Cumbia
Overview
 
Cumbia is a music genre
Music genre
A music genre is a categorical and typological construct that identifies musical sounds as belonging to a particular category and type of music that can be distinguished from other types of music...

 popular across Latin America. The cumbia originated in the Caribbean coast of Colombia
Colombia
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia , is a unitary constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The country is located in northwestern South America, bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the north by the Caribbean Sea; to the...

, where it is associated with an eponymous dance and has since spread as far as Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

 and Argentina
Argentina
Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

. It has given rise to numerous sub-genres and local scenes.

It originated in Colombia's Caribbean coastal region, of the musical and cultural fusion of Indian
American Indian
American Indian may refer to:*Native Americans in the United States*Indigenous people of the Americas, the inhabitants of North and South America prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus*Indian American, an American with ancestors from India...

, black slaves from Africa and, to a lesser extent, of the Spanish during the time of the Cologne in the old country Pocabuy settled in the Momposina Depression.

In Panama
Panama
Panama , officially the Republic of Panama , is the southernmost country of Central America. Situated on the isthmus connecting North and South America, it is bordered by Costa Rica to the northwest, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The...

, cumbia dates from the colonial era and has its epicenter in the central provinces
Azuero Peninsula
Azuero Peninsula is a large peninsula in southern Panama. It is surrounded by the Pacific Ocean in the south; the Pacific and Gulf of Montijo to the west, and by the Gulf of Panama in the east...

.
Encyclopedia
Cumbia is a music genre
Music genre
A music genre is a categorical and typological construct that identifies musical sounds as belonging to a particular category and type of music that can be distinguished from other types of music...

 popular across Latin America. The cumbia originated in the Caribbean coast of Colombia
Colombia
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia , is a unitary constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The country is located in northwestern South America, bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the north by the Caribbean Sea; to the...

, where it is associated with an eponymous dance and has since spread as far as Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

 and Argentina
Argentina
Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

. It has given rise to numerous sub-genres and local scenes.

It originated in Colombia's Caribbean coastal region, of the musical and cultural fusion of Indian
American Indian
American Indian may refer to:*Native Americans in the United States*Indigenous people of the Americas, the inhabitants of North and South America prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus*Indian American, an American with ancestors from India...

, black slaves from Africa and, to a lesser extent, of the Spanish during the time of the Cologne in the old country Pocabuy settled in the Momposina Depression.

In Panama
Panama
Panama , officially the Republic of Panama , is the southernmost country of Central America. Situated on the isthmus connecting North and South America, it is bordered by Costa Rica to the northwest, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The...

, cumbia dates from the colonial era and has its epicenter in the central provinces
Azuero Peninsula
Azuero Peninsula is a large peninsula in southern Panama. It is surrounded by the Pacific Ocean in the south; the Pacific and Gulf of Montijo to the west, and by the Gulf of Panama in the east...

. The composition and choreography of regional variations descend mainly from African traditions. They also make reference to instrumentation and original dance steps from Spanish (Andalusia
Andalusia
Andalusia is the most populous and the second largest in area of the autonomous communities of Spain. The Andalusian autonomous community is officially recognised as a nationality of Spain. The territory is divided into eight provinces: Huelva, Seville, Cádiz, Córdoba, Málaga, Jaén, Granada and...

 and Galicia
Galicia
-Geographic regions:* Galicia , an autonomous community in northwestern Spain** Gallaecia, a province of the Roman Empire** Kingdom of Galicia, a medieval kingdom**Nueva Galicia :*** Nueva Galicia, a region of New Spain, now in Mexico...

n), and to a lesser extent are influenced by indigenous
Indigenous
Indigenous means: belonging to a certain place.Indigenous may refer to:In Ecology and Geography*Indigenous resources, resources which exist within local geography, that are not imported...

 traditions.

In Mexico, cumbia dates from the mid-20th century. Colombian band leaders such as Pacho Galan
Pacho Galan
Pacho Galan was a Colombian composer and band leader of several Colombian music forms, including porro, cumbia, gaita and merercumbe...

 and Lucho Bermúdez
Lucho Bermúdez
Luis Eduardo Bermúdez , was a Colombian musician, composer, and interpreter of Boleros, Cumbias, Porros and other Colombian folkloric rhythms stylized by orchestras.- Early years :...

 orchestrated this Caribbean folklore and brought it to different parts of Latin America, where it gained particular popularity in Mexico, Argentina, and the Andean region.

