college in the...

 in 1620 in Manila.

Access to education by all Filipinos was later implemented through the enactment of the Educational Decree of 1863 which provided for the establishment of at least one primary school for boys and girls in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government; and the establishment of a normal school for male teachers under the supervision of the Jesuits. Primary education was free and available to every Filipino regardless of race or social class. Contrary to what the propaganda of the Spanish–American War tried to depict, they were not religious schools, but schools established, supported and maintained by the Spanish Government. and free and the teaching of Spanish was compulsory. In 1866, the total population of the Philippines was only 4,411,261. The total public schools was 841 for boys and 833 for girls and the total number of children attending these schools was 135,098 for boys and 95,260 for girls. In 1892, the number of schools had increased to 2,137, 1,087 of which were for boys and 1,050 for girls. By 1898, enrollment in schools at all levels exceeded 200,000 students.

As a result of the implementation of public education, a new social class of educated Filipinos arose, that came to be known as the ilustrados. This new enlightened class of Filipinos would later lead the Philippine independence movement, using the Spanish language as their main communication method. Among the ilustrados who had also studied in Spain were José Rizal
José Rizal
José Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda , was a Filipino polymath, patriot and the most prominent advocate for reform in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial era. He is regarded as the foremost Filipino patriot and is listed as one of the national heroes of the Philippines by...

, Graciano López Jaena
Graciano López Jaena
Graciano López Jaena was a Filipino journalist, orator, and revolutionary from Iloilo, well known for his written work, La Solidaridad....

, Marcelo H. del Pilar
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Marcelo Hilario del Pilar y Gatmaitán , better known by his nom-de-plume Plaridel, was a celebrated figure in the Philippine Revolution and a leading propagandist for reforms in the Philippines A master polemicist in both the Tagalog and Spanish languages, he helped the Propaganda Movement through...

, Mariano Ponce
Mariano Ponce
Mariano Ponce , was a Filipino physician, writer, and active member of the Propaganda Movement. In Spain, he was among the founders of La Solidaridad and Asociacion Hispano-Filipino...

 or Antonio Luna
Antonio Luna
Antonio Luna y Novicio was a Filipino pharmacist and general who fought in the Philippine-American War. He was also the founder of the Philippines's first military academy.- Family background :...

, who were to lead later the cause of Filipino self-government and independence.

First Republic

The defeat of Spain by American forces paved the way for a new government. The schools maintained by Spain for more than three centuries were closed for a short period but were reopened on August 29, 1898 by the Secretary of Interior. The Burgos Institute in Malolos, the Military Academy of Malolos, and the Literary University of the Philippines were established. Article 23 of the Malolos Constitution
Malolos Constitution
The Malolos Constitution was enacted on January 20, 1899 by the Philippine Malolos Congress, and established the First Philippine Republic. The original was written in Spanish, which became the first official language of the Philippines....

 mandated that public education would be free and obligatory in all schools of the nation under the First Philippine Republic
First Philippine Republic
The Philippine Republic , more commonly known as the First Philippine Republic or the Malolos Republic was a short-lived insurgent revolutionary government in the Philippines...

. However, the Philippine–American War the interfered with action to realize that mandate.

American period

An adequate secularized and free public school system was established during the first decade of American rule upon the recommendation of the Schurman Commission
Schurman Commission
The Schurman Commission also known as the First Philippine Commission was the legislature of the Philippines, then known as the Philippine Islands under the sovereign control of the United States during the Philippine-American War...

. Free primary instruction that trained the people for the duties of citizenship and avocation was enforced by the Taft Commission
Taft Commission
The Taft Commission, also known as Second Philippine Commission was established by United States President William McKinley on March 16, 1900. The Commission was the legislature of the Philippines, then known as the Philippine Islands under the sovereign control of the United States during the...

 per instructions of President William McKinley
William McKinley
William McKinley, Jr. was the 25th President of the United States . He is best known for winning fiercely fought elections, while supporting the gold standard and high tariffs; he succeeded in forging a Republican coalition that for the most part dominated national politics until the 1930s...

. Chaplains and non-commissioned officers were assigned to teach using English as the medium of instruction.

A highly centralized public school system was installed in 1901 by the Philippine Commission
Philippine Commission
The Philippine Commission was a body appointed by the President of the United States to exercise legislative and limited executive powers in the Philippines. It was first appointed by President William McKinley in 1901. Beginning in 1907, it acted as the upper house of a bicameral Philippine...

 by virtue of Act No. 74. The implementation of this Act created a heavy shortage of teachers so the Philippine Commission authorized the Secretary of Public Instruction to bring to the Philippines more than 1,000 teachers from the United States called the Thomasites
Thomasites
The Thomasites is a group of about five hundred pioneer American teachers sent by the U.S. government to the Philippines in August 1901.-Foundation, purpose and etymology:...

between 1901 to 1902. These teachers were scattered throughout the islands to establish barangay schools. The same law established the Philippine Normal School (now the Philippine Normal University
Philippine Normal University
The Philippine Normal University is a public national university in the Philippines established during the early days of American rule of the Philippine Islands. Pursuant to a law passed by the Philippine Congress, Republic Act No...

