Cyanoacrylate
Overview
 
Cyanoacrylate is the generic name for cyanoacrylate based fast-acting adhesive
Adhesive
An adhesive, or glue, is a mixture in a liquid or semi-liquid state that adheres or bonds items together. Adhesives may come from either natural or synthetic sources. The types of materials that can be bonded are vast but they are especially useful for bonding thin materials...

s such as methyl 2-cyanoacrylate
Methyl cyanoacrylate
Methyl cyanoacrylate is an organic compound that contains several functional groups, a methyl ester, a nitrile, and an alkene. It is a colorless liquid with low viscosity. Its chief use is as the main component of cyanoacrylate glues. It can be encountered under many trade names...

, ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate
Ethyl cyanoacrylate
Ethyl cyanoacrylate , a cyanoacrylate ester, is an ethyl ester of 2-cyano-2-propenoic acid. It is a colorless liquid with low viscosity. It is the main component of cyanoacrylate glues and can be encountered under many trade names. Super glue and Krazy glue are believed to be virtually 100% ECA...

 (commonly sold under trade names like Super Glue and Krazy Glue), and n-butyl cyanoacrylate
Butyl cyanoacrylate
n-Butyl cyanoacrylate , a cyanoacrylate ester, is a butyl ester of 2-cyano-2-propenoic acid. It is a clear colorless liquid with a sharp, irritating odor. It is insoluble in water. Its chief use is as the main component of medical cyanoacrylate glues. It can be encountered under various trade...

 (used in veterinary and skin glues). The related compound 2-octyl cyanoacrylate
2-Octyl cyanoacrylate
2-Octyl cyanoacrylate is an cyanoacrylate ester used in medical adhesives. It is closely related to octyl cyanoacrylate.-See also:* Methyl cyanoacrylate* Ethyl cyanoacrylate* Butyl cyanoacrylate* Octyl cyanoacrylate...

 is a medical grade glue; it was developed to be non-toxic and less irritating to skin tissue. Cyanoacrylate adhesives are sometimes known as instant glues. The abbreviation CA is commonly used for industrial grades.
Cyanoacrylates were invented in 1942 by Dr.
Encyclopedia
Cyanoacrylate is the generic name for cyanoacrylate based fast-acting adhesive
Adhesive
An adhesive, or glue, is a mixture in a liquid or semi-liquid state that adheres or bonds items together. Adhesives may come from either natural or synthetic sources. The types of materials that can be bonded are vast but they are especially useful for bonding thin materials...

s such as methyl 2-cyanoacrylate
Methyl cyanoacrylate
Methyl cyanoacrylate is an organic compound that contains several functional groups, a methyl ester, a nitrile, and an alkene. It is a colorless liquid with low viscosity. Its chief use is as the main component of cyanoacrylate glues. It can be encountered under many trade names...

, ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate
Ethyl cyanoacrylate
Ethyl cyanoacrylate , a cyanoacrylate ester, is an ethyl ester of 2-cyano-2-propenoic acid. It is a colorless liquid with low viscosity. It is the main component of cyanoacrylate glues and can be encountered under many trade names. Super glue and Krazy glue are believed to be virtually 100% ECA...

 (commonly sold under trade names like Super Glue and Krazy Glue), and n-butyl cyanoacrylate
Butyl cyanoacrylate
n-Butyl cyanoacrylate , a cyanoacrylate ester, is a butyl ester of 2-cyano-2-propenoic acid. It is a clear colorless liquid with a sharp, irritating odor. It is insoluble in water. Its chief use is as the main component of medical cyanoacrylate glues. It can be encountered under various trade...

 (used in veterinary and skin glues). The related compound 2-octyl cyanoacrylate
2-Octyl cyanoacrylate
2-Octyl cyanoacrylate is an cyanoacrylate ester used in medical adhesives. It is closely related to octyl cyanoacrylate.-See also:* Methyl cyanoacrylate* Ethyl cyanoacrylate* Butyl cyanoacrylate* Octyl cyanoacrylate...

 is a medical grade glue; it was developed to be non-toxic and less irritating to skin tissue. Cyanoacrylate adhesives are sometimes known as instant glues. The abbreviation CA is commonly used for industrial grades.

