Croix de guerre
Overview
The Croix de guerre is a military decoration
Military decoration
A military decoration is a decoration given to military personnel or units for heroism in battle or distinguished service. They are designed to be worn on military uniform....

 of France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

. It was first created in 1915 and consists of a square-cross medal on two crossed swords, hanging from a ribbon with various degree pins. The decoration was awarded during World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, again in World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, and in other conflicts. The Croix de guerre was also commonly bestowed on foreign military forces allied to France.

The Croix de guerre may either be bestowed as a unit award or to individuals who distinguish themselves by acts of heroism involving combat with enemy forces.
Encyclopedia
The Croix de guerre is a military decoration
Military decoration
A military decoration is a decoration given to military personnel or units for heroism in battle or distinguished service. They are designed to be worn on military uniform....

 of France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

. It was first created in 1915 and consists of a square-cross medal on two crossed swords, hanging from a ribbon with various degree pins. The decoration was awarded during World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, again in World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, and in other conflicts. The Croix de guerre was also commonly bestowed on foreign military forces allied to France.

The Croix de guerre may either be bestowed as a unit award or to individuals who distinguish themselves by acts of heroism involving combat with enemy forces. The medal is also awarded to those who have been "mentioned in despatches", meaning a heroic deed was performed meriting a citation from an individual's headquarters unit. The unit award of the Croix de guerre was issued to military commanders who performed heroic deeds in combat and were subsequently recognized by headquarters.

Appearance

The Croix de guerre medal varies depending on which country is bestowing the award and for what conflict. Separate French medals exist for the First and Second World War.

For the unit decoration of the Croix de guerre, a fourragère
Fourragère
The fourragère is a military award, distinguishing military units as a whole, that is shaped as a braided cord. The award has been firstly adopted by France, followed by other nations such as the Netherlands, Belgium and Portugal.- History :...

 is awarded which is suspended from the shoulder of an individual's uniform.

Because the Croix de guerre is issued as several different medals, and as a unit decoration, situations typically arose where an individual was awarded the decoration several times, for different actions, and from different sources. Regulations also permitted the wearing of multiple Croix de guerre, meaning that such medals were differentiated in service records by specifying French Croix de guerre, French Croix de guerre (WWI), etc.

French Croix de guerre

There are three distinct Croix de guerre medals in the French system of honours :
Ribbon Awards
Croix de guerre 1914–1918 (for World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 service)
Croix de guerre 1939–1945 (for World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 service)
Croix de guerre des théâtres d'opérations extérieures
Croix de guerre des Théatres d'Opérations Exterieures
The Croix de guerre des théâtres d’opérations extérieures is a French medal rewarded for military service in foreign countries. It is granted to individuals who have received citations for their actions while engaged in military service overseas.-History:...

 (TOE) for wars other than World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 and World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 not fought on French soil


Furthermore, the French collaborationist
Vichy France
Vichy France, Vichy Regime, or Vichy Government, are common terms used to describe the government of France that collaborated with the Axis powers from July 1940 to August 1944. This government succeeded the Third Republic and preceded the Provisional Government of the French Republic...

 government created two croix during World War II. These croix are illegal and wearing them is outlawed.
Ribbon Awards
Croix de guerre (Vichy France
Vichy France
Vichy France, Vichy Regime, or Vichy Government, are common terms used to describe the government of France that collaborated with the Axis powers from July 1940 to August 1944. This government succeeded the Third Republic and preceded the Provisional Government of the French Republic...

) (for World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 service)
Croix de guerre de la Légion des Volontaires Français
Legion of French Volunteers Against Bolshevism
The Legion of French Volunteers Against Bolshevism was a collaborationist French militia founded on July 8, 1941. It gathered various collaborationist parties, including Marcel Bucard's Mouvement Franciste, Marcel Déat's National Popular Rally, Jacques Doriot's French Popular Party, Eugène...

 (for World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 service)

The Croix was created by a law of April 2, 1915, proposed by French deputy Émile Briant. The Croix reinstated an older system of mentions in dispatches, which were only administrative honours with no medal. The sculptor Paul-André Bartholomé created the medal, a bronze cross with swords, showing the effigy of the republic.

The French Croix represents a mention in dispatches awarded by a commanding officer, at least a regimental commander. Depending on the officer who issued the mention, the ribbon of the Croix is marked with extra pins.
  • Mentioned in Despatches :
    • a bronze star for those who had been mentioned at the regiment
      Regiment
      A regiment is a major tactical military unit, composed of variable numbers of batteries, squadrons or battalions, commanded by a colonel or lieutenant colonel...

       or brigade
      Brigade
      A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of two to five battalions, plus supporting elements depending on the era and nationality of a given army and could be perceived as an enlarged/reinforced regiment...

       level.
    • a silver star, for those who had been mentioned at the division
      Division (military)
      A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers. In most armies, a division is composed of several regiments or brigades, and in turn several divisions typically make up a corps...

       level.
    • a silver gilt star for those who had been mentioned at the corps level.
    • a bronze palm for those who had been mentioned at the army
      Army
      An army An army An army (from Latin arma "arms, weapons" via Old French armée, "armed" (feminine), in the broadest sense, is the land-based military of a nation or state. It may also include other branches of the military such as the air force via means of aviation corps...

       level.
    • a silver palm stands for five bronze ones.
    • a silver gilt palm for those who had been mentioned at the Free French Forces
      Free French Forces
      The Free French Forces were French partisans in World War II who decided to continue fighting against the forces of the Axis powers after the surrender of France and subsequent German occupation and, in the case of Vichy France, collaboration with the Germans.-Definition:In many sources, Free...

       level (World War II only).


The French Croix de guerre des TOE was created in 1921 for wars fought in theatres of operation outside of France. It was awarded during Indochina War, Korean War
Korean War
The Korean War was a conventional war between South Korea, supported by the United Nations, and North Korea, supported by the People's Republic of China , with military material aid from the Soviet Union...

, and other wars up to Kosovo War
Kosovo War
The term Kosovo War or Kosovo conflict was two sequential, and at times parallel, armed conflicts in Kosovo province, then part of FR Yugoslav Republic of Serbia; from early 1998 to 1999, there was an armed conflict initiated by the ethnic Albanian "Kosovo Liberation Army" , who sought independence...

 in 1999

When World War II broke out in 1939, a new Croix de guerre was created by Édouard Daladier
Édouard Daladier
Édouard Daladier was a French Radical politician and the Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War.-Career:Daladier was born in Carpentras, Vaucluse. Later, he would become known to many as "the bull of Vaucluse" because of his thick neck and large shoulders and determined...

. It was abolished by Vichy Government in 1941, which created a new Croix de guerre. In 1943 General Giraud
Henri Giraud
Henri Honoré Giraud was a French general who fought in World War I and World War II. Captured in both wars, he escaped each time....

 in Algiers
Algiers
' is the capital and largest city of Algeria. According to the 1998 census, the population of the city proper was 1,519,570 and that of the urban agglomeration was 2,135,630. In 2009, the population was about 3,500,000...

 created another Croix de guerre. Both Vichy and Giraud Croix were abolished by General de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle was a French general and statesman who led the Free French Forces during World War II. He later founded the French Fifth Republic in 1958 and served as its first President from 1959 to 1969....

 in 1944, who reinstated the 1939 Croix.

The Croix de guerre takes precedence between the Ordre national du Mérite
Ordre National du Mérite
The Ordre national du Mérite is an Order of State awarded by the President of the French Republic. It was founded on 3 December 1963 by President Charles de Gaulle...

 and the Croix de la Valeur Militaire
Croix de la Valeur Militaire
The Croix de la Valeur Militaire is a military decoration of France that recognizes individual holding a mention in Dispatches earned in theaters of operations which are not subject to the award of the Croix de guerre....

, the World War I Croix being senior to the World War II one, itself senior to TOE Croix.