) to train Filipino teachers for the public schools.

The high school system supported by provincial governments, special educational institutions, school of arts and trades, an agricultural school, and commerce and marine institutes were established in 1902 by the Philippine Commission. In 1908, the Philippine Legislature approved Act No. 1870 which created the University of the Philippines
University of the Philippines
The ' is the national university of the Philippines. Founded in 1908 through Act No...

. The Reorganization Act of 1916 provided the Filipinization of all department secretaries except the Secretary of Public Instruction.

The emergence of high school education in the Philippines islands, however, did not happen until 1910, caused by the rise in big businesses and technological advances in factories and the emergence of electrification that required skilled workers. In order to meet this new job demand, high schools were created and the curriculum focused on practical job skills that would better prepare students for white collar or skilled blue collar work. This proved to be beneficial for both the employer and the employee, because this improvement in human capital caused employees to become more efficient, which lowered costs for the employer, and skilled employees received a higher wage than employees with just primary educational attainment.

Two decades later, enrollment in elementary schools was about 1 million from a total of about 150,000 in 1901, and about 100,000 in high school from a total of less than 20,000 in 1901.

After World War II

In 1947, by the virtue of Executive Order No. 94, the Department of Instruction was changed to "Department of Education." During this period, the regulation and supervision of public and private schools belonged to the Bureau of Public and Private Schools.

Marcos era

In 1972, the Department of Education became the Department of Education and Culture by Proclamation 1081.

Following a referendum of all barangays in the Philippines from January 10–15, 1973, on January 17, 1973 President Marcos ratified the 1973 Constitution by Proclamation 1102. The 1973 Constitution set out the three fundamental aims of education in the Philippines, to:
  • foster love of country;
  • teach the duties of citizenship; and
  • develop moral character, self discipline, and scientific, technological and vocational efficiency.


On September 24, 1972, by PD No 1, the Department of Education, Culture and Sports was decentralized with decision-making shared among thirteen regional offices.

In 1978, by the Presidential Decree No. 1397, the Department of Education and Culture became the Ministry of Education and Culture.

The Education Act of 1982 provided for an integrated system of education covering both formal and nonformal education at all levels. Section 29 of the Act sought to upgrade education institutions' standards to achieve quality education, through voluntary accreditation for schools, colleges, and universities. Sections 16 & 17 upgraded the obligations and qualifications required for teachers and administrators. Section 41 provided for government financial assistance to private schools. The Act also created the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports.

Fifth Republic

On February 2, 1987, a new Constitution for the Philippines was ratified. Section 3, Article XIV of the 1987 Constitution contains the ten fundamental aims of education in the Philippines.

In 1987 by virtue of Executive Order No. 117, the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports, became the Department of Education, Culture and Sports . The structure of DECS as embodied in EO No. 117 remained practically unchanged until 1994.

On May 26, 1988 Congress enacted Republic Act 6655, the Free Public Secondary Education Act of 1988, which mandated free public secondary education commencing in the school year 1988–1989. On May 26, 1988 Congress enacted RA 6655 which made free public secondary education to become a reality.

On February 3, 1992, Congress enacted Republic Act 7323, which provided that students aged 15 to 25 may be employed during summer or Christmas vacation with a salary not lower than the minimum wage. 60% of the wage is to be paid by the employer and 40% by the government.

The Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) report of 1991 recommended the division of DECS into three parts. On May 18, 1994, Congress passed Republic Act 7722, the Higher Education Act of 1994, creating the Commission on Higher Education
Commission on Higher Education (Philippines)
The Commission on Higher Education of the Philippines, , abbreviated as CHED. The CHED is attached to the Office of the President for administrative purposes...

 (CHED), which assumed the functions of the Bureau of Higher Education, and supervises tertiary degree programs. On August 25, 1994, Congress passed Republic Act 7796, the Technical Education and Skills Development Act of 1994, creating the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority
Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (Philippines)
The Philippines' Technical Education and Skills Development Authority , abbreviated as TESDA, is an agency of the Philippine government under the Department of Labor and Employment responsible for managing and supervising technical education and skills development in the Philippines.-History:The...

 (TESDA), which absorbed the Bureau of Technical-Vocational Education plus the National Manpower and Youth Council, and supervises non-degree technical-vocational programs. DECS retained responsibility for all elementary and secondary education. This threefold division became known as the trifocal system of education in the Philippines.

The trifocal education system of the Philippines

In August 2001, Republic Act 9155, otherwise called the Governance of Basic Education Act, was passed transforming the name of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) to the Department of Education (DepEd) and redefining the role of field offices (regional offices, division offices, district offices and schools). RA 9155 provides the overall framework for (i) school head empowerment by strengthening their leadership roles and (ii) school-based management within the context of transparency and local accountability. The goal of basic education is to provide the school age population and young adults with skills, knowledge, and values to become caring, self-reliant, productive and patriotic citizens.