Cumbia began as a courtship
Courtship
Courtship is the period in a couple's relationship which precedes their engagement and marriage, or establishment of an agreed relationship of a more enduring kind. In courtship, a couple get to know each other and decide if there will be an engagement or other such agreement...

 dance practiced among the African slave population, which was later mixed with European instruments and musical characteristics. Cumbia is very popular in the Andean region
Andean states
The Andean States are a group of nations in South America that are defined by sharing a common geography or culture such as the Quechua language and Andean cuisine which was primarily spread during the times of the Inca Empire, but also before and after it.Politically speaking, Argentina and Chile...

 and the Southern Cone
Southern Cone
Southern Cone is a geographic region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, south of the Tropic of Capricorn. Although geographically this includes part of Southern and Southeast of Brazil, in terms of political geography the Southern cone has traditionally comprised Argentina,...

 and was, until the early 1980s, more popular in these regions than the salsa
Salsa (dance)
Salsa is a syncretic dance form with origins in Cuba as the meeting point of Spanish and African cultures.Salsa is normally a partner dance, although there are recognized solo forms such as solo dancing "suelta" and "Rueda de Casino" where multiple couples exchange partners in a circle...

.

The Panamanian cumbia was also internationalized, there were many song versions in other Latin American countries, mainly in Colombia where Alfredo Gutierrez played many Panamanian songs and composed songs dedicated to Panama. was popularized throughout the Pacific coast of South America by Toby Muñoz where "La Parranda de Panamá" was known primarily in Chile
Chile
Chile ,officially the Republic of Chile , is a country in South America occupying a long, narrow coastal strip between the Andes mountains to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far...

 Peru
Peru
Peru , officially the Republic of Peru , is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean....

 and Ecuador
Ecuador
Ecuador , officially the Republic of Ecuador is a representative democratic republic in South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and by the Pacific Ocean to the west. It is one of only two countries in South America, along with Chile, that do not have a border...

. The cumbia "cocaleca" of the Panamanian Victor Cavalli was a success in Mexico. The "Cocaleca" became popular after it was featured as the soundtrack of the Mexican film "The Adventurer" or "Victim of Sin." It was also adapted to the Mambo by Benny Moré
Benny Moré
Benny Moré , or Beny, was a Cuban singer. He is often thought of as the greatest Cuban popular singer of all time. He was gifted with an innate musicality and fluid tenor voice which he colored and phrased with great expressivity...

. In Puerto Rico, it was popularized by Silvia de Grasse, who successfully introduced the cumbia in that country and in Venezuela
Venezuela
Venezuela , officially called the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela , is a tropical country on the northern coast of South America. It borders Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south...

 was popularize by the "Billos Caracas Boys" that played many Panamanian cumbias.

Origins

It is often asserted that cumbia is a variant of Guinea
Guinea
Guinea , officially the Republic of Guinea , is a country in West Africa. Formerly known as French Guinea , it is today sometimes called Guinea-Conakry to distinguish it from its neighbour Guinea-Bissau. Guinea is divided into eight administrative regions and subdivided into thirty-three prefectures...

n cumbé music. However, it should be noted that the rhythm of cumbia can be found in music of Yoruba
Yoruba Culture
Yoruba culture refers to the idiosyncratic cultural norms of Yorubaland and the Yoruba people.-Sculpture:The Yoruba are said to be prolific sculptors, famous for their magnificent terra cotta works throughout the 12th and 14th century; artists also harnests their capacity in making artwork out of...

 (more specifically, the rhythm is associated with the god Obatala), and in other musical traditions across West Africa. Cumbia started in the northern coast of South America, what is now Colombia, mainly in or around the Momposina Depression during the period of Spanish colonization
Spanish colonization of the Americas
Colonial expansion under the Spanish Empire was initiated by the Spanish conquistadores and developed by the Monarchy of Spain through its administrators and missionaries. The motivations for colonial expansion were trade and the spread of the Christian faith through indigenous conversions...