Discovery

Cyanoacrylates were invented in 1942 by Dr. Harry Coover
Harry Coover
Harry Wesley Coover, Jr. was the inventor of Eastman 910, commonly known as Super Glue.-Life and career:Coover was born in Newark, Delaware, and received his Bachelor of Science from Hobart College before earning his Master of Science and Ph. D. from Cornell University...

 and Fred Joyner of Kodak Laboratories
Eastman Kodak
Eastman Kodak Company is a multinational imaging and photographic equipment, materials and services company headquarted in Rochester, New York, United States. It was founded by George Eastman in 1892....

 during experiments to make a transparent plastic suitable for gun sights
Sight (device)
A sight is a device used to assist aligning or aim weapons, surveying instruments, or other items by eye. Sights can be a simple set or system of markers that have to be aligned together as well as aligned with the target...

. Although not appropriate for the gun sights, they did find that cyanoacrylates would quickly glue together many materials with great strength. Seeing possibilities for a new adhesive, Kodak developed "Eastman #910" (later "Eastman 910") a few years later as the first true "super glue."

During the 1960s, Eastman Kodak sold cyanoacrylate to Loctite
Loctite
Loctite is a brand of adhesives, sealants and surface treatments that include acrylic, anaerobic, cyanoacrylate, epoxy, hot melt, silicone, urethane and UV/light curing technologies...

, which in turn repackaged and distributed it under a different brand name "Loctite Quick Set 404." In 1971, Loctite developed its own manufacturing technology and introduced its own line of cyanoacrylate, called Super Bonder. Loctite quickly gained market share and by late 1970s it was believed to have exceeded Eastman Kodak's share in the North American industrial cyanoacrylate market. Other manufacturers of cyanoacrylate included Permabond Division of National Starch and Chemical, Inc., which was a subsidiary of Unilever
Unilever
Unilever is a British-Dutch multinational corporation that owns many of the world's consumer product brands in foods, beverages, cleaning agents and personal care products....

. Together, Loctite, Eastman and Permabond accounted for approximately 75% of the industrial cyanoacrylate market.

Properties

In its liquid form, cyanoacrylate consists of monomer
Monomer
A monomer is an atom or a small molecule that may bind chemically to other monomers to form a polymer; the term "monomeric protein" may also be used to describe one of the proteins making up a multiprotein complex...

s of cyanoacrylate molecules. Methyl-2-cyanoacrylate (CH2=C(CN)COOCH3 or C5H5NO2) has a molecular weight equal to 111.1, a flashpoint
Flash point
The flash point of a volatile material is the lowest temperature at which it can vaporize to form an ignitable mixture in air. Measuring a flash point requires an ignition source...

 of 79 °C, and 1.1 times the density of water. Ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate (C6H7NO2) has a molecular weight equal to 125 and a flashpoint of >75°C. To facilitate easy handling, a cyanoacrylate adhesive is frequently formulated with an ingredient such as fumed silica
Fumed silica
Fumed silica, also known as pyrogenic silica because it is produced in a flame, consists of microscopic droplets of amorphous silica fused into branched, chainlike, three-dimensional secondary particles which then agglomerate into tertiary particles. The resulting powder has an extremely low bulk...

 to make it more viscous or gel-like.

In general, cyanoacrylate is an acrylic
Acryl group
In organic chemistry, the acryloyl group is the functional group with structure H2C=CH–C–; it is the acyl group derived from acrylic acid. The preferred IUPAC name for the group is prop-2-enoyl, and it is also known as acrylyl or simply acryl...

 resin
Resin
Resin in the most specific use of the term is a hydrocarbon secretion of many plants, particularly coniferous trees. Resins are valued for their chemical properties and associated uses, such as the production of varnishes, adhesives, and food glazing agents; as an important source of raw materials...

 that rapidly polymer
Polymer
A polymer is a large molecule composed of repeating structural units. These subunits are typically connected by covalent chemical bonds...

ises in the presence of water (specifically hydroxide
Hydroxide
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−. It consists of an oxygen and a hydrogen atom held together by a covalent bond, and carrying a negative electric charge. It is an important but usually minor constituent of water. It functions as a base, as a ligand, a nucleophile, and a...