In January 2009, DepEd signed a memorandum of agreement with the United States Agency for International Development
United States Agency for International Development
The United States Agency for International Development is the United States federal government agency primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid. President John F. Kennedy created USAID in 1961 by executive order to implement development assistance programs in the areas...

 to seal $86 million assistance to Philippine education, particularly the access to quality education in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao
Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao
The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao is the region, located in the Mindanao island group of the Philippines, that is composed of predominantly Muslim provinces, namely: Basilan , Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi. It is the only region that has its own government...

 (ARMM), and the Western and Central Mindanao regions.

In 2005, the Philippines spent about US$138 per pupil compared to US$1,582 in Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

, US$3,728 in Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

, and US$852 in Thailand
Thailand
Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

.

School grades

There are three stages of compulsory education in the Philippines. These are:
  • Preschool and elementary
    Elementary school
    An elementary school or primary school is an institution where children receive the first stage of compulsory education known as elementary or primary education. Elementary school is the preferred term in some countries, particularly those in North America, where the terms grade school and grammar...

     — consists of 7 years of education.
  • Junior high school — consists of 4 years of education.
  • Senior high school — consists of additional 2 years of education.

Level or grade Typical age Notes
Preschool
Kindergarten
Kindergarten
A kindergarten is a preschool educational institution for children. The term was created by Friedrich Fröbel for the play and activity institute that he created in 1837 in Bad Blankenburg as a social experience for children for their transition from home to school...

 
Up to 6 The first level of compulsary education in the Philippines.
Elementary school
Grade 1
First grade
First grade is a year of primary education in schools in the United States and English-speaking provinces of Canada. It is the first school year after kindergarten...

 
6–7
Grade 2
Second grade
In the United States, second grade is a year of primary education. Second grade is the second school year after kindergarten. Students are traditionally 7–8 years old, depending on when their birthday occurs....

 
7–8
Grade 3
Third grade
In the United States, third grade is a year of primary education. It is the third school year after kindergarten. Students are usually 8 – 9 years old, depending on when their birthday occurs....

 
8–9
Grade 4
Fourth grade
Fourth grade is a year of education in the United States and many other nations. The fourth grade is the fourth school year after kindergarten. Students are usually 9 or 10 years old, depending on their birthday. It is a part of elementary school. In some parts of the United States, fourth grade...

 
9–10
Grade 5
Fifth grade
Fifth grade is a year of education in the United States and many other nations. The fifth grade is the fifth school year after kindergarten. Students are usually 10 – 11 years old, and are preteens...

 
10–11
Grade 6
Sixth grade
Sixth grade is a year of education in the United States and some other nations. The sixth grade is the sixth school year after kindergarten. Students are usually 11 – 12 years old...

 
11–12
Junior high school
1st Year
Seventh grade
Seventh grade is a year of education in the United States and many other nations. The seventh grade is the seventh school year after kindergarten. Students are usually 12–13 years old. Traditionally, seventh grade was the next-to-last year of elementary school...

 or Freshman
12–13 Grade 7 in some schools.
2nd Year
Eighth grade
Eighth grade is a year of education in the United States, Canada, Australia and other nations. Students are usually 13 - 14 years old. The eighth grade is typically the final grade before high school, and the ninth grade of public and private education, following kindergarten and subsequent grades...

 or Sophomore
13–14 Grade 8 in some schools.
3rd Year
Ninth grade
Ninth grade is the ninth post-kindergarten year of school education in some school systems. The students are 13 to 15 years of age, depending on when their birthday occurs. Depending on the school district, ninth grade is usually the first year of high school....

 or Junior
14–15 Grade 9 in some schools.
4th Year
Tenth grade
In majority of the world,Tenth grade is the tenth year of school post-kindergarten. The variants of "10th grade" in various nations is described below.-Australia:...

 or Senior
15–16 Grade 10 in some schools.
Senior high school
1st Year
Eleventh grade
Eleventh Grade is the eleventh, and for some countries final, grade of secondary schools. Students are typically 16 or 17 years of age, depending on the country and the students' birthdays.-Brazil:...

 
16–17 Grade 11 in some schools.
2nd Year
Twelfth grade
Twelfth grade or Senior year, or Grade Twelve, are the North American names for the final year of secondary school. In most countries students then graduate at age 17 or 18. In some countries, there is a thirteenth grade, while other countries do not have a 12th grade/year at all...

 
17–18 Grade 12 in some schools.
Post-high school education
Tertiary education
Tertiary education
Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage, third level, and post-secondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high school, secondary school, university-preparatory school...

 
Ages vary Usually four years, referred to as Freshman, Sophomore, Junior and Senior.
Vocational education
Vocational education
Vocational education or vocational education and training is an education that prepares trainees for jobs that are based on manual or practical activities, traditionally non-academic, and totally related to a specific trade, occupation, or vocation...