. Spain used its ports to import African slaves, who tried to preserve their musical traditions and also turned the drumming and dances into a courtship ritual. Cumbia was mainly performed with just drums and claves
Claves
Claves are a percussion instrument , consisting of a pair of short Claves (Anglicized pronunciation: clah-vays, IPA:[ˈklαves]) are a percussion instrument (idiophone), consisting of a pair of short Claves (Anglicized pronunciation: clah-vays, IPA:[ˈklαves]) are a percussion instrument (idiophone),...

.

The slaves were later influenced by the sounds of the new world instruments from the Kogui and Kuna
Kuna (people)
Kuna or Cuna is the name of an indigenous people of Panama and Colombia. The spelling Kuna is currently preferred. In the Kuna language, the name is Dule or Tule, meaning "people," and the name of the language in Kuna is Dulegaya, meaning "Kuna language" - Location :The Kuna live in three...

 tribes, who lived between the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta
Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta
The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is an isolated mountain range apart from the Andes chain that runs through Colombia. Reaching an altitude of 5,700 metres above sea level just 42 km from the Caribbean coast, the Sierra Nevada is the world's highest coastal range...

 and the Montes de María
Montes de María
The Montes de María are a group of mountains of the northern coast of Colombia , which do not belong to the Andes ranges, and the highlands around them. The Montes de María are the last part of the Serranía de San Jerónimo.Montes de María is a zone located in the center of the Colombian...

 in Colombia and Kuna Yala
Kuna Yala
Guna Yala is an autonomous territory or comarca in Panama, inhabited by the Kuna indigenous people.The name means "Guna-land" or "Guna mountain" in the Kuna language...

 in Panama
Panama
Panama , officially the Republic of Panama , is the southernmost country of Central America. Situated on the isthmus connecting North and South America, it is bordered by Costa Rica to the northwest, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The...

. Millo flutes, Gaita flutes, and güiro
Güiro
The güiro is a Latin-American percussion instrument consisting of an open-ended, hollow gourd with parallel notches cut in one side. It is played by rubbing a stick or tines along the notches to produce a ratchet-like sound. The güiro is commonly used in Latin-American music, and plays a key role...

s were instruments borrowed from these new world tribes. The interaction between Africans and natives of the new world under the Spanish caste system created a mixture from which the gaitero (cumbia interpreter) appeared, with a defined identity by the 1800s. (These gaiteros' are not the same as the Venezuela
Venezuela
Venezuela , officially called the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela , is a tropical country on the northern coast of South America. It borders Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south...

n Zulian gaiteros.) The European guitars were added later through Spanish influence. According to legend, the accordion was added after a German cargo ship carrying the instruments sank as a load of accordions washed ashore on the northwest coast of Colombia
Colombia
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia , is a unitary constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The country is located in northwestern South America, bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the north by the Caribbean Sea; to the...

.

In Panama
Panama
Panama , officially the Republic of Panama , is the southernmost country of Central America. Situated on the isthmus connecting North and South America, it is bordered by Costa Rica to the northwest, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The...

, the processes that shaped the culture and idiosyncrasies of the Colombian Caribbean through the three aspects (Hispanic, black and Indian) from the Spanish colonial period until today, also occurred in the isthmus
Isthmus of Panama
The Isthmus of Panama, also historically known as the Isthmus of Darien, is the narrow strip of land that lies between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, linking North and South America. It contains the country of Panama and the Panama Canal...

. Research in the field talk about their appearance in the Colonial era, in the evening Creole families gathered to recite poetry and perform typical music of spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 and of Europe, other nights they brought their slaves to play their traditional drums and dances. Among his favorites African dances was El Punto, that representation consisted in intrinsic and abdominal movements and an African woman dancing alone. Another dance was the cumbia, for this the couples advanced to the center of the room, men versus women and was gradually formed a circle of couples. The dance step of the man was a kind of leap backwards as the woman slid forward carrying a lighted candle in her hand holding a colored handkerchief very alive. Also is recorded on the dance in the religious holiday celebrated in the month of May that had the name"The Wake of the Cross" and the people gathered to pray rosaries, litanies chanted and then formed a dance cumbias ran, still exist today in inland communities and the nation's capital.