 ion
Ion
An ion is an atom or molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge. The name was given by physicist Michael Faraday for the substances that allow a current to pass between electrodes in a...

s), forming long, strong chains, joining the bonded surfaces together. Because the presence of moisture causes the glue to set, exposure to moisture in the air can cause a tube or bottle of glue to become unusable over time. To prevent an opened container of glue from setting before use, it must be stored in an airtight jar or bottle with a package of silica gel
Silica gel
Silica gel is a granular, vitreous, porous form of silica made synthetically from sodium silicate. Despite its name, silica gel is a solid. It is a naturally occurring mineral that is purified and processed into either granular or beaded form...

. Another convenient way is attaching a hypodermic needle on the opening of glue. After applying, residual glue soon clogs the needle, keeping moisture out. The clog is removed by heating the needle (e.g., by a lighter) before use.

Uses

Cyanoacrylate glue has a low shearing
Shearing (physics)
Shearing in continuum mechanics refers to the occurrence of a shear strain, which is a deformation of a material substance in which parallel internal surfaces slide past one another. It is induced by a shear stress in the material...

 strength, which has also led to its use as a temporary adhesive in cases where the piece can easily be sheared off at a later time. Common examples include mounting a workpiece to a sacrificial glue block on a lathe
Lathe
A lathe is a machine tool which rotates the workpiece on its axis to perform various operations such as cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling, or deformation with tools that are applied to the workpiece to create an object which has symmetry about an axis of rotation.Lathes are used in woodturning,...

, and tightening pins and bolts.

Cyanoacrylates are used to assemble prototype electronics
Electronics
Electronics is the branch of science, engineering and technology that deals with electrical circuits involving active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, and associated passive interconnection technologies...

 (see wire wrap
Wire wrap
Wire wrap is a technology used to assemble electronics. It is a method to construct circuit boards without having to make a printed circuit board. Wires can be wrapped by hand or by machine, and can be hand-modified afterwards. It was popular for large-scale manufacturing in the 60s and early 70s,...

), flying model aircraft
Model aircraft
Model aircraft are flying or non-flying models of existing or imaginary aircraft using a variety of materials including plastic, diecast metal, polystyrene, balsa wood, foam and fibreglass...

, and as retention dressings for nut
Nut (hardware)
A nut is a type of hardware fastener with a threaded hole. Nuts are almost always used opposite a mating bolt to fasten a stack of parts together. The two partners are kept together by a combination of their threads' friction, a slight stretch of the bolt, and compression of the parts...

s and bolts. Their effectiveness in bonding metal and general versatility have also made them popular among modeling
Scale model
A scale model is a physical model, a representation or copy of an object that is larger or smaller than the actual size of the object, which seeks to maintain the relative proportions of the physical size of the original object. Very often the scale model is used as a guide to making the object in...

 and miniatures hobbyists. They are used to re-harden the boxes and shanks of ballerinas' pointe shoes
Pointe shoes
A pointe shoe is a type of shoe worn by ballet dancers when performing pointework. Pointe shoes developed from the desire for dancers to appear weightless and sylph-like and have evolved to enable dancers to dance on the tips of their toes for extended periods of time...

 as well.

Cyanoacrylate glue's ability to resist water has made it popular with marine aquarium
Marine aquarium
A marine aquarium is an aquarium that keeps marine plants and animals in a contained environment. Marine aquaria are further subdivided by hobbyists into fish only , fish only with live rock , and reef aquaria. Fish only tanks often showcase large or aggressive marine fish species and generally...

 hobbyists for fragging corals. The cut branches of hard corals
Scleractinia
Scleractinia, also called stony corals, are exclusively marine animals; they are very similar to sea anemones but generate a hard skeleton. They first appeared in the Middle Triassic and replaced tabulate and rugose corals that went extinct at the end of the Permian...

 such as Acropora
Acropora
Acropora is a genus of scleractinian coral in the Phylum Cnidaria. Some of its species are known as table coral, elkhorn coral and staghorn coral. There are currently 149 described species...

 can be glued to a piece of live rock
Live rock
Live rock is rock from the ocean that has been introduced into a saltwater aquarium. Along with live sand, it confers to the closed marine system multiple benefits desired by the saltwater aquarium hobbyist...