 
Ages vary
Graduate education
Adult education
Adult education
Adult education is the practice of teaching and educating adults. Adult education takes place in the workplace, through 'extension' school or 'school of continuing education' . Other learning places include folk high schools, community colleges, and lifelong learning centers...


Primary school

Primary school in the Philippines, more commonly known as "elementary school" or "gradeschool" (Filipino
Filipino language
This move has drawn much criticism from other regional groups.In 1987, a new constitution introduced many provisions for the language.Article XIV, Section 6, omits any mention of Tagalog as the basis for Filipino, and states that:...

: paaralang elementarya, sometimes mababang paaralan) consists of six levels, with some schools adding an additional level (level 7). The levels are grouped into two primary subdivisions: primary-level, which includes the first three levels, and intermediate-level, which includes the last three or four levels.

Primary education in the Philippines covers a wide curriculum. The core subjects (major subjects) include Mathematics, Sciences, the English and Filipino languages, and Makabayan (Social Studies, Livelihood Education, Values). Other subjects include Music, Arts, and Physical Education. Starting at the third level, Science becomes an integral part of the core subjects. On December 2007, Philippine president Gloria Macapagal Arroyo announced that Spanish is to make a return as a mandatory subject in all Filipino schools starting in 2008. That announcement has not yet come into effect. In private schools, subjects include Mathematics, English, Science, Social Studies, Basic Computer, Filipino, Music, Arts and Technology, Home Economics, Health, Physical Education, and in Catholic schools, Religion or Christian Living. International schools and Chinese schools have additional subjects, especially in their language and culture.

DECS Bilingual Policy is for the medium of instruction to be Filipino for: Filipino, Araling Panlipunan, Edukasyong Pangkatawan, Kalusugan at Musika; and English for: English, Science and Technology, Home Economics and Livelihood Education. Article XIV, Section 7 of the 1987 Philippine constitution mandates that regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein. As a result, the language actually used in teaching is often a polyglot of Filipino and English with the regional language as the foundation, or rarely the local language. Filipino is based on Tagalog, so in Tagalog areas (including Manila), Filipino is the foundational language used. Philippine regional languages
Philippine languages
The Philippine languages are a 1991 proposal by Robert Blust that all the languages of the Philippines and northern Sulawesi—except Sama–Bajaw and a few languages of Palawan—form a subfamily of Austronesian languages...

 are also used outside Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

 in the teaching of Makabayan. International English language schools use English as the foundational language. Chinese schools add two language subjects, such as Min Nan Chinese
Lan-nang
Lan-nang is the Philippine variant of Hokkien. It is a subdialect of the Amoy dialect of Xiamen, Fujian, China. Lan-nang is spoken among the Chinese and Filipino residents of the Philippines. It is characterized by loanwords from Tagalog, Spanish, and Cantonese, as well as its emphasis on...

 and Mandarin Chinese and may use English or Chinese as the foundational language. The constitution mandates that Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis. Following on this, a few private schools mainly catering to the elite include Spanish in their curriculum. Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

 is taught in Islamic schools. Primary-level students generally graduate with a knowledge of two or three languages, although most primary school graduates in Manila cannot speak English.

Until 2004, primary students traditionally sat for the National Elementary Achievement Test (NEAT) administered by the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS). It was intended as a measure of a school's competence, and not as a predictor of student aptitude or success in Secondary school. Hence, the scores obtained by students in the NEAT were not used as a basis for their admission into Secondary school. During 2004, when DECS was officially converted into the Department of Education (DepEd), and also, as a result of some reorganization, the NEAT was changed to National Achievement Test (NAT) by the Department of Education (DepEd). Both the public and private elementary schools take this exam to measure a school's competency. As of 2006, only private schools have entrance examinations for Secondary school.

The DepEd expects over 13.1 million elementary students to be enrolled in public elementary schools for school year 2009–2010.

Though elementary schooling is compulsory, latest official figures show 27.82% of Filipino elementary-aged children either never attend or never complete elementary schooling, usually due to the absence of any school in their area, education being offered in a language that is foreign to them, or financial distress. In July 2009 DepEd acted to overcome the foreign language problem by ordering all elementary schools to move towards mother-tongue based learning initially. The order allows two alternative three-year bridging plans. Depending on the bridging plan adopted, the Filipino
Filipino language
This move has drawn much criticism from other regional groups.In 1987, a new constitution introduced many provisions for the language.Article XIV, Section 6, omits any mention of Tagalog as the basis for Filipino, and states that:...

 and English languages are to be phased in as the language of instruction for other subjects beginning in the third and fourth grades.

Secondary education

Secondary school in the Philippines, more commonly known as "high school" (Filipino
Filipino language
This move has drawn much criticism from other regional groups.In 1987, a new constitution introduced many provisions for the language.Article XIV, Section 6, omits any mention of Tagalog as the basis for Filipino, and states that:...