Unit Award

The Croix can be awarded to military units, as a manifestation of a collective Mention in Despatches. It is then displayed on the unit's flag. A unit, usually a regiment
Regiment
A regiment is a major tactical military unit, composed of variable numbers of batteries, squadrons or battalions, commanded by a colonel or lieutenant colonel...

 or a battalion
Battalion
A battalion is a military unit of around 300–1,200 soldiers usually consisting of between two and seven companies and typically commanded by either a Lieutenant Colonel or a Colonel...

, is always mentioned at the army level. The Croix is then a Croix de guerre with palm. Other communities, such as cities or companies can be also awarded the Croix.

When a unit is mentioned twice, it is awarded the fourragère
Fourragère
The fourragère is a military award, distinguishing military units as a whole, that is shaped as a braided cord. The award has been firstly adopted by France, followed by other nations such as the Netherlands, Belgium and Portugal.- History :...

of the Croix de guerre. This fourragère is worn by all men in the unit, but it can be worn on a personal basis: those permanently assigned to a unit, at the time of the mentions, were entitled to wear the fourragère for the remainder of service in the military.

Temporary personnel, or those who had joined a unit after the actions which had been mentioned, were authorized to wear the award while a member of the unit but would surrender the decoration upon transfer. This temporary wearing of the fourragère only applied to the French version of the Croix de guerre.

United States acceptance

In the United States military, the Croix de guerre was commonly accepted as a foreign decoration. In the modern age, however, it remains one of the most difficult foreign awards to verify entitlement. This is because the Croix de guerre was often presented with original orders only and rarely entered into a permanent service record. The unit award was virtually never entered into U.S. records, especially since in most cases it was considered a temporary decoration which was surrendered when an individual departed a unit. An added complication is that the 1973 National Archives Fire
1973 National Archives Fire
The National Personnel Records Center fire of 1973, also referred to as the 1973 National Archives fire was a fire that occurred at the United States National Personnel Records Center in Overland, Missouri, a suburb of St. Louis, on July 12, 1973, striking a severe blow to the National Archives...

 destroyed a large number of World War II personnel records, meaning that there are very few sources from which to verify a veteran's entitlement to the Croix de guerre.

In World War II, the 440th AAA AW Battalion (Anti-Aircraft Artillery - Automatic Weapons) of the U.S. Army received the French Croix de guerre Unit Citation for stopping the German Ardennes counter-offensive in holding the town of Gouvy, Belgium for 4 1/2 days at the beginning of the Battle of the Bulge
Battle of the Bulge
The Battle of the Bulge was a major German offensive , launched toward the end of World War II through the densely forested Ardennes mountain region of Wallonia in Belgium, hence its French name , and France and...

 on December 16, 1944. Gouvy is midway between St. Vith and Bastogne. Commanding Officer of the unit, Lt. Col. Robert O. Stone, and Pfc. Joseph P. Regis of the unit, received the Croix de guerre Avec Palme.

Today, members of United States 5th Marine Regiment and 6th Marine Regiment, the Army's 2nd Infantry Division, the Army's 3rd Infantry Division, the Army's 3rd Squadron - 4th Cavalry Regiment, and the Army's 1st Battalion - 28th Infantry Regiment, are authorized to wear a fourragère
Fourragère
The fourragère is a military award, distinguishing military units as a whole, that is shaped as a braided cord. The award has been firstly adopted by France, followed by other nations such as the Netherlands, Belgium and Portugal.- History :...

 signifying that brigade's award of three Croix de guerre during the World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, but only while that individual is assigned to the unit. The wearing of the decoration is considered ceremonial and the fourragère is not entered as an official military award in permanent service records.

Individuals in World War I

  • Lt.-Gen. Sir James Melville Babington
    James Melville Babington
    Lieutenant General Sir James Melville Babington , K.C.B., K.C.M.G.. He held the French Croix de guerre with Palm, and the Italian Croce di Guerra. He was a Commander of the Legion of Honour and an Officer of the Military Order of Savoy. He was a renowned leader of cavalry, making a name for himself...

    , Commander of the 23rd Division (United Kingdom)
  • Hobey Baker
    Hobey Baker
    Hobart Amory Hare "Hobey" Baker was an American amateur athlete of the early twentieth century. Regarded as the first American star in ice hockey, he was also an accomplished football player. Born into a prominent family from Philadelphia, he enrolled at Princeton University in 1910...

    , an American fighter pilot.
  • Lieutenant (later Temporary Captain) Harold Bassett, Royal Engineers, French Bronze with Palm, Jan 1916? (London Gazette 28 January 1919).
  • Charles Raymond Blake, First Lieutenant serving in the Lafayette Flying Squadron, was awarded the Croix de guerre and the Distinguished Service Cross after successfully defending against five attacking German planes over Lassigny, France on August 9, 1918.
  • Arthur Bluethenthal
    Arthur Bluethenthal
    Arthur Bluethenthal, nicknamed "Bluey" , was an All American football player for Princeton University, who died in combat fighting for France in World War I.-Early life:...

    , All American football player and decorated World War I pilot.
  • Solon Hannibal de la Mothe Borglum
    Solon Borglum
    Solon Hannibal de la Mothe Borglum was an American sculptor. He is most noted for his depiction of frontier life, and especially his experience with cowboys and native Americans....

    , for work with the Les Foyers du Soldat. American Sculptor.
  • Bl. Daniel Brottier
    Daniel Brottier
    Blessed Daniel Jules Alexis Brottier, C.S.Sp. was a French Roman Catholic priest in the Congregation of the Holy Ghost. He was awarded the Croix de guerre and the Légion d'honneur for his services as a chaplain during World War I, did missionary work in Senegal, and administered an orphanage in...

    , beatus
    Beatification
    Beatification is a recognition accorded by the Catholic Church of a dead person's entrance into Heaven and capacity to intercede on behalf of individuals who pray in his or her name . Beatification is the third of the four steps in the canonization process...

    in the Roman Catholic Church; acted as a military chaplain during the war.
  • Stanley Melbourne Bruce, 1st Viscount Melbourne and later Prime Minister of Australia, in 1917.
  • Eugene Bullard
    Eugene Bullard
    Eugene Jacques Bullard was the first black military pilot and the only black pilot in World War I along with Ahmet Ali .-Early life:...

    , wounded in the 1916 battles around Verdun, was awarded the Croix de guerre for his heroism.
  • Georges Carpentier
    Georges Carpentier
    Georges Carpentier was a French boxer. He fought mainly as a light heavyweight and heavyweight in a career lasting from 1908-26. Nicknamed the "Orchid Man", he stood and his fighting weight ranged from...

    , Aviator during the war as well as a world champion boxer.
  • Andrew Colvin, Dispatch rider, Service No 202071. Canadian Infantry. Stayed conscious until message delivered. Died 23/12/1917. Also received Military Medal.
  • Father John B. DeValles
    Father John B. DeValles
    Father John B. DeValles founded the first Portuguese parochial school at Espirito Santo Church in Fall River. In 1918 he was appointed a chaplain in the regular army with the rank of first lieutenant and administered to the needs of both Allied and German soldiers. His exploits became legendary...

    , A chaplain with the Yankee Division, he was known as the "Angel of the Trenches" for his valiant deeds in caring for both Allied and German soldiers on the battlefields of France. Fr. DeValles was injured in a mustard gas attack while attending to a fallen soldier and died two years later.
  • T/Lieutenant Hugh Ravensford Dixon, 121st Field Company R.E. was awarded the Croix de guerre with palm for his part in the bridging of the River Lys on 19 October 1918.
  • Otis B. Duncan
    Otis B. Duncan
    Otis B. Duncan was an officer in the United States Army. He was the highest-ranking African-American in the U.S...

    , lieutenant-colonel in the 370th Infantry Regiment (United States)
    370th Infantry Regiment (United States)
    The 370th Infantry Regiment was the designation for one of the infantry regiments of the 93rd Infantry Division.-8th Infantry Regiment, Illinois National Guard:This was an all-black militia regiment founded in the 1870s....

     and highest-ranking African-American officer to serve in World War I combat.
  • Thomas J. Evans, part of the 1st Battalion Welsh Guards. He was awarded the cross on 31 July 1917 after the attack on Pilkem Ridge near Ypres
    Ypres
    Ypres is a Belgian municipality located in the Flemish province of West Flanders. The municipality comprises the city of Ypres and the villages of Boezinge, Brielen, Dikkebus, Elverdinge, Hollebeke, Sint-Jan, Vlamertinge, Voormezele, Zillebeke, and Zuidschote...