 (harvested reef coral) or Milliput
Milliput
Milliput is a UK-based brand of epoxy putty used by modellers, and also for household and restoration applications. Milliput comes in several different colours according to what it will be used for, and each package contains two separate bars, one of which is a hardener...

 (epoxy putty) to allow the new frag to grow out. It is actually safe to use directly in the tank, unlike silicone, which must be cured to be safe. However, as a class of adhesives, traditional cyanoacrylates are classified as having "weak" resistance to both moisture and heat although the inclusion of phthalic anhydride
Phthalic anhydride
Phthalic anhydride is the organic compound with the formula C6H42O. It is the anhydride of phthalic acid. This colourless solid is an important industrial chemical, especially for the large-scale production of plasticizers for plastics. In 2002, approximately 4.6 billion kilograms were...

 reportedly counteracts both of these characteristics.

In most cases, standard cyanoacrylate adhesive does not functionally bond well with smooth glass, although it can be used as a quick, temporary bond prior to application of a proper glass epoxy or cyanoacrylate specifically formulated for use on glass. A mechanical adhesive bond may be formed around glass fibre mat or tissue to reinforce joints or to fabricate small parts.

When added to baking soda (sodium bicarbonate
Sodium bicarbonate
Sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate is the chemical compound with the formula Na HCO3. Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda . The natural mineral form is...

), cyanoacrylate glue forms a hard, lightweight filler/adhesive (baking soda is first used to fill a gap then the adhesive is dropped onto the baking soda). This works well with porous materials that the glue does not work well with alone. This method is sometimes used by aircraft modelers to assemble or repair polystyrene foam parts. It is also used to repair small nicks in the leading edge of composite propeller
Propeller
A propeller is a type of fan that transmits power by converting rotational motion into thrust. A pressure difference is produced between the forward and rear surfaces of the airfoil-shaped blade, and a fluid is accelerated behind the blade. Propeller dynamics can be modeled by both Bernoulli's...

 blades on light aircraft. Note that the reaction between cyanoacrylate and baking soda is very exothermic
Exothermic reaction
An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that releases energy in the form of light or heat. It is the opposite of an endothermic reaction. Expressed in a chemical equation:-Overview:...

 (heat-producing) and also produces noxious vapors. See Reaction with cotton below.

Cyanoacrylate is used as a forensic tool to capture latent fingerprints on non-porous surfaces like glass, plastic, etc. Cyanoacrylate is warmed to produce fumes that react with the invisible fingerprint residues and atmospheric moisture to form a white polymer (polycyanoacrylate) on the fingerprint ridges. The ridges can then be recorded. The developed fingerprints are, on most surfaces (except on white plastic or similar), visible to the naked eye. Invisible or poorly visible prints can be further enhanced by applying a luminescent or non-luminescent stain

Thin CA glue also has application in woodworking. It can be used as a fast drying, glossy finish. The use of oil (such as boiled linseed oil) may be used to control the rate at which the CA cures. CA glue is also used in combination with sawdust (from a saw or sanding) to fill voids and cracks. These repair methods are used on piano soundboards, wood instruments, and wood furniture.

Some rock climbers
Rock climbing
Rock climbing also lightly called 'The Gravity Game', is a sport in which participants climb up, down or across natural rock formations or artificial rock walls. The goal is to reach the summit of a formation or the endpoint of a pre-defined route without falling...

 use cyanoacrylate to repair damage to the skin on their fingertips. Similarly, stringed-instrument players can form protective finger caps (in addition to calluses) with cyanoacrylates.

CA glue was in veterinary use for mending bone, hide, and tortoise shell by at least the early 1970s. The inventor of cyanoacrylates, Harry Coover
Harry Coover
Harry Wesley Coover, Jr. was the inventor of Eastman 910, commonly known as Super Glue.-Life and career:Coover was born in Newark, Delaware, and received his Bachelor of Science from Hobart College before earning his Master of Science and Ph. D. from Cornell University...