: paaralang sekundarya, sometimes mataas na paaralan), consists of four levels largely based on the American schooling system as it was until the advent of the comprehensive high school
Comprehensive high school
Comprehensive high schools are the most common form of public high schools in the United States and are meant to serve the needs of all students, as compared to the common practice in other nations in which examinations are used to sort students into different high schools for different populations...

s in the US in the middle of last century. The Philippine high school system has not moved much from where it was when the Philippines achieved independence from the US in 1946. It still consists of only four levels with each level partially compartmentalized, focusing on a particular theme or content.

DepEd
Department of Education (Philippines)
The Department of Education , is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for the management and governing of the Philippine system of basic education. It is the chief formulator of Philippine educational policy and is responsible for the Philippine primary and secondary...

 specifies a compulsory curriculum for all high schooling, public and private. The first year of high school has five core subjects, Algebra I, Integrated Science, English I, Filipino I, and Philippine History I. Second year has Algebra II, Biology, English II, Filipino II, and Asian History. Third year has Geometry, Trigonometry, Chemistry, Filipino III, and World History and Geography. Fourth year has Calculus, Advanced Algebra, Physics, Filipino IV, Literature, and Economics. Minor subjects may include Health, Music, Arts, Technology and Home Economics, and Physical Education.

In selective schools, various languages may be offered as electives, as well as other subjects such as computer programming and literary writing. Chinese schools have language and cultural electives. Preparatory schools usually add some business and accountancy courses, while science high schools have biology, chemistry, and physics at every level.

Secondary students used to sit for the National Secondary Achievement Test (NSAT), which was based on the American SAT
SAT
The SAT Reasoning Test is a standardized test for college admissions in the United States. The SAT is owned, published, and developed by the College Board, a nonprofit organization in the United States. It was formerly developed, published, and scored by the Educational Testing Service which still...

, and was administered by DepEd. Like its primary school counterpart, NSAT was phased-out after major reorganizations in the education department. Now the National Achievement Test
National Achievement Test
-National Achievement Test:The National Achievement Test is an annual examination given to both Grade Six and Second Year students in the Philippines. The students' knowledge and mastery over the subjects Mathematics, Science, Filipino, and Araling Panlipunan is measured using a multiple choice...

 is administered to second year students. Higher education institutions, both public and private, administer their own College Entrance Examinations (CEE). Vocational colleges usually do not have entrance examinations, simply accepting the Form 138 record of studies from high school, and enrolment payment.

The Department of Education proposes an additional two years of compulsory education, that, is called K+12 program. This program has been criticized by parents of students in kindergarten (that is expected to enter the grades 11 and 12) because it may be expensive and 'only an impediment to the students'. But the government wanted to continue this program amid of these complaints, because 'it will improve the quality of education and improve the literacy rate in the country'.

Technical and vocational education

Technical and vocational education is offered to enhance students' practical skills at institutions usually accredited and approved by TESDA. Institutions may be government operated, often by provincial government, or private. The vast majority are privately operated and most call themselves colleges. They may offer programs ranging in duration from a couple of weeks to two year diploma courses. Programs can be technology courses like automotive technology, computer technology, and electronic technology; service courses such as caregiver, nursing aide, hotel and restaurant management; and trades courses such as electrician, plumber, welder, automotive mechanic, diesel mechanic, heavy vehicle operator. Upon graduating from most of these courses, students may take an examination from TESDA to obtain the relevant certificate or diploma.

Tertiary education

Tertiary education in the Philippines is increasingly less cosmopolitan. From a height of 5,284 foreign of students in 1995–1996 the number steadily declined to 2,323 in 2000–2001, the last year CHED published numbers on its website.

Other schools

There are other types of schools such as private schools, preparatory school
University-preparatory school
A university-preparatory school or college-preparatory school is a secondary school, usually private, designed to prepare students for a college or university education...

s, international school
International school
An International school is loosely defined as a school that promotes international education, in an international environment, either by adopting an international curriculum such as that of the International Baccalaureate or Cambridge International Examinations, or by following a national...

s, laboratory high schools
Laboratory school
A laboratory school or demonstration school is an elementary or secondary school operated in association with a university, college, or other teacher education institution and used for the training of future teachers, educational experimentation, educational research, and professional...

 and science high school
Science High School
-Located in Japan:*Chienkan High School, Saga City*Mizusawa High School, Mizusawa-Located in South Korea:*Busan Science High School, Busan*Chungbuk Science High School, Cheongwon*Changwon Science High School, Changwon*Chonnam Science High School, Naju...

s. Several foreign ethnic groups, including Chinese
Chinese Filipino
A Chinese Filipino derived from two words: "Tsino" and "Pinoy" ) is a Philippine national of Chinese ethnicity but born/raised in the Philippines....

, British, Americans
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, Koreans
Koreans in the Philippines
Koreans in the Philippines, largely consisting of expatriates from South Korea, form the largest Korean diaspora community in Southeast Asia and the eighth-largest in the world, after Korean Australians and before Koreans in Kazakhstan; as of 2009, statistics of South Korea's Ministry of Foreign...

, and Japanese operate their own schools.