    .
  • Ernest Fawcus
    Ernest Fawcus
    Ernest Augustus Fawcus was an English cricketer. Fawcus was a right-handed batsman who bowled with his right-arm, although his bowling style is unknown. He was born in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Northumberland and educated at Aldenham School and would later become a British Army and Royal Air Force...

    , officer in the Northumberland Fusiliers and Royal Flying Corps
    Royal Flying Corps
    The Royal Flying Corps was the over-land air arm of the British military during most of the First World War. During the early part of the war, the RFC's responsibilities were centred on support of the British Army, via artillery co-operation and photographic reconnaissance...

    , awarded the Croix de guerre for leading successful bombing attacks.
  • Dorothie Feilding
    Dorothie Feilding
    Lady Dorothie Mary Evelyn Feilding-Moore , better known as Dorothie Feilding, MM, CdeG, OLII, was a British heiress who shunned her aristocratic background to become a highly decorated volunteer nurse and ambulance driver on the Western Front during World War I...

    , a British volunteer nurse awarded the Croix de guerre for bravery in the field.
  • George L. Fox
    George L. Fox
    George L. Fox was a Methodist minister and a lieutenant in the United States Army. He was one of the Four Chaplains who gave their lives to save other soldiers during the sinking of the USAT Dorchester during World War II.-Life:George L. Fox was born in Lewistown, Pennsylvania in 1900, one of five...

    , awarded the Croix de guerre for his service on the Western Front. He was also one of the Four Chaplains who gave their lives when the troopships USAT Dorchester was hit by a torpedo and sank on February 3, 1943, during World War II.
  • William Henry Galpin, awarded the Croix de Guerre for his bravery in agreeing to continue helping local villagers bring in the harvest in Marseille, France, despite being under enemy shelling. A shell exploded over him, and the medal was sent home to his mother.
  • Robert Gauthiot
    Robert Gauthiot
    Robert Gauthiot was a French Orientalist, linguist, and explorer.He interrupted his exploration of the Pamir Mountains in July 1914 to return home to serve as a captain in the infantry during World War I. Gauthiot received the Croix de guerre before he was mortally wounded at the Second Battle of...

    , French
    French people
    The French are a nation that share a common French culture and speak the French language as a mother tongue. Historically, the French population are descended from peoples of Celtic, Latin and Germanic origin, and are today a mixture of several ethnic groups...

     Orientalist
    Oriental studies
    Oriental studies is the academic field of study that embraces Near Eastern and Far Eastern societies and cultures, languages, peoples, history and archaeology; in recent years the subject has often been turned into the newer terms of Asian studies and Middle Eastern studies...

    , linguist
    Linguistics
    Linguistics is the scientific study of human language. Linguistics can be broadly broken into three categories or subfields of study: language form, language meaning, and language in context....

    , and explorer, interrupted his exploration of the Pamir Mountains
    Pamir Mountains
    The Pamir Mountains are a mountain range in Central Asia formed by the junction or knot of the Himalayas, Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, and Hindu Kush ranges. They are among the world’s highest mountains and since Victorian times they have been known as the "Roof of the World" a probable...

     in July 1914 to return home to serve as a captain in the infantry. He received the Croix de guerre before he was mortally wounded at the Second Battle of Artois
    Second Battle of Artois
    The Second Battle of Artois, of which the British contribution was the Battle of Aubers Ridge, was a battle on the Western Front of the First World War, it was fought at the same time as the Second Battle of Ypres. Even though the French under General Philippe Pétain gained some initial victories,...

     in May 1916.
  • Oliver James George (M.M) CPL East Surrey Regiment. He volunteered in September 1914, and after serving at stations in England, he was sent to France in October of the following year. There he fought at St. Eloi and Ypres, but being wounded two months later was invalided home to hospital, returning to the front in April 1916. He was in action at Messines, but at Guillemont during the Somme offensive, received a second wound which necessitated his evacuation to England. Early in 1917 he was again in action this time at Nieupoort and in November was drafted to Italy. Returning to France two months afterwards, he served at Bapaume & on the Somme during the “retreat and advance” and for conspicuous gallantry whilst in charge of a “mopping up” section in an operation in Menin in October, which resulted in the capture of 28 prisoners & 2 officers was awarded the military medal and Croix de Guerre. Also serving with the army of occupation, he was demobilised in March 1919 and holds the 1914-1918 star and general service & victory medals.
  • Lieutenant Frederick Maurice Watson Harvey
    Frederick Maurice Watson Harvey
    Frederick Maurice Watson Harvey VC, CBE, MC, Croix de Guerre was an Irish Canadian rugby union player and soldier. During the First World War, while serving in the Canadian Army, he was awarded the Victoria Cross, the Military Cross and the Croix de Guerre. He was later awarded a CBE...

    , Lord Strathcona’s Horse, Canada
  • George Hedges No.9540, 1st Battalion East Surrey Regiment,1914-1918.
  • Frank H. Hullinger, awarded Croix de Guerre for bravery. Also awarded with Hullinger was Earl Sleeth. Both "volunteered under violent bombardment to insure liaison of its advance post, which was attacked by a strong enemy detachment."
  • Lieutenant-Colonel Harold Iremonger
    Harold Iremonger
    Lieutenant-Colonel Harold Iremonger, DSO was an officer in the Royal Marine Artillery who later served as acting Governor of Saint Helena.-Early life:...

  • Henry Lincoln Johnson
    Henry Lincoln Johnson
    Henry Lincoln Johnson was an African-American soldier, and recipient of the Distinguished Service Cross, Purple Heart, and the French Croix de Guerre.-Biography:...

     served with the 369th Infantry Division, better known as the Harlem Hellfighters or the Black Rattlers, a regiment consisted entirely of African Americans excepting their commanding officers.
  • American poet Joyce Kilmer
    Joyce Kilmer
    Alfred Joyce Kilmer was an American journalist, poet, literary critic, lecturer, and editor. Though a prolific poet whose works celebrated the common beauty of the natural world as well as his religious faith, Kilmer is remembered most for a short poem entitled "Trees" , which was published in...

     (1886–1918), a sergeant and intelligence observer with the 69th Volunteer Infantry, 42nd Rainbow Division, was posthumously awarded the Croix de guerre for service.
  • Arthur Jefferson Lane, an Australian private in the 60th Battalion, Recommendation date: 30 September 1917 (Polygon Wood), Killed in Action 25 April 1918 (Villers-Bretonneux).
  • Henry Louis Larsen
    Henry Louis Larsen
    Henry Louis Larsen was a United States Marine Corps Lieutenant General, the second Military Governor of Guam following its recapture from the Empire of Japan, and the first post-World War II Governor of Guam. He also served as the Military Governor of American Samoa alongside civilian Governor of...

    , an American Marine commanding the 3rd Battalion 5th Marines
    3rd Battalion 5th Marines
    3rd Battalion 5th Marines is an infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps. The battalion, nicknamed "Dark Horse", is based out of Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California and consists of approximately 1,000 Marines and Sailors...

     during every major battle of the war in France involving the United States.
  • Charles Lolah, a Passamaquoddy Indian from Pleasant Point reservation, Maine, who heroically fought and died in the Battle of Xivray-Marvoisin on 16 June 1918.
  • Henri de Lubac
    Henri de Lubac
    Henri-Marie de Lubac, SJ was a French Jesuit priest who became a Cardinal of the Catholic Church, and is considered to be one of the most influential theologians of the 20th century...

    , a Roman Catholic Jesuit novice serving in the Third Infantry Regiment, who was severely wounded in the head on 1 November 1917 while fighting near Verdun. He later became an influential Catholic theologian and Cardinal
    Cardinal (Catholicism)
    A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually an ordained bishop, and ecclesiastical prince of the Catholic Church. They are collectively known as the College of Cardinals, which as a body elects a new pope. The duties of the cardinals include attending the meetings of the College and...