Cumbia as a courtship ritual

The slave courtship rite, which featured dance prominently, was traditionally performed with music played by pairs of men and women and with male and female dancers. Women playfully waved their long skirts while holding a candle, and men dance behind the women with one hand behind their back and the other hand either holding a hat, putting it on, or taking it off. Male dancers also carried a red handkerchief which they either wrapped around their necks, waved in circles in the air, or held out for the women to hold. Until the mid-20th century, cumbia was considered to be an inappropriate dance performed primarily by the lower social classes.

Style

The basic rhythm
Rhythm
Rhythm may be generally defined as a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions." This general meaning of regular recurrence or pattern in time may be applied to a wide variety of cyclical natural phenomena having a periodicity or...

 structure is 2/4. Due to its origins, both African and new world natives influences can be felt in cumbia.

In Colombia
Colombia
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia , is a unitary constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The country is located in northwestern South America, bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the north by the Caribbean Sea; to the...

 is played with a rhythm structure in 2/4 and 2/2.
In Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

 is played with a rhythm structure in 2/2.
In Panama
Panama
Panama , officially the Republic of Panama , is the southernmost country of Central America. Situated on the isthmus connecting North and South America, it is bordered by Costa Rica to the northwest, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The...

 is played with a rhythm structure in 2/4 and 6/8.

Musical instruments

Traditional instruments used in cumbia:
  • Drums: Cumbia drums were of African origin and were brought along with slaves to the new world by the Spanish conquerors. natives used wood, ropes made out of sisal
    Sisal
    Sisal is an agave that yields a stiff fibre traditionally used in making twine, rope and also dartboards. The term may refer either to the plant or the fibre, depending on context...

     (Agave sisalana), and dried animal skins to make their drums. The drums were played either with hands or with sticks. The ends of the sticks were sometimes wrapped with dry skin to prevent wearing of the drums. Cumbia interpreters produce variations of the sound emitted by the drum by hitting it on almost every area of the wooden base and dry skin. Today, modern deep-toned drums
    Drum kit
    A drum kit is a collection of drums, cymbals and often other percussion instruments, such as cowbells, wood blocks, triangles, chimes, or tambourines, arranged for convenient playing by a single person ....

     are used in cumbia as well.


The tambora is a bass drum, played in the very first Cumbia rhythms before the accordion
Accordion
The accordion is a box-shaped musical instrument of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone family, sometimes referred to as a squeezebox. A person who plays the accordion is called an accordionist....

 entered the cumbia scene. It is rarely seen today as most of the percussion instruments of traditional Cumbia have been replaced by the more versatile conga
Conga
The conga, or more properly the tumbadora, is a tall, narrow, single-headed Cuban drum with African antecedents. It is thought to be derived from the Makuta drums or similar drums associated with Afro-Cubans of Central African descent. A person who plays conga is called a conguero...

, güira
Güira
A güira is a percussion instrument from the Dominican Republic, generally used in merengue, bachata, and its subgenres, that sounds like a maraca or hi-hat but in fact is a sheet of metal—in practice, often from a five gallon oil can—evenly perforated with a nail, shaped into a cylinder or...

, claves
Claves
Claves are a percussion instrument , consisting of a pair of short Claves (Anglicized pronunciation: clah-vays, IPA:[ˈklαves]) are a percussion instrument (idiophone), consisting of a pair of short Claves (Anglicized pronunciation: clah-vays, IPA:[ˈklαves]) are a percussion instrument (idiophone),...

, and timbales
Timbales
Timbales are shallow single-headed drums with metal casing, invented in Cuba. They are shallower in shape than single-headed tom-toms, and usually much higher tuned...

. Now, Colombian and Panamanian tamboras are generally only seen at folkloric presentations.
  • Claves
    Claves
    Claves are a percussion instrument , consisting of a pair of short Claves (Anglicized pronunciation: clah-vays, IPA:[ˈklαves]) are a percussion instrument (idiophone), consisting of a pair of short Claves (Anglicized pronunciation: clah-vays, IPA:[ˈklαves]) are a percussion instrument (idiophone),...

    : These percussion instruments are a pair of hard thick sticks and usually set the beat throughout the song.

  • Instruments of European origin used in cumbia today include the guitar
    Guitar
    The guitar is a plucked string instrument, usually played with fingers or a pick. The guitar consists of a body with a rigid neck to which the strings, generally six in number, are attached. Guitars are traditionally constructed of various woods and strung with animal gut or, more recently, with...