Chinese schools

Chinese schools add two additional subjects to the core curriculum, Chinese communication arts and literature. Some also add Chinese history, philosophy and culture, and Chinese mathematics. Still, other Chinese schools called cultural schools, offer Confucian classics and Chinese art as part of their curriculum. Religion also plays an important part in the curriculum.
Some chinese schools were founded by American Evangelists such as:
Hope Christian High School in Sta. Cruz, Manila;
Jubilee Christian Academy in Quezon City
Quezon City
Quezon City is the former capital and the most populous city in the Philippines. Located on the island of Luzon, Quezon City is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region. The city was named after Manuel L...

;
Grace Christian College
Grace Christian College
Grace Christian College is a Born Again Christian school, formerly known as Grace Christian High School. The school caters primarily to Chinese Filipino students and provides education from Pre-Nursery to College. It is situated in Grace Village, Quezon City, Metro Manila, Philippines. Its current...

 in Quezon City
Quezon City
Quezon City is the former capital and the most populous city in the Philippines. Located on the island of Luzon, Quezon City is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region. The city was named after Manuel L...

.
Other chinese schools have Catholic roots:
Sacred Heart School - Ateneo de Cebu in Cebu
Cebu
Cebu is a province in the Philippines, consisting of Cebu Island and 167 surrounding islands. It is located to the east of Negros, to the west of Leyte and Bohol islands...

;
Immaculate Conception Academy-Greenhills
Immaculate Conception Academy-Greenhills
Immaculate Conception Academy , also known as ICA Greenhills or ICAgh is located at 10 Grant Street, Greenhills, San Juan, Metro Manila, Philippines. It is a private college preparatory Catholic school for Filipino-Chinese girls run by the Missionary Sisters of Immaculate Conception...

;
St. Stephen's High School;
St. Jude Catholic School;
Uno High School in Binondo, Manila
Binondo, Manila
Binondo is an enclave in Manila primarily populated by ethnic Chinese living in the Philippines. Chinatown, Manila is the oldest Chinatown in the world, established in 1594. Historically, this was where the Spanish permitted converted sangleys, their indigenous Filipino wives, and their mixed-race...


Rafaela Academy Inc. (Baliuag,Bulacan),
Xavier School
Xavier School
Not to be confused with Xavier University – Ateneo de Cagayan.Xavier School , located in San Juan, Metro Manila, Philippines, is a private Catholic college preparatory school for boys run by the Society of Jesus' Philippine Province...

 in San Juan, Metro Manila
San Juan, Metro Manila
The City of San Juan or simply San Juan is a city in Metro Manila in the Philippines. Before the creation of Metro Manila, it was part of Rizal Province. Currently the smallest city in the region and the country in terms of area, San Juan is one of the smallest among the cities and municipalities...

;
Philippine Chen Kuang High School
Philippine Chen Kuang High School
Philippine Chen Kuang High School also known as PCKHS, Chen Kuang is located at 210 P. Parada Street Sta. Lucia San Juan, Metro Manila....

 in San Juan, Metro Manila
San Juan, Metro Manila
The City of San Juan or simply San Juan is a city in Metro Manila in the Philippines. Before the creation of Metro Manila, it was part of Rizal Province. Currently the smallest city in the region and the country in terms of area, San Juan is one of the smallest among the cities and municipalities...

;
Holy Light Integrated School in San Juan, Metro Manila
San Juan, Metro Manila
The City of San Juan or simply San Juan is a city in Metro Manila in the Philippines. Before the creation of Metro Manila, it was part of Rizal Province. Currently the smallest city in the region and the country in terms of area, San Juan is one of the smallest among the cities and municipalities...

;
Makati Hope Christian School located along Don Chino Roces Avenue (formerly known as Pasong Tamo Extension) in Makati;
Philippine Tiong Se Academy
Philippine Tiong Se Academy
Philippine Tiong Se Academy, formerly known as Anglo-Chinese School, is a non-profit, non-sectarian private school located at Sta. Elena Street, Binondo, Manila near 168 Mall and the new Cityplace Square...

,
Chiang Kai Shek College
Chiang Kai Shek College
Chiang Kai Shek College is a Chinese-Filipino institution of higher learning founded by overseas Chinese-Filipinos, recognized by both the government of Republic of the Philippines and the Republic of China...

,
Philippine Cultural College,
Leyte Progressive High School
Leyte Progressive High School
The Leyte Progressive High School is a private and non-sectarian academic institution. It is the oldest existing Chinese school in Tacloban City...

 in Tacloban,
Holy Cross High School in Dumaguete City
Dumaguete City
The City of Dumaguete is a city in the Philippine province of Negros Oriental. It is the capital, principal seaport, and largest city of the province. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 133,470 people. A person from Dumaguete is called a "Dumagueteño"...

,
Oro Christian Grace School in Cagayan de Oro City,
The Kong Hua School in Cagayan de Oro City,
La Union Cultural Institute in San Fernando City, La Union.
Bacolod Tay Tung High School
Bacolod Tay Tung High School
Bacolod Tay Tung High School is a co-educational Chinese educational institution in Bacolod City in the province of Negros Occidental, Philippines...