    .
  • Batista Maraglia of the 305th Infantry Regiment was awarded the Croix de guerre for his valor in the Battle of Meuse River-Argonne Forest
    Meuse-Argonne Offensive
    The Meuse-Argonne Offensive, or Maas-Argonne Offensive, also called the Battle of the Argonne Forest, was a part of the final Allied offensive of World War I that stretched along the entire western front.-Overview:...

    , France
    France
    The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

    .
  • William March
    William March
    William March was an American author and a highly decorated US Marine. The author of six novels and four short-story collections, March was praised by critics and heralded as "the unrecognized genius of our time", without attaining popular appeal until after his death.March grew up in rural...

    , American writer, awarded the Croix de guerre with palm.
  • Lawrence Dominic McCarthy
    Lawrence Dominic McCarthy
    Lawrence Dominic McCarthy VC was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces....

    , was also an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
  • Horace McCoy
    Horace McCoy
    Horace McCoy was an American writer whose hardboiled novels took place during the Great Depression. His best-known novel is They Shoot Horses, Don't They? , which was made into a movie of the same name in 1969, fourteen years after McCoy's death.-Early life:McCoy was born in Pegram, Tennessee...

    , American novelist and screenwriter.
  • Harry Morton, Lieut. Colonel, 1st and 15th Bns Sherwood Foresters DSO MC, awarded for many brilliant military qualities and exceptional services in Flanders during September and October 1917.
  • Isabel Weld Perkins
    Isabel Weld Perkins
    Isabel Weld Perkins , mostly known as Isabel Anderson or Mrs. Larz Anderson after her marriage, was a Boston-area heiress and author who left a legacy to the public that includes a park and two museums. She is interred in the St...

    , awarded the Croix de guerre for Red Cross volunteer work.
  • Joseph Edny Powell, awarded the Croix de guerre in 1918 by then CIC, later Marshal Pétain, for valor. His company "Le Terrible" was H Company, the first to occupy Germany after breaking the Hindenburg Line
    Hindenburg Line
    The Hindenburg Line was a vast system of defences in northeastern France during World War I. It was constructed by the Germans during the winter of 1916–17. The line stretched from Lens to beyond Verdun...

     in September, 1918.
  • Eddie Rickenbacker
    Eddie Rickenbacker
    Edward Vernon Rickenbacker was an American fighter ace in World War I and Medal of Honor recipient. He was also a race car driver and automotive designer, a government consultant in military matters and a pioneer in air transportation, particularly as the longtime head of Eastern Air Lines.-Early...

    , Captain and flying ace of the 94th Aero Squadron, United States Army Air Service
    United States Army Air Service
    The Air Service, United States Army was a forerunner of the United States Air Force during and after World War I. It was established as an independent but temporary wartime branch of the War Department by two executive orders of President Woodrow Wilson: on May 24, 1918, replacing the Aviation...

    , during World War I; also recipient of the U.S. Medal of Honor
    Medal of Honor
    The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government. It is bestowed by the President, in the name of Congress, upon members of the United States Armed Forces who distinguish themselves through "conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his or her...

    .
  • James E. Rieger
    James E. Rieger
    James Edward Rieger was a lawyer and US Army officer. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, America's second-highest award for valor, and the Croix de Guerre from the government of France.-Early life and family:...

    , Major (later Colonel), led a key attack during the Meuse-Argonne offensive. Also awarded the Distinguished Service Cross
    Distinguished Service Cross (United States)
    The Distinguished Service Cross is the second highest military decoration that can be awarded to a member of the United States Army, for extreme gallantry and risk of life in actual combat with an armed enemy force. Actions that merit the Distinguished Service Cross must be of such a high degree...

  • Milunka Savić
    Milunka Savic
    Milunka Savić was a Serbian woman war heroine from the First World War, recognised as the most-decorated female combatant in the entire history of warfare. She was wounded no fewer than nine times during her term-of-service.-Military action:...

    , was awarded the French Croix de Guerre 1914-1918 with Palm. She is the only woman in the world awarded with this medal for service in World War I.
  • James M. Sellers
    James M. Sellers
    Colonel James M. Sellers was a highly decorated Marine in World War I, and served as Commandant, Superintendent and President of Wentworth Military Academy in Lexington, Missouri from 1920 to 1990.-Biography:...

    , U.S. Marine
    United States Marine Corps
    The United States Marine Corps is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the United States Navy to deliver combined-arms task forces rapidly. It is one of seven uniformed services of the United States...

     awarded the Croix de Guerre for heroism at Belleau Wood
    Battle of Belleau Wood
    The Battle of Belleau Wood occurred during the German 1918 Spring Offensive in World War I, near the Marne River in France. The battle was fought between the U.S...

  • Jess William Snyder, Major, United States Army
    United States Army
    The United States Army is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military, and is one of seven U.S. uniformed services...

    , American Expeditionary Force
    American Expeditionary Force
    The American Expeditionary Forces or AEF were the United States Armed Forces sent to Europe in World War I. During the United States campaigns in World War I the AEF fought in France alongside British and French allied forces in the last year of the war, against Imperial German forces...

     (the first American unit to enter World War I) was awarded the Croix de Guerre with palm and silver star, concurrently with a Purple Heart
    Purple Heart
    The Purple Heart is a United States military decoration awarded in the name of the President to those who have been wounded or killed while serving on or after April 5, 1917 with the U.S. military. The National Purple Heart Hall of Honor is located in New Windsor, New York...

     and U.S. Silver Star
    Silver Star
    The Silver Star is the third-highest combat military decoration that can be awarded to a member of any branch of the United States armed forces for valor in the face of the enemy....

    , France 1918.
  • Laurence Stallings
    Laurence Stallings
    Laurence Tucker Stallings was an American playwright, screenwriter, lyricist, literary critic, journalist, novelist, and photographer...

    , American writer.
  • Sir Norman Stronge, 8th Baronet, was awarded the Belgian Croix de guerre.
  • Leslie R. Taber, an American pilot in the Lafayette Flying Corps
    Lafayette Flying Corps
    The Lafayette Flying Corps is a name used to describe the American volunteer pilots who flew for the French during World War I. It includes the pilots who flew with the bona fide Lafayette Escadrille squadron. The estimations of number of pilots range from 180 to over 300. The generally accepted...

     who flew in 1917 as a fighter and bomber pilot. He also served in the US Navy as a Naval Aviator after the US entered the war and won the Navy Cross
    Navy Cross
    The Navy Cross is the highest decoration that may be bestowed by the Department of the Navy and the second highest decoration given for valor. It is normally only awarded to members of the United States Navy, United States Marine Corps and United States Coast Guard, but can be awarded to all...

    .
  • John Tovey, Royal Navy
    Royal Navy
    The Royal Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Founded in the 16th century, it is the oldest service branch and is known as the Senior Service...

    , later became a senior naval commander and an Admiral of the Fleet
    Admiral of the Fleet
    An admiral of the fleet is a military naval officer of the highest rank. In many nations the rank is reserved for wartime or ceremonial appointments...

    .
  • Stephen W. Thompson
    Stephen W. Thompson
    Stephen W. Thompson was an American aviator of World War I, and the first person in the U.S. Military to shoot down an enemy aircraft .-Early life:...

    , American aviator, was awarded the Croix de guerre with palm. He is credited with the first aerial victory by the U.S. military.
  • Louis Volant, great-grandfather of JK Rowling. He lead a small platoon in holding off the German Army at Courcelles-le-Comte
    Courcelles-le-Comte
    Courcelles-le-Comte is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France.-Geography:Courcelles-le-Comte is located 11 miles south of Arras at the junction of the D12 and D32 roads.-Population:...