    , the Caja
    Caja
    The caja, a drum similar to a tambora, is one of the three main or traditional instruments of the Vallenato music. Caja, the slang word adopted to nickname this drum, means "box" in Spanish...

     descendant of the Spanish military drum, the mejoranera
    Mejoranera
    The Mejorana or Mejoranera is a folkloric Chordophone from Panama. It is carved from one block of wood or from dry fibers of Bejuco, and is shaped like a small guitar. It has five nylon, horse hair, or gut strings. The Mejoranera is tuned in either an e'-b-a-a'-d' or an e'-b-g-g'-d' sequence For...

     and the Rabel
    Rabel
    Rabel is a municipality in the district of Schleswig-Flensburg, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany....

     (in Panama), the accordion
    Accordion
    The accordion is a box-shaped musical instrument of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone family, sometimes referred to as a squeezebox. A person who plays the accordion is called an accordionist....

    , the bass guitar
    Bass guitar
    The bass guitar is a stringed instrument played primarily with the fingers or thumb , or by using a pick....

    , and the modern flute
    Flute
    The flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds, a flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an opening...

    .

Cumbia genres and movements

During the mid-20th century, Colombian musicians such as Pacho Galán and Lucho Bermúdez created a more refined form of Cumbia that became very popular through all of Colombia, Mexico, and Latin America. This period is known as "The Golden Age of Cumbia". Linda Vera was known as "The Queen of Cumbia". She was a Mexican singer.

Due to the diversity of Latin America, Colombian Cumbia has undergone major changes as it mixed with the regional music styles of several countries (especially in Mexico, Ecuador, and Peru). There are several distinct variations of the music:

Cumbia Chicha

Peruvian cumbia, particularly from 1960s to mid-1990s, is generally known as "Chicha", although this definition is quite problematic as both Peruvian cumbia and Chicha currently co-exist and influence each other (good examples include Agua Marina's popular cover of Los Eco's "Paloma Ajena" and Grupo Nectar's cover of Guinda's "Cerveza, Ron y Guinda"). Peruvian cumbia started in the 1960s with groups such as Los Destellos, and later with Juaneco Y Su Combo, Los Mirlos, Los Shapis
Los Shapis
Los Shapis is a chicha group from Peru. They rose to prominence with their 1981 hit song, El Aguajal , a modern adaptation of traditional huayno. They were noted for their rainbow coloured costumes....

, Cuarteto Continental, Los Diablos Rojos
Los Diablos Rojos
La Barra Del Rojo is the name of the barra brava of the Club Atlético Independiente. It is considered as the largest and strongest barra brava in Argentina. The existence of this group has been publicly known since the 1950s. Many members of the barra brava identify with the political left-wing...

, Pintura Roja, Chacalon y la Nueva Crema and Grupo Nectar
Grupo Néctar
The band Grupo Néctar was cumbia peruana/cumbia andina style band that formed in Buenos Aires in 1994. The band had achieved great popularity in Peru and amongst Peruvian diaspora communities worldwide...

. Some musical groups that play Peruvian cumbia today are: Agua Marina, Armonia 10, Agua Bella
Agua Bella
- History :Agua Bella was created in 1999 by music entrepreneur José Castillo, with the idea to merge the technocumbia music with top female voices and beauty. After castings to hire singers and dancers, the original band was composed by singers Evelyn Campos and Yolanda Medina with some...

, and Grupo 5. These groups would be classified as Cumbia but often take songs and techniques from Chicha and Huayno
Huayno
Huayno is a genre of popular Andean Music and dance from Andean countries. It is especially common in Peru. It originated in Serrania, Peru as a combination of traditional rural folk music and popular urban dance music...

 (Andean Music) in their stylings or as songs (see Armonia 10's "Quise Morir"). Grupo Fantasma was a Peruvian-Mexican cumbia group. Andean Cumbia, is a style that combines Andean music
Andean music
Andean music comes from the general area inhabited by Quechuas, Aymaras and other peoples that lived roughly in the area of the Inca Empire prior to European contact. It includes folklore music of parts of Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela...

 and cumbia. This style has even become popular in Mexico, as some groups like Grupo Saya claim to be Cumbia andina mexicana, Mexican Andean Cumbia.