,
Colegio de San Ignacio.
Saint Joseph School (founded by Chinese priests) in Naga City
Naga City
The City of Naga is a first class independent component city in the Philippines...

, Camarines Sur
Camarines Sur
Camarines Sur is a province of the Philippines located in the Bicol Region in Luzon. Its capital is Pili and the province borders Camarines Norte and Quezon to the north, and Albay to the south...

.

Islamic schools

In 2004, the Department of Education adopted DO 51 putting in place the teaching of Arabic Language and Islamic Values for (mainly) Muslim children in the public schools. The same order authorized the implementation of the Standard Madrasah
Madrasah
Madrasah is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious...

 Curriculum (SMC)
in the private madaris (Arabic for schools, the singular form is Madrasah).

While there has been recognized Islamic schools, i.e. Ibn Siena Integrated School (Marawi), Sarang Bangun LC (Zamboanga) and Southwestern Mindanao Islamic Institute (Jolo), their Islamic studies curriculum varies. With the DepEd-authorized SMC, the subject offering is uniform across these private Madaris.

Since 2005, the AusAID-funded DepEd-project Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao (BEAM) has assisted a group of private madaris seeking government permit to operate (PTO) and implement the SMC. To date, there are 30 of these private madaris scattered throughout Regions XI, XII and the ARMM.

The SMC is a combination of the RBEC subjects (English, Filipino, Science, Math and Makabayan) and the teaching of Arabic and Islamic studies subjects.
  • Region XI – Pilot Integrated Madrasah (Davao Oriental), Al-Munawwara Islamic School(Davao City)
  • Region XII – WAMY Academy (Gensan), Kumayl LC (Koronadal), Darul Uloom (Tamontaka, Cotabato City), Al-Nahdah Academy (Campo Muslim, Cotabato City), SKC Madrasah Abubakar (Bagua, Cotabato City) and Sultan Kudarat Academy (Sinsuat Ave, Cotabato City)
  • ARMM (Marawi City) – Jamiato Janoubel Filibbien, Jamiato Marawi al-Islamia, Khadijah Pilot Madrasah, Princess Jawaher IS.
  • ARMM (Lanao del Sur) – Ma'ahad Montashir (Dayawan,Masiu), Ma'had Aziziah and Sha'rawi LC (Butig), Madrasah Falah al-Khayrie (Lumba Bayabao), Ma'had Lanao (Malabang), As-Salihein Integrated School (Tamparan), others.
  • ARMM (Maguindanao Valley) – Ibn Taymiyyah Academy (Shariff Kabunsuan), Ma'had Maguindanao (Ampatuan), Madrasah Datu Tahir (Mamasapano), Ma'had Rahmanie Al-Islamie (Sharif Aguak). Through the philanthopy of Governor Datu Andal Ampatuan and his family, Ma'had Rahmanie is being re-designed and re-constructed to position it to become the premier institution of integrated learning in the ARMM. When the whole infrastructure development is done, it will be renamed Shariff Aguak Ibn Ampatuan Memorial Academy.
  • ARMM (Island Provinces) – Ma'had Da'wah (Lamitan City), Kulliyato Talipao (Talipao, Sulu), CHILD Madrasah (Bongao, Tawi-Tawi). The CHILD Madrasah is a special project and laboratory school of the MSU-TCTO College of Islamic and Arabic Studies (CIAS).


For school year 2010–2011, there are forty-seven (47) madaris in the ARMM alone.
  • 1. Ibn Taymiyah Foundation Academy, Simuay, Sultan Kudarat, Maguindanao
  • 2. Maahad Minabay Karim Al-Islamie, Minabay, Buldon, Maguindanao
  • 3. Sharif Awliya Academy (Main), Bugawas, Datu Odin Sinsuat, Maguindanao
  • 4. Sharif Awliya Academy (Annex), Capiton, Awang, Datu Odin Sinsuat, Maguindanao
  • 5. Shariff Aguak Ibn Ampatuan Islamic Memorial Academy, Pob. Shariff Aguak, Maguindanao
  • 6. Maahad Datu Tahir Al-Arabie Al-Islamie, Mamasapano, Maguindanao
  • 7. Ma'ahad Montashir Al-Islamie, Inc., Dayawan, Masiu, Lanao Sur
  • 8. Maahad Camalig Al-Islamie, Camalig, Marantao, Lanao Del Sur
  • 9. As-Salihien Integrated School Foundation, Inc., Maliwanag, Tamparan, Lanao Del Sur
  • 10. Maahad Falah El-Khairie- Pilot Madrasah, Bacolod, Lumba-Bayabao, Lanao Del Sur
  • 11. Maahad As-Saqafah Al-Islamie, Dibarusan, Madalum, Lanao Del Sur
  • 12. Maahad Madalum Al-Islamie Pilot Madrasah, Inc., Linao, Kormatan, Madalum, Lanao Del Sur
  • 13. Maahad Al-Aziziah Al-Arabie Al-Islamie (MAAI) Inc. Sandab, Butig, Lanao Del Sur
  • 14. Sha’arawi Integrated Pilot Madrasah, Dama, Butig, Lanao Del Sur
  • 15. Maahad Lanao Al-Islamie, Campo Muslim, Malabang, Lanao Del Sur
  • 16. Dhayfullah Islamic Institute, Inc., Marawi City
  • 17. Princess Jawaher Integrated Learning School, Marawi City Division
  • 18. Jamiatu Muslim Mindanao
    Jamiatu Muslim Mindanao
    The Jamiatu Muslim Mindanao is one of the oldest and biggest Madrasahs in the Philippines. It was established by financial backing from the Agama Islam Society in 1956 by the late Sheikh Ahmad Basher, his devoted companions from the Ulama and Traditional Group...