    , France
    France
    The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

     while the rest of his regiment retreated. He killed several German soldiers before being seriously wounded by a shell.
  • Major Frederick Lawrence Wall, Australian Army Medical Corps, served in France during World War I.
  • Edwin "Pa" Watson, served in France. Earning the U.S. Army Silver Star and the Croix de Guerre from the French government.
  • William A. Wellman
    William A. Wellman
    William Augustus Wellman was an American film director. Although Wellman began his film career as an actor, he worked on over 80 films, as director, producer and consultant but most often as a director, notable for his work in crime, adventure and action genre films, often focusing on aviation...

    , American fighter pilot in the Lafayette Flying Corp awarded Croix de Guerre with two palm leaves, 1918
  • Samuel Woodfill
    Samuel Woodfill
    Samuel Woodfill was a Major in the United States Army. He was a veteran of the Philippine–American War, World War I, and World War II. Woodfill was one of the most celebrated American soldiers of the early twentieth century. General John Pershing called Woodfill the most outstanding soldier in...

    , an American Major who disabled several German machine-gun nests and killed many enemy combatants with rifle, pistol and pickaxe. He was awarded the French Croix de guerre.
  • Alvin C. York was awarded the Croix de guerre with bronze palm for his valor in the Battle of Meuse River-Argonne Forest
    Meuse-Argonne Offensive
    The Meuse-Argonne Offensive, or Maas-Argonne Offensive, also called the Battle of the Argonne Forest, was a part of the final Allied offensive of World War I that stretched along the entire western front.-Overview:...

     near the town of Verdun, France
    France
    The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

    .

Individuals in World War II

  • Pvt. William Lindley Mawer, Awarded June 1944;for extreme bravery and disregard for personal safety
  • Sgt. William Peter Coomber 1917 - 1999. Awarded the French Croix de Guerre with bronze star for his part in action at Bir Hacheim while attached to the Free French in North Africa in 1942
  • Władysław Anders, Polish general, commander of the 2nd Polish Corps 1943-1946.
  • Vera Atkins
    Vera Atkins
    Vera Atkins, CBE was a British Intelligence Officer during World War II.-Early life:...

    ,art of the French section of the SOE
    Special Operations Executive
    The Special Operations Executive was a World War II organisation of the United Kingdom. It was officially formed by Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Minister of Economic Warfare Hugh Dalton on 22 July 1940, to conduct guerrilla warfare against the Axis powers and to instruct and aid local...

    .
  • Maurice Bambier
    Maurice Bambier
    Maurice Bambier was a French politician. A steelworker by trade, Bambier was a member of the administrative committee for the General Confederation of Labour of Oise from 1956 to 1863, Federal Secretary for the Communist Party from 1965 to 1983, and mayor of Montataire from 1983 to 1944.-Early...

    , French politician and former Mayor of Montataire, awarded the French Croix de guerre for his services around Dunkirk.
  • Josephine Baker
    Josephine Baker
    Josephine Baker was an American dancer, singer, and actress who found fame in her adopted homeland of France. She was given such nicknames as the "Bronze Venus", the "Black Pearl", and the "Créole Goddess"....

    , American-born dancer, actress, and singer, for her work in the French Resistance
    French Resistance
    The French Resistance is the name used to denote the collection of French resistance movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during World War II...

    .
  • Samuel Beckett
    Samuel Beckett
    Samuel Barclay Beckett was an Irish avant-garde novelist, playwright, theatre director, and poet. He wrote both in English and French. His work offers a bleak, tragicomic outlook on human nature, often coupled with black comedy and gallows humour.Beckett is widely regarded as among the most...

    , awarded the Croix de guerre by General Charles de Gaulle
    Charles de Gaulle
    Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle was a French general and statesman who led the Free French Forces during World War II. He later founded the French Fifth Republic in 1958 and served as its first President from 1959 to 1969....

     in March, 1945.
  • Hyman "Hank" Bergman
    Hank Bergman
    Hyman "Hank" Bergman of Baltimore, Maryland, was a U.S. Army combat veteran of World War II, who while serving with the "Blue Devils" of the 88th Infantry Division was awarded the Silver Star for single-handedly destroying a German machine-gun nest, while under enemy fire.-Pre-World War II...

    , awarded for service fighting with Free French Forces Arno River.
  • Marcel Bigeard
    Marcel Bigeard
    Marcel "Bruno" Bigeard was a French military officer who fought in World War II, Indochina and Algeria. He was one of the commanders in the Battle of Dien Bien Phu and is thought by many to have been a dominating influence on French 'unconventional' warfare thinking from that time onwards...

    , highly decorated French general and veteran of World War II, French Indochina and Algeria; received both the Croix de guerre 1939-1945 and the Croix de guerre TOE with a total of 25 citations, including 17 palms.
  • Frederick Charles Bothwell, Jr.
    Frederick Charles Bothwell, Jr.
    Frederick Charles Bothwell, Jr, Colonel USAAF, Bronze Star Medal, OBE - Military, Croix de Guerre avec Palme, was an officer in the 15th Air Force during the Second World War, and a senior executive in New York State government following the war.-Early life:Bothwell, the son of Frederick Bothwell,...

    , Colonel, USAAF, Awarded Croix de Guerre avec Palme for service in enemy occupied Yugoslavia. Upon retirement was appointed Director of the New York State Civil Defense Authority.
  • Phil H. Bucklew
    Phil H. Bucklew
    Phil H. Bucklew was a former professional football player who went on to become a Navy officer. He served in one of the Navy's first special warfare units during World War II...

    , US Sailor and "Father of American Naval Special Warfare".
  • Frank Harding Burchell, surgeon of the USS McLanahan
    USS McLanahan
    USS McLanahan may refer to:, a Clemson-class destroyer commissioned in 1919 and transferred to the Royal Navy in 1940 where she served as HMS Bradford , a Benson-class destroyer commissioned in 1942 and decommissioned in 1946...

     received the Croix de guerre for saving the lives of his crew by performing emergency surgery after his ship the USS McLanahan
    USS McLanahan
    USS McLanahan may refer to:, a Clemson-class destroyer commissioned in 1919 and transferred to the Royal Navy in 1940 where she served as HMS Bradford , a Benson-class destroyer commissioned in 1942 and decommissioned in 1946...

     was hit by a large caliber projectile fired by a shore battery which exploded 20 to 40 feet off her port quarter off the coast of San Remo, Italy in 1945.
  • Thomas A. Cassilly, was awarded the French Croix de guerre while in the US Army, retired from the US Foreign Service in 1972 and taught at Montclair State University and Manhattanville College.
  • Frederick Walker Castle, U.S. Army Air Forces general and posthumous recipient of the Medal of Honor
  • Lionel Guy D'Artois
    Guy D'Artois
    Major Lionel Guy d'Artois ,DSO, GM, Croix de Guerre was a Canadian Army officer and SOE agent.Lionel Guy d'Artois was born in Richmond, Quebec in 1917. He joined the Militia...

    , a Canadian Army officer and SOE
    Special Operations Executive
    The Special Operations Executive was a World War II organisation of the United Kingdom. It was officially formed by Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Minister of Economic Warfare Hugh Dalton on 22 July 1940, to conduct guerrilla warfare against the Axis powers and to instruct and aid local...

     agent. Awarded the Croix de guerre for service with the Interior French Forces in occupied France.
  • Philippe Daudy
    Philippe Daudy
    Philippe Daudy was, among other things, a member of the French Resistance, a journalist, a novelist, a publisher and a businessman. An Anglophile Frenchman, he moved to England and wrote a best-selling book about the English.-Origins:...

    , journalist and novelist.
  • Guy de Rothschild
    Guy de Rothschild
    Baron Guy Édouard Alphonse Paul de Rothschild was a French banker and member of the Rothschild family. He chaired the bank Rothschild Frères from 1967 to 1979, when it was nationalized by the French government, and maintained possessions in other French and foreign companies including Imerys...

    , awarded the Croix de guerre for his military valor.
  • Philippe de Rothschild
    Philippe de Rothschild
    Baron Philippe de Rothschild was a member of the Rothschild banking dynasty who became a Grand Prix race-car driver, a screenwriter and playwright, a theatrical producer, a film producer, a poet, and one of the most successful wine growers in the world.-Early life:Born in Paris, Georges Philippe...

