Cranial neural crest
The cranial neural crest is a form of neural crest
Neural crest
Neural crest cells are a transient, multipotent, migratory cell population unique to vertebrates that gives rise to a diverse cell lineage including melanocytes, craniofacial cartilage and bone, smooth muscle, peripheral and enteric neurons and glia....


The cranial neural crest arises in the anterior and populates the face and the pharyngeal arches giving rise to bones, cartilage, nerves and connective tissue
Connective tissue
"Connective tissue" is a fibrous tissue. It is one of the four traditional classes of tissues . Connective Tissue is found throughout the body.In fact the whole framework of the skeleton and the different specialized connective tissues from the crown of the head to the toes determine the form of...

. The endocranium
For internal cast of the cranium, see Endocast.The endocranium in comparative anatomy is a part of the skull base in vertebrates and represent the basal, inner part of the cranium. The term is also applied to the outer layer of the dura mater in human anatomy.-Basic structure:Structurally, the...

 and facial bones of the skull are ultimately derived from crest cells.
Other Migration Locations:
  • Into the pharyngeal arches and play an inductive role in thymus
    The thymus is a specialized organ of the immune system. The thymus produces and "educates" T-lymphocytes , which are critical cells of the adaptive immune system....

  • Into the pharyngeal arches and form the parafollicular cell
    Parafollicular cell
    Parafollicular cells are cells in the thyroid that produce and secrete calcitonin. They are located adjacent to the thyroid follicles and reside in the connective tissue. These cells are large and have a pale stain compared with the follicular cells or colloid...

     or ultimobranchial bodies of the thyroid gland.
  • Into the pharyngeal arches and play an inductive role in parathyroid gland
    Parathyroid gland
    The parathyroid glands are small endocrine glands in the neck that produce parathyroid hormone. Humans usually have four parathyroid glands, which are usually located on the rear surface of the thyroid gland, or, in rare cases, within the thyroid gland itself or in the chest...

  • Facial ectomesenchyme
    Ectomesenchyme has similar properties to mesenchyme. The major difference is that ectomesenchyme is usually considered to arise from neural crest cells, which are a critical group of cells that form in the cranial region during early vertebrate development...

     of the pharyngeal arches forming skeletal muscle, bone, and cartilage in the face.
  • Odontoblast
    In vertebrates, an odontoblast is a biological cell of neural crest origin that is part of the outer surface of the dental pulp, and whose biological function is dentinogenesis, which is the creation of dentin, the substance under the tooth enamel....

    s (dentin
    Dentine is a calcified tissue of the body, and along with enamel, cementum, and pulp is one of the four major components of teeth. Usually, it is covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root and surrounds the entire pulp...

    -producing cells) of the teeth.
  • Into the optic vesicle and the developing eye and contributes to many anterior eye elements such the cornea
    The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber. Together with the lens, the cornea refracts light, with the cornea accounting for approximately two-thirds of the eye's total optical power. In humans, the refractive power of the cornea is...

    , sclera
    The sclera , also known as the white or white of the eye, is the opaque , fibrous, protective, outer layer of the eye containing collagen and elastic fiber. In the development of the embryo, the sclera is derived from the neural crest...

    , and ciliary muscle
    Ciliary muscle
    The ciliary muscle is a ring of striated smooth muscle in the eye's middle layer that controls accommodation for viewing objects at varying distances and regulates the flow of aqueous humour into Schlemm's canal. It changes the shape of the lens within the eye not the size of the pupil which is...

    . It also contributes to the attaching skeletal muscles of the eye.
  • Into the otic placode and participates in the inner ear
    Inner ear
    The inner ear is the innermost part of the vertebrate ear. In mammals, it consists of the bony labyrinth, a hollow cavity in the temporal bone of the skull with a system of passages comprising two main functional parts:...

  • Sensory ganglia of the fifth, seventh, ninth and tenth cranial nerves
    Cranial nerves
    Cranial nerves are nerves that emerge directly from the brain, in contrast to spinal nerves, which emerge from segments of the spinal cord. In humans, there are traditionally twelve pairs of cranial nerves...

  • Schwann cells
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