    , Darussalam-Matampay, Brgy. Matampay, Marawi City
  • 19. Masiricampo Abantas Memorial Islamic and Science Academy, Marawi City
  • 20. Ibn Siena Integrated School Foundation, Inc., Biyaba, Marawi City
  • 21. Khadijah Pilot Madarasah, Gov. Dr. Mutilan St. Marawi City
  • 22. Jamiatu Marawi Al-Islamia Foundation, Marawi City
  • 23. Jamiatu Janoubel Filibbien, Inc., Tuca-Poona Marantao, Marawi City
  • 24. MSU-TCTO CIAS C.H.I.L.D School, MSU- Bongao, Tawi-Tawi
  • 25. Maahad Da’awah Al-Islamie, Tinambakan, Lamitan, Basilan
  • 26. Kulliyatu Talipao Al-Islamie, Talipao Proper, Talipao, Sulu
  • 27. Amanoddin Mascara Integrated Learning Center, Marawi City Division
  • 28. Ma’ahad Darul Uloolm Al-Islamie, Inc., Lalabuan, Tamparan, Lanao Del Sur I Division
  • 29. Ma’ahad Mahardika Al-Arabie Al-Islamie, Kasanyangan, Bongao, Tawi-Tawi
  • 30. Sahaya Integrated Learning Center, Sahaya Village, Patikul, Sulu
  • 31. Southern Philippine Islamic Institute Foundation, Inc., Siasi, Sulu
  • 32. Maahad Mahwil Ommiah Al-Irshadie, Limbo, Sultan Kudarat, Maguindanao
  • 33. Madrasah Datu Manguda Timan, Pangi, Datu Odin Sinsuat, Maguindanao
  • 34. Ma’ahad Saada Al-Arabie Integrated School, Nabalawag, Pagatin, Datu Saudi, Maguindanao
  • 35. Madrasatul Irshadil Islamiyah Al-Ibtidaiyah, Salbu, Datu Saudi, Maguindanao
  • 36. Markazul Huzim, Pob. Datu Piang, Maguindanao
  • 37. Ma’ahad Buldon Al-Arabie Al-Islamie, Mataya, Buldon, Maguindanao
  • 38. Ma’ahad Lipawan Al-Arabie Al-Islamie, Lipawan, Barira, Maguindanao
  • 39. Ma’ahad Minabay Al-Islamie, Inc., Minabay, Buldon, Maguindanao
  • 40. Madrasah Nurul Ihsan, Kapatagan, Lanao Del Sur
  • 41. Ma’ahadul Ershad Al-Islamie (Islamic Library), Hadji Buto Street Jolo, Sulu
  • 42. Ma’ahad Kutawato As-Sharqi Al-Islamie (Eastern Kutawato Islamic Institute, Inc.), Pob. Buluan, Maguindanao
  • 43. Madrasatu Dar-Alkhairie, Inc., Dalumangkob, Sultan Kudarat, Maguindanao
  • 44. Jamellah Madrasatol Muslimeen Al-Islamiah, Bubong, Madaya Lilod, Marawi City
  • 45. Madrasatul Filibbeen As-Shamilah (Philippine Integrated School (PIS) Foundation, Inc.
  • 46. Integrated School for the Science of Peace, Jaltik Foundation, Inc., Marawi City
  • 47. Da’arul Uloum Foundation, Inc., Brgy. Tolali, Marawi City

Main links

  • Higher education in the Philippines
    Higher education in the Philippines
    Colleges and universities in the Philippines are generically called Higher Education Institutions by the Philippine Commission on Higher Education .-Classification:...

  • List of universities and colleges in the Philippines
  • List of Catholic universities and colleges in the Philippines

Categories

  • :Category:Filipino educators
  • :Category:Schools of medicine in the Philippines
  • :Category:Business schools in the Philippines
  • :Category:Graduate schools in the Philippines
  • :Category:Law schools in the Philippines
  • :Category:Liberal arts colleges in the Philippines
  • :Category:Roman Catholic universities and colleges in the Philippines
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