Cumbia villera

In Argentina
Argentina
Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

, due to its identity crisis, there is a social divide that is exemplified by the cumbia villera
Cumbia villera
Cumbia villera is a typically Argentine form of cumbia music born in the villas miseria around Buenos Aires and then popularized in other large urban settlements, is derived musically from Cumbia sonidera and Chicha Cumbia.-Origins:Ever since the 1930s there has been a strong migration from the...

 phenomenon that represents and resonates with the poor and marginalized dwellers of villas miseria
Villa miseria
A villa miseria is a form of shanty town or slum found in Argentina, mostly around the largest urban settlements. The term is a compound noun made of the Spanish words villa "village, small town" and miseria "misery, dejection"...

, (shanty town
Shanty town
A shanty town is a slum settlement of impoverished people who live in improvised dwellings made from scrap materials: often plywood, corrugated metal and sheets of plastic...

s, and slum
Slum
A slum, as defined by United Nations agency UN-HABITAT, is a run-down area of a city characterized by substandard housing and squalor and lacking in tenure security. According to the United Nations, the percentage of urban dwellers living in slums decreased from 47 percent to 37 percent in the...

s). Argentinian cumbia lyrics typically glorify theft
Theft
In common usage, theft is the illegal taking of another person's property without that person's permission or consent. The word is also used as an informal shorthand term for some crimes against property, such as burglary, embezzlement, larceny, looting, robbery, shoplifting and fraud...

 and drug abuse
Drug abuse
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, refers to a maladaptive pattern of use of a substance that is not considered dependent. The term "drug abuse" does not exclude dependency, but is otherwise used in a similar manner in nonmedical contexts...

. Pablo Lescano, ex-member of Amar Azul and founder of Flor Piedra and Damas Gratis is known to be the creator of the cumbia villera
Cumbia villera
Cumbia villera is a typically Argentine form of cumbia music born in the villas miseria around Buenos Aires and then popularized in other large urban settlements, is derived musically from Cumbia sonidera and Chicha Cumbia.-Origins:Ever since the 1930s there has been a strong migration from the...

 "sound". However, it must be noted that a lighter form of cumbia enjoyed widespread popularity in Argentina during the 1990s (see Argentine cumbia
Argentine cumbia
Argentine cumbia is an umbrella term that comprises several distinct trends within the same tradition: the dance and music style known as cumbia in Argentina....

). Antonio Rios (ex-Grupo Sombras, ex-Malagata) is a good representative of the Argentinian cumbia from the 1990s. The emergence of cumbia as a massively popular form of music in Argentina came perhaps with the release of Tarjetita de Invitacion by Adrian y Los Dados Negros (from Jujuy, northern Argentina) in 1988 which was certified platinum, a first back then for a cumbia act.

New Chilean Cumbia Rock

Nowadays, Cumbia is gaining new attention as the result of an emergence of acts formed by younger musicians usually labelled as "La Nueva Cumbia Chilena" (The new Chilean Cumbia), including bands such as Chico Trujillo, Banda Conmocion, Juana Fe, Sonora Barón, Sonora de Llegar, Chorizo Salvaje, Sonora Tomo como Rey, Villa Cariño
Villa Cariño
Villa Cariño is a 1967 Argentine film....

, Sepamoya, Guachupe among others. These new bands offer some of the classic tones and sounds of Chilean cumbia blended with Rock or other folk Latin American styles. La Noche and Americo
Américo
Domingo Jonhy Vega Urzúa , commonly known as Américo, is a Chilean singer.He became known when he started leading the band Américo y la Nueva Alegría...

 are also very popular acts, although they perform a more traditional style of Chilean cumbia, to some extent related to the style that dominated during the 90s.

Cumbia "Sound"

The Chilean cumbia style is called "sound" and continues to be the most popular cumbia style in the northern part of the country (from XV region of Arica and Parinacota to V Region of Valparaíso and some regions of Southern Chile). Its better-known exponents are: Amerika'n Sound, Alegria, Amanecer and Pazkual y su Alegria, although into the late 90s and early 2000s there were dozens of groups that died with the style's crisis in mid-2005.

A resilient cumbia style from the early 1990s is Chilean 'technocumbia', sometimes known as "Sound". It is a style partially based on the Peruvian, Bolivian and Mexican cumbia with some Andean styles, although it has his own identity based on a faster beat and better arrangements.