    , awarded the Croix de guerre for his service with the Free French Forces
    Free French Forces
    The Free French Forces were French partisans in World War II who decided to continue fighting against the forces of the Axis powers after the surrender of France and subsequent German occupation and, in the case of Vichy France, collaboration with the Germans.-Definition:In many sources, Free...

    .
  • Gabriel Brunet de Sairigné
    Gabriel Brunet de Sairigné
    Gabriel Brunet de Sairigné was an French Army officer of the French Foreign Legion. He was born on in Paris, and was killed in the line of duty close to Lagnia Bien Hoa .-Education:...

    , French colonel who participated with the Free French Forces
    Free French Forces
    The Free French Forces were French partisans in World War II who decided to continue fighting against the forces of the Axis powers after the surrender of France and subsequent German occupation and, in the case of Vichy France, collaboration with the Germans.-Definition:In many sources, Free...

     to the East African Campaign
    East African Campaign (World War II)
    The East African Campaign was a series of battles fought in East Africa during World War II by the British Empire, the British Commonwealth of Nations and several allies against the forces of Italy from June 1940 to November 1941....

     (in Eritrea
    Eritrea
    Eritrea , officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa. Eritrea derives it's name from the Greek word Erethria, meaning 'red land'. The capital is Asmara. It is bordered by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south, and Djibouti in the southeast...

     and Syria
    Syria
    Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

    ), the Tunisia Campaign
    Tunisia Campaign
    The Tunisia Campaign was a series of battles that took place in Tunisia during the North African Campaign of the Second World War, between Axis and Allied forces. The Allies consisted of British Imperial Forces, including Polish and Greek contingents, with American and French corps...

    , the Allied invasion of Sicily
    Allied invasion of Sicily
    The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major World War II campaign, in which the Allies took Sicily from the Axis . It was a large scale amphibious and airborne operation, followed by six weeks of land combat. It launched the Italian Campaign.Husky began on the night of...

     , the Operation Dragoon
    Operation Dragoon
    Operation Dragoon was the Allied invasion of southern France on August 15, 1944, during World War II. The invasion was initiated via a parachute drop by the 1st Airborne Task Force, followed by an amphibious assault by elements of the U.S. Seventh Army, followed a day later by a force made up...

     and the campaign of Alsace
    Alsace
    Alsace is the fifth-smallest of the 27 regions of France in land area , and the smallest in metropolitan France. It is also the seventh-most densely populated region in France and third most densely populated region in metropolitan France, with ca. 220 inhabitants per km²...

    .
  • Avery Dulles, S.J.
    Society of Jesus
    The Society of Jesus is a Catholic male religious order that follows the teachings of the Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits, and are also known colloquially as "God's Army" and as "The Company," these being references to founder Ignatius of Loyola's military background and a...

    , awarded the Croix de guerre for his liaison work with the French navy.
  • Lt.Col Charles Earle DSO OBE. Grenadier Guards. Croix de guerre avec palme. 1942/3. Chief liaison officer with the 19th French Corps. Tunisian campaign.
  • Ben F. Ellis, Georgia recipient for gallant and heroic action in battle.
  • Sgt. Patrick Ennis 1st Btn Irish Guards, 3 Sect. 10 Plat. 2 Coy
  • Frantz Fanon
    Frantz Fanon
    Frantz Fanon was a Martiniquo-Algerian psychiatrist, philosopher, revolutionary and writer whose work is influential in the fields of post-colonial studies, critical theory and Marxism...

    , awarded the French Croix de guerre by Raoul Salan
    Raoul Salan
    Raoul Albin Louis Salan was a French Army general and the fourth French commanding general during the First Indochina War. Salan was one of four generals who organized the 1961 Algiers Putsch operation and then founded the Organisation de l'armée secrète....

     for service in the French Free Forces in North Africa
    North Africa
    North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, linked by the Sahara to Sub-Saharan Africa. Geopolitically, the United Nations definition of Northern Africa includes eight countries or territories; Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, South Sudan, Sudan, Tunisia, and...

     and Alsace
    Alsace
    Alsace is the fifth-smallest of the 27 regions of France in land area , and the smallest in metropolitan France. It is also the seventh-most densely populated region in France and third most densely populated region in metropolitan France, with ca. 220 inhabitants per km²...

    .
  • Carl Gustav Fleischer
    Carl Gustav Fleischer
    Carl Gustav Fleischer KCB was a Norwegian general and the first land commander to win a major victory against the Germans in the Second World War...

    , Norwegian general, who won the first major victory against the Germans.
  • Wayne H. Mervau, 315th Infantry, 79th Div United States Army, for meritorius action during the battle of the Forret de' Parroy, covering fire for unit, 21 Oct, 1944 wounded in action.
  • Stephen Galatti
    Stephen Galatti
    Stephen Galatti was for many years the Director General of the AFS, American Field Service. He transformed the AFS from a volunteer medical corps during World Wars I and II into an international educational exchange service that has profoundly transformed the lives of thousands of young people...

    , Director of AFS, American Field Service
  • Julian Godlewski, Polish sub-lieutenant, 1st Armoured Division, for heroism and wounds received in the Battle of Falaise
    Falaise pocket
    The battle of the Falaise Pocket, fought during the Second World War from 12 to 21 August 1944, was the decisive engagement of the Battle of Normandy...

    .
  • Francis Grevemberg
    Francis Grevemberg
    Francis Carroll Grevemberg , was the superintendent of the Louisiana State Police from 1952 to 1955, best remembered for his fight against organized crime....

    , United States lieutenant colonel, later superintendent of the Louisiana
    Louisiana
    Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America. Its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are local governments equivalent to counties...

     state police
    State police
    State police are a type of sub-national territorial police force, particularly in Australia and the United States. Some other countries have analogous police forces, such as the provincial police in some Canadian provinces, while in other places, the same responsibilities are held by national...

    .
  • Harry Griffiths
    Harry Griffiths
    Harry Stanley Griffiths was an English footballer and baseball international. He played in defence for Everton between 1930 and 1935, but after failing to get a game moved on to Port Vale between 1935 and 1947, playing 192 games in all competitions...

     Royal Essex Yeomanry
  • Thomas "Loel" Guinness, Group Captain
    Group Captain
    Group captain is a senior commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many other Commonwealth countries. It ranks above wing commander and immediately below air commodore...

     and pilot
  • Tony Halik
    Tony Halik
    Tony Halik, real name: Mieczysław Antoni Sędzimir Halik was a Polish traveller and explorer.Halik was born in Toruń, Poland....

     Polish pilot in RAF, after being the only Polish/RAF pilot shot down over France, he joined the French resistance
  • Cpl. Edwin Allison Hosford, a rifleman of the North Shore Regiment (New Brunswick), Canadian Infantry, for heroism at Carpiquet, France in July 1944.
  • John Howard (American actor)
    John Howard (American actor)
    John Howard was an American actor noted for his work in film and television.-Background:Born John R. Cox, Jr. in Cleveland, Ohio, he was a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of what is now Case Western Reserve University. At college he discovered a love for the theater, and took part in student productions...

    , awarded the Croix de guerre in 1944 for his valor. When his ship struck a mine off the French coast, killing the captain, Howard took over command and fought valiantly to save his ship and crew, even jumping into the sea to rescue wounded sailors.
  • Agnès Humbert
    Agnès Humbert
    Agnès Humbert was an art historian, ethnographer and a member of the French Resistance during World War II.- Early life :...

    , art historian, was awarded the Croix de guerre with silver gilt palm, for heroism in her work for the French Resistance
    French Resistance
    The French Resistance is the name used to denote the collection of French resistance movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during World War II...

    .
  • Maria Justeau
    Maria Justeau
    Born in 1912, Maria Justeau was a member of the French Resistance during World War II. Along with her husband, Eugene Justeau, she saved the lives of many American and French soldiers in the area of Saint-Seglin, Brittany, France. She is among the few women to have received the "Croix de Guerre"....

     French Resistant
  • Noor Inayat Khan
    Noor Inayat Khan
    Assistant Section Officer Noor Inayat Khan / Nora Baker, GC, MBE , usually known as Noor Inayat Khan was of Indian Muslim origin...