, said in 1966 that a CA spray was used in the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of...

 to retard bleeding in wounded soldiers until they could be brought to a hospital. Butyl cyanoacrylate
Butyl cyanoacrylate
n-Butyl cyanoacrylate , a cyanoacrylate ester, is a butyl ester of 2-cyano-2-propenoic acid. It is a clear colorless liquid with a sharp, irritating odor. It is insoluble in water. Its chief use is as the main component of medical cyanoacrylate glues. It can be encountered under various trade...

 has been used medically since the 1970s outside the US, but, due to its potential to irritate the skin, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration did not approve its use as a medical adhesive until 1998 with Dermabond
2-Octyl cyanoacrylate
2-Octyl cyanoacrylate is an cyanoacrylate ester used in medical adhesives. It is closely related to octyl cyanoacrylate.-See also:* Methyl cyanoacrylate* Ethyl cyanoacrylate* Butyl cyanoacrylate* Octyl cyanoacrylate...

. Research has demonstrated the use of cyanoacrylate in wound closure as being safer and more functional than traditional suturing (stitches). The adhesive has demonstrated superior performance in the time required to close a wound, incidence of infection (suture canals through the skin's epidermal, dermal, and subcutaneous fat layers introduce extra routes of contamination), and final cosmetic appearance.

While standard 'superglue' is 100% ethyl cyanoacrylate, many custom formulations (e.g., , 91% ECA, 9% poly(methyl methacrylate)
Acrylic glass
Poly is a transparent thermoplastic, often used as a light or shatter-resistant alternative to glass. It is sometimes called acrylic glass. Chemically, it is the synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate...

, <0.5% hydroquinone
Hydroquinone
Hydroquinone, also benzene-1,4-diol or quinol, is an aromatic organic compound that is a type of phenol, having the chemical formula C6H42. Its chemical structure, shown in the table at right, has two hydroxyl groups bonded to a benzene ring in a para position. It is a white granular solid...

, and a small amount of organic sulfonic acid
Sulfonic acid
Sulfonic acid usually refers to a member of the class of organosulfur compounds with the general formula RS2–OH, where R is an alkyl or aryl. The formal part of acid, HS2–OH, are formally derivatives of the "parent" inorganic compound with the formula HSO2.-Preparation:Sulfonic acid is...

 and variations on the compound N-butyl-cyanoacrylate's for medical applications) have come to be used for specific applications.

Toxicity

The fumes from CA are a vaporized form of the cyanoacrylate monomer that irritate sensitive membranes in the eyes, nose, and throat. They are immediately polymerized by the moisture in the membranes and become inert. These risks can be minimized by using CA in well ventilated areas. About 5% of the population can become sensitized to CA fumes after repeated exposure, resulting in flu-like symptoms. It may also act as a skin irritant and may cause an allergic skin reaction. The ACGIH
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists is a professional association of industrial hygienists and practitioners of related professions, with headquarters in Cincinnati, Ohio...

 assign a Threshold Limit Value
Threshold Limit Value
The threshold limit value of a chemical substance is a level to which it is believed a worker can be exposed day after day for a working lifetime without adverse health effects. Strictly speaking, TLV is a reserved term of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists...

 exposure limit of 200 parts per billion. On rare occasions, inhalation may trigger asthma
Asthma
Asthma is the common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm. Symptoms include wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath...

. There is no singular measurement of toxicity for all cyanoacrylate adhesives as there is a wide variety of adhesives that contain various cyanoacrylate formulations.

The United States National Toxicology Program and the United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive have concluded that the use of ethyl cyanoacrylate is safe and that additional study is unnecessary. 2-octyl cyanoacrylate degrades much more slowly due to its longer organic backbone that slows the degradation of the adhesive enough to remain below the threshold of tissue toxicity. Due to the toxicity issues of ethyl cyanoacrylate, the use of 2-octyl cyanoacrylate for sutures is preferred.

Reaction with cotton

Applying cyanoacrylate to materials made of cotton
Cotton
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. The botanical purpose of cotton fiber is to aid in seed dispersal....

 or wool
Wool
Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and certain other animals, including cashmere from goats, mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, vicuña, alpaca, camel from animals in the camel family, and angora from rabbits....