Chanchona

"Chanchona" is a neoligism to describe a musical band that follows a cumbia rhythm and uses instruments such as the accordion
Accordion
The accordion is a box-shaped musical instrument of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone family, sometimes referred to as a squeezebox. A person who plays the accordion is called an accordionist....

, electric bass
Electric Bass
Electric bass can mean:*Electric upright bass, the electric version of a double bass*Electric bass guitar*Bass synthesizer*Big Mouth Billy Bass, a battery-powered singing fish...

, conga
Conga
The conga, or more properly the tumbadora, is a tall, narrow, single-headed Cuban drum with African antecedents. It is thought to be derived from the Makuta drums or similar drums associated with Afro-Cubans of Central African descent. A person who plays conga is called a conguero...

, güira
Güira
A güira is a percussion instrument from the Dominican Republic, generally used in merengue, bachata, and its subgenres, that sounds like a maraca or hi-hat but in fact is a sheet of metal—in practice, often from a five gallon oil can—evenly perforated with a nail, shaped into a cylinder or...

, and the occasional keyboard. This genre is popularized by artists such as La Chanchona de Tito Mira and La Chanchona de Arcadio. Chanchona sometimes also features a marimba
Marimba
The marimba is a musical instrument in the percussion family. It consists of a set of wooden keys or bars with resonators. The bars are struck with mallets to produce musical tones. The keys are arranged as those of a piano, with the accidentals raised vertically and overlapping the natural keys ...

, made famous in the genre by Fidel Funes.

Digital Cumbia

Digital Cumbia or "nu-cumbia" refers to a global movement of electronic music producers such as Toy Selectah, Frikstailers and El Hijo de la Cumbia who mix Cumbia traditional rhythms and samples with electronic music styles. The style varies greatly, incorporating influences from genres such as Dancehall
Dancehall
Dancehall is a genre of Jamaican popular music that originated in the late 1970s. Initially dancehall was a more sparse version of reggae than the roots style, which had dominated much of the 1970s. In the mid-1980s, digital instrumentation became more prevalent, changing the sound considerably,...

, Hip-Hop, Moombahton
Moombahton
Moombahton is a sub-genre of electronic dance music that was created by American DJ and producer Dave Nada at a high school homecoming "skipping party" for his younger cousin in Washington, D.C., in the fall of 2009...

 and Electronica
Electronica
Electronica includes a wide range of contemporary electronic music designed for a wide range of uses, including foreground listening, some forms of dancing, and background music for other activities; however, unlike electronic dance music, it is not specifically made for dancing...

. Notable labels include Generation Bass
Generation Bass
Generation Bass is a blog founded in February 2009 by Vincent Koreman . In May 2009, DJ Umb joined the blog. They are the co-owners & co-editors of the Generation Bass blog and Digital Music Label....

, ZZK Records, Mad Decent
Mad Decent
__FORCETOC__Mad Decent is the name of the Philadelphia via Los Angeles based record label spearheaded by Thomas Wesley Pentz, who's better known as Diplo, the Grammy-nominated producer of M.I.A’s “Paper Planes”, and one half of the collaborative music project Major Lazer...

, Bersa Discos and Urban World Records.

See also

  • Mexican Cumbia
    Mexican cumbia
    Mexican cumbia is a musical subgenre of cumbia which was re-invented from Mexico.- Origins of Mexican Cumbia :The history of Cumbia in Mexico is almost as old as Cumbia in Colombia. In the 1940s Colombian singer Luis Carlos Meyer Castandet emigrated to Mexico where he worked with the Mexican...

  • Aniceto Molina y Los Sabaneros
    Aniceto Molina y Los Sabaneros
    Aniceto Molina, originally from the town of El Campano, Colombia, began his musical career at the age of 12 playing the accordion. As the years passed he toured and recorded throughout Central America.Aniceto Molina is very known in El Salvador because his wife is Salvadorian and Cumbia is the most...

  • Panamanian music
  • Colombian music
  • Totó la Momposina
    Totó la Momposina
    Sonia Bazanta Vides, better known as Totó la Momposina, is a Colombian singer of traditional mixed indigenous Colombian and Afro-Latin music. She was born in the northern Colombian town of Talaigua Nuevo near Mompox in the Bolívar Department...

  • Latin rock

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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