    , a wireless operator in the French section of the SOE
    Special Operations Executive
    The Special Operations Executive was a World War II organisation of the United Kingdom. It was officially formed by Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Minister of Economic Warfare Hugh Dalton on 22 July 1940, to conduct guerrilla warfare against the Axis powers and to instruct and aid local...

    .
  • Curtis E. LeMay, was awarded the French Croix de guerre with palm.
  • Jean Mayer
    Jean Mayer
    Jean Mayer was a renowned French-American nutritionist and the tenth president of Tufts University from 1976 to 1992...

    , future president of Tufts University
    Tufts University
    Tufts University is a private research university located in Medford/Somerville, near Boston, Massachusetts. It is organized into ten schools, including two undergraduate programs and eight graduate divisions, on four campuses in Massachusetts and on the eastern border of France...

    , awarded for his courage and bravery.
  • Lt.Colonel Blair "Paddy" Mayne, British Special Air Service, Croix de Guerre with Palm. Awarded Légion d'honneur, awarded the Distinguished Service Order (U.K) four times.
  • General Dragoljub Mihailovic, Serbian Chetnik leader, awarded by Charles de Gaulle.
  • Paul de Montgolfier
    Paul de Montgolfier
    Paul-Joseph de Montgolfier was born in Saint-Marcel on 28 April 1913. He flew in the French Air Force, flying Curtiss 75 Hawks with the GC II/5 fighter group when World War II began....

    , fighter pilot for the French Air Force
    French Air Force
    The French Air Force , literally Army of the Air) is the air force of the French Armed Forces. It was formed in 1909 as the Service Aéronautique, a service arm of the French Army, then was made an independent military arm in 1933...

  • Audie Murphy
    Audie Murphy
    Audie Leon Murphy was a highly decorated and famous soldier. Through LIFE magazine's July 16, 1945 issue , he became one the most famous soldiers of World War II and widely regarded as the most decorated American soldier of the war...

    , the most decorated U.S. Army soldier during the war, received the French Croix de guerre twice (with palm) and the Belgian Croix de guerre once, as well as the Medal of Honor
    Medal of Honor
    The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government. It is bestowed by the President, in the name of Congress, upon members of the United States Armed Forces who distinguish themselves through "conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his or her...

    .
  • Leonard W. Murray
    Leonard W. Murray
    Rear Admiral Leonard Warren Murray, CB, CBE was a officer of the Royal Canadian Navy who played a significant role in the Battle of the Atlantic. He commanded the Newfoundland Escort Force from 1941–1943, and from 1943 to the end of the war was Commander-in-Chief, Canadian Northwest Atlantic...

    , Canadian admiral, awarded the Croix de guerre with bronze palm for his role in the Battle of the Atlantic.
  • Eileen Nearne
    Eileen Nearne
    Eileen Mary "Didi" Nearne MBE, was a member of the UK's Special Operations Executive during World War II. She served in occupied France as a radio operator under the codename "Rose".-Early life and career:...

    , was a member of the UK's SOE
    Special Operations Executive
    The Special Operations Executive was a World War II organisation of the United Kingdom. It was officially formed by Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Minister of Economic Warfare Hugh Dalton on 22 July 1940, to conduct guerrilla warfare against the Axis powers and to instruct and aid local...

    . She served in occupied France
    Vichy France
    Vichy France, Vichy Regime, or Vichy Government, are common terms used to describe the government of France that collaborated with the Axis powers from July 1940 to August 1944. This government succeeded the Third Republic and preceded the Provisional Government of the French Republic...

     as a radio operator under the codename "Rose".
  • John B. Oakes, future editor of the editorial page of the New York Times, awarded for his counter-espionage activities with the O.S.S.
  • Marcel Oopa
    Marcel Oopa
    Marcel Pouvanaa Oopa was a Tahitian politician, the son of the Tahitian leader Pouvanaa a Oopa. He belonged to the political party Democratic Rally of the Tahitian People , led by his father...

    , Polynesian politician.
  • Peter J. Ortiz, Marine officer and member of the Office of Strategic Services
    Office of Strategic Services
    The Office of Strategic Services was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. It was the wartime intelligence agency, and it was a predecessor of the Central Intelligence Agency...

     (OSS).
  • Origene Paquette, Jr., served as a First Lieutenant of the Counter Intelligence Corps in the Seventh Army.
  • George S. Patton
    George S. Patton
    George Smith Patton, Jr. was a United States Army officer best known for his leadership while commanding corps and armies as a general during World War II. He was also well known for his eccentricity and controversial outspokenness.Patton was commissioned in the U.S. Army after his graduation from...

    , U.S. Army general. Awarded for leading U.S. Third Army during the liberation of France
    Operation Overlord
    Operation Overlord was the code name for the Battle of Normandy, the operation that launched the invasion of German-occupied western Europe during World War II by Allied forces. The operation commenced on 6 June 1944 with the Normandy landings...

    .
  • Andree Peel
    Andrée Peel
    Andrée Peel was one of a couple of women known as Agent Rose .She worked against the German occupation of France as a member of the French Resistance during the Second World War....

    (1905–2010), French member of resistance.
  • Frank Perconte
    Frank Perconte
    -External links:*...

    , member of Easy Company
    E Company, 506th Infantry Regiment (United States)
    Easy Company, 2nd Battalion of the 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment of the 101st Airborne Division, the "Screaming Eagles", is one of the most well-known companies in the United States Army. Their experiences in World War II are the subject of the HBO miniseries Band of Brothers based on the book...

    , 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment
    506th Parachute Infantry Regiment
    The 506th Infantry Regiment is a unit assigned to the 4th Brigade Combat Team of the 101st Airborne Division. During World War II, the unit was designated the 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment ....

    .
  • Col. David E. Pergrin, awarded the Croix de guerre for his help in the Battle of the Bulge
    Battle of the Bulge
    The Battle of the Bulge was a major German offensive , launched toward the end of World War II through the densely forested Ardennes mountain region of Wallonia in Belgium, hence its French name , and France and...

    .
  • Harry Peulevé
    Harry Peulevé
    Henri Leonard Thomas Peulevé DSO, MC was an agent of the Special Operations Executive , who undertook two missions in occupied France and escaped from Buchenwald concentration camp.-Early life:...

    , a wireless operator and organiser in the French Section of the SOE
    Special Operations Executive
    The Special Operations Executive was a World War II organisation of the United Kingdom. It was officially formed by Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Minister of Economic Warfare Hugh Dalton on 22 July 1940, to conduct guerrilla warfare against the Axis powers and to instruct and aid local...

    .
  • Abbé Pierre
    Abbé Pierre
    LAbbé Pierre, was a French Catholic priest, member of the Resistance during World War II, and deputy of the Popular Republican Movement . He founded in 1949 the Emmaus movement, which has the goal of helping poor and homeless people and refugees...

     (1912–2007), French priest and founder of Emmaus.
  • Forrest Pogue
    Forrest Pogue
    Forrest Carlisle Pogue Jr. . Forrest C. Pogue was an official United States Army historian during World War II, and attained the rank of Master Sergeant. He may well have been one of the best-educated sergeants in the U.S. Army in World War II...

     US Army Combat Historian
  • Col. William Wilson Quinn, G2 Officer of the U.S. 7th Army. Awarded the Croix de guerre with palm for participating in the battle of France, and later retired as Lt. Gen. William Wilson "Buffolo Bill" Quinn. He planned the invasion of Southern France and also predicted a battle of the Battle of the Bulge.
  • Tony Rao US Army 94th infantry division.

RSM Leslie Richards
  • Robert Rosenthal
    Robert Rosenthal (USAF)
    Lieutenant Colonel Robert "Rosie" Rosenthal was a highly-decorated pilot in the Eighth Air Force of the United States Army Air Forces in World War II, receiving sixteen awards including the Distinguished Service Cross for "extraordinary heroism in connection with military operations against the...

     of the Eighth Air Force of the USAF.