 (such as cotton swabs, cotton balls, and certain yarns or fabrics) results in a powerful, rapid exothermic
Exothermic
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system, usually in the form of heat, but also in the form of light , electricity , or sound...

 reaction. The heat released may cause minor burns, and if enough cyanoacrylate is used, the reaction is capable of igniting the cotton product, as well as releasing irritating vapor in the form of white smoke.

Material Safety Data Sheet
Material safety data sheet
A Material Safety Data Sheet is a form with data regarding the properties of a particular substance....

s for cyanoacrylate instruct users not to wear cotton or wool clothing, especially cotton gloves, when applying or handling cyanoacrylates.

Solvents and debonders

Acetone
Acetone
Acetone is the organic compound with the formula 2CO, a colorless, mobile, flammable liquid, the simplest example of the ketones.Acetone is miscible with water and serves as an important solvent in its own right, typically as the solvent of choice for cleaning purposes in the laboratory...

, commonly found in nail polish remover, is a widely available solvent capable of softening cured cyanoacrylate. Other solvents include Nitromethane
Nitromethane
Nitromethane is an organic compound with the chemical formula . It is the simplest organic nitro compound. It is a slightly viscous, highly polar liquid commonly used as a solvent in a variety of industrial applications such as in extractions, as a reaction medium, and as a cleaning solvent...

, Dimethyl sulfoxide
Dimethyl sulfoxide
Dimethyl sulfoxide is an organosulfur compound with the formula 2SO. This colorless liquid is an important polar aprotic solvent that dissolves both polar and nonpolar compounds and is miscible in a wide range of organic solvents as well as water...

, and Methylene chloride, although the latter two of these solvents are toxic. Gamma-butyrolactone
Gamma-Butyrolactone
gamma-Butyrolactone is a hygroscopic colorless oily liquid with a weak characteristic odor and is soluble in water. GBL is a common solvent and reagent in chemistry and is used as an aroma compound, as a stain remover, as a superglue remover, as a paint stripper, and as a solvent in some wet...

 may also be used to remove cured cyanoacrylate. Commercial debonders are also available.

See also

  • Methyl cyanoacrylate
    Methyl cyanoacrylate
    Methyl cyanoacrylate is an organic compound that contains several functional groups, a methyl ester, a nitrile, and an alkene. It is a colorless liquid with low viscosity. Its chief use is as the main component of cyanoacrylate glues. It can be encountered under many trade names...

  • Ethyl cyanoacrylate
    Ethyl cyanoacrylate
    Ethyl cyanoacrylate , a cyanoacrylate ester, is an ethyl ester of 2-cyano-2-propenoic acid. It is a colorless liquid with low viscosity. It is the main component of cyanoacrylate glues and can be encountered under many trade names. Super glue and Krazy glue are believed to be virtually 100% ECA...

  • Butyl cyanoacrylate
    Butyl cyanoacrylate
    n-Butyl cyanoacrylate , a cyanoacrylate ester, is a butyl ester of 2-cyano-2-propenoic acid. It is a clear colorless liquid with a sharp, irritating odor. It is insoluble in water. Its chief use is as the main component of medical cyanoacrylate glues. It can be encountered under various trade...

  • Octyl cyanoacrylate
    Octyl cyanoacrylate
    Octyl cyanoacrylate , a cyanoacrylate ester, is an octyl ester of 2-cyano-2-propenoic acid. It is a clear colorless liquid with a sharp, irritating odor. Its chief use is as the main component of medical cyanoacrylate glues...

  • 2-Octyl cyanoacrylate
    2-Octyl cyanoacrylate
    2-Octyl cyanoacrylate is an cyanoacrylate ester used in medical adhesives. It is closely related to octyl cyanoacrylate.-See also:* Methyl cyanoacrylate* Ethyl cyanoacrylate* Butyl cyanoacrylate* Octyl cyanoacrylate...


Further reading

  • derma+flex® QS™ 510k Letter: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/cdrh_docs/pdf10/K101276.pdf
  • LiquiBand® 510k Letter: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/cdrh_docs/pdf8/K083531.pdf


External links


Alcohol-Catalyzed α-Cyanoacrylate Adhesive Compositions, filed June 1954, issued October 1956.
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