  • Alexander Sachal
    Alexander Sachal
    Alexander P. Sachal, born November 1924 in Kiev, Ukraine, is a Russian artist who lives in the United States.Sachal's mother moved to Moscow when he was six, where his childhood was hard and lonely. He joined the Fine Arts School in Moscow at the age of 16; his drawings and designs were featured...

    , Russian artist, who joined the French Resistance, awarded the Croix de guerre for bravery.
  • Desmond J. Scott
    Desmond J. Scott
    Group Captain Desmond James Scott, DSO, OBE, DFC & Bar was a New Zealand fighter pilot during the Second World War. He got his licence as a private pilot in New Zealand in 1939 and was automatically enlisted in the Royal New Zealand Air Force in September of that year...

    , a New Zealand fighter pilot and Group Captain
    Group Captain
    Group captain is a senior commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many other Commonwealth countries. It ranks above wing commander and immediately below air commodore...

     who flew for the RAF. He was awarded both the Belgian and the French Croix de guerre.
  • Jan Smuts
    Jan Smuts
    Jan Christiaan Smuts, OM, CH, ED, KC, FRS, PC was a prominent South African and British Commonwealth statesman, military leader and philosopher. In addition to holding various cabinet posts, he served as Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa from 1919 until 1924 and from 1939 until 1948...

    , South African Prime Minister.
  • George Reginald Starr
    George Reginald Starr
    George Reginald Starr DSO MC was a British mining engineer and one of the Special Operations Executive's best secret agents during World War II.-Early life:...

    , of the SOE
    Special Operations Executive
    The Special Operations Executive was a World War II organisation of the United Kingdom. It was officially formed by Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Minister of Economic Warfare Hugh Dalton on 22 July 1940, to conduct guerrilla warfare against the Axis powers and to instruct and aid local...

    .
  • James Stewart
    James Stewart (actor)
    James Maitland Stewart was an American film and stage actor, known for his distinctive voice and his everyman persona. Over the course of his career, he starred in many films widely considered classics and was nominated for five Academy Awards, winning one in competition and receiving one Lifetime...

    , American actor awarded the Croix de guerre with palm in 1944 by Lt. Gen. Henri Valin, Chief of Staff of the French Air Force, for his role in the liberation of France. He retired from the United States Air Force Reserve a Brigadier General.
  • Violette Szabo
    Violette Szabo
    Violette Reine Elizabeth Bushell Szabo, GC, was a Second World War French-British secret agent.-Early life and marriage:...

    , a British SOE
    Special Operations Executive
    The Special Operations Executive was a World War II organisation of the United Kingdom. It was officially formed by Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Minister of Economic Warfare Hugh Dalton on 22 July 1940, to conduct guerrilla warfare against the Axis powers and to instruct and aid local...

     who underwent intense training and was eventually sent into the field. Her first mission was a success, but during her second mission she was captured. Eventually sent to a concentration camp, she was brutally tortured for information and finally executed.
  • Fernand Van Geert, ship's officer, rescued 12 passengers from a torpedoed Belgian freighter in the North Atlantic. He secured a compass from the burning ship before returning to the lifeboat which he then commanded for 9 days in open waters. His actions and moral leadership were commended.
  • Nancy Wake
    Nancy Wake
    Nancy Grace Augusta Wake, AC, GM , served as a British agent during the later part of World War II. She became a leading figure in the maquis groups of the French Resistance and was one of the Allies' most decorated servicewomen of the war.-Early life:Born in Roseneath, Wellington, New Zealand in...

     of the SOE
    Special Operations Executive
    The Special Operations Executive was a World War II organisation of the United Kingdom. It was officially formed by Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Minister of Economic Warfare Hugh Dalton on 22 July 1940, to conduct guerrilla warfare against the Axis powers and to instruct and aid local...

     was the highest decorated Allied servicewoman of the war. Awarded the Croix de guerre three times for service with the French maquis
    Maquis (World War II)
    The Maquis were the predominantly rural guerrilla bands of the French Resistance. Initially they were composed of men who had escaped into the mountains to avoid conscription into Vichy France's Service du travail obligatoire to provide forced labour for Germany...

    .
  • F. F. E. Yeo-Thomas
    F. F. E. Yeo-Thomas
    Wing Commander Forest Frederick Edward "Tommy" Yeo-Thomas, GC, MC & Bar, Croix de guerre , Commandeur of the Légion d'honneur, was the British Special Operations Executive agent codenamed "The White Rabbit" during World War II...

    , member of RF Section of the SOE
    Special Operations Executive
    The Special Operations Executive was a World War II organisation of the United Kingdom. It was officially formed by Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Minister of Economic Warfare Hugh Dalton on 22 July 1940, to conduct guerrilla warfare against the Axis powers and to instruct and aid local...

    . He was a Special Operations Executive
    Special Operations Executive
    The Special Operations Executive was a World War II organisation of the United Kingdom. It was officially formed by Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Minister of Economic Warfare Hugh Dalton on 22 July 1940, to conduct guerrilla warfare against the Axis powers and to instruct and aid local...

     Liaison officer working with the Bureau Central de Renseignements et d'Action
    Bureau Central de Renseignements et d'Action
    The Bureau Central de Renseignements et d'Action , commonly referred as the BCRA was the World War II-era forerunner of the SDECE, the French intelligence service...

     (BCRA) of the Free French forces to organise and co-ordinate resistance in both Vichy and Occupied France.
  • Sergeant John J Boyle, Battery "A", 108th Field Artillery, 28th Division, American Expeditionary Forces

Other

During the First World War a homing pigeon
Homing pigeon
The homing pigeon is a variety of domestic pigeon derived from the Rock Pigeon selectively bred to find its way home over extremely long distances. The wild rock pigeon has an innate homing ability, meaning that it will generally return to its own nest and its own mate...

 named Cher Ami
Cher Ami
Cher Ami was a registered Black Check Cock homing pigeon which had been donated by the pigeon fanciers of Britain for use by the U.S. Army Signal Corps in France during World War I and had been trained by American pigeoneers...

 (Dear friend) saved the lives of 194 American soldiers by carrying a message across enemy lines in the heat of battle. Cher Ami was shot in the chest and leg, blinded in one eye, losing most of the leg to which the message was attached, but continued the 25 minute flight avoiding shrapnel and poison gas to get the message home. Cher Ami was awarded the French 'Croix de Guerre' with Palm for heroic service. Later died from the wounds received in battle and is now enshrined in the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
The Smithsonian Institution is an educational and research institute and associated museum complex, administered and funded by the government of the United States and by funds from its endowment, contributions, and profits from its retail operations, concessions, licensing activities, and magazines...

.

See also

  • Ribbons of the French military and civil awards
    Ribbons of the French military and civil awards
    This is a list of the ribbons of the French military and civil awards.-French National Orders:-French Ministerial Orders:-The principal French military awards:-The French commemorative awards:- Medals of Honor :-The other awards:...

  • Croix-de-Feu
    Croix-de-Feu
    Croix-de-Feu was a French far right league of the Interwar period, led by Colonel François de la Rocque . After it was dissolved, as were all other far right leagues during the Popular Front period , de la Rocque replaced it with the Parti social français .- Beginnings :The Croix-de-Feu were...

    , a French far right
    Far right
    Far-right, extreme right, hard right, radical right, and ultra-right are terms used to discuss the qualitative or quantitative position a group or person occupies within right-wing politics. Far-right politics may involve anti-immigration and anti-integration stances towards groups that are...

     group in the Interwar period mainly comprising veterans decorated with the Croix de guerre.
  • Croix de guerre recipients
  • Awards and decorations of the United States military
    Awards and decorations of the United States military
    Awards and decorations of the United States Military are military decorations which recognize service and personal accomplishments while a member of the United States armed forces...

  • French medals: Croix de la Légion d'Honneur
    Légion d'honneur
    The Legion of Honour, or in full the National Order of the Legion of Honour is a French order established by Napoleon Bonaparte, First Consul of the Consulat which succeeded to the First Republic, on 19 May 1802...

    ; Croix de la Libération


External links

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