Constitution of Russia
For the constitution of the Imperial Russia, see Russian Constitution of 1906
Russian Constitution of 1906
The Russian Constitution of 1906 refers to a major revision of the 1832 Fundamental Laws of the Russian Empire, which transformed the formerly absolutist state into one in which the emperor agreed for the first time to share his autocratic power with a parliament. It was enacted on April 23, 1906,...

The current Constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted by national referendum on 12 December 1993. Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

's constitution came into force on 25 December 1993, at the moment of its official publication. It replaced the previous Soviet
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

-era Constitution of 12 April 1978
Russian Constitution of 1978
The Constitution of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic of 12 April 1978 was formally its supreme law.- History :At its Extraordinary Session of 12 April 1978, the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR adopted a new republican Constitution, to replace the old Russian Constitution of 1937,...

 of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic following the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis.

Of all registered voters, 58,187,755 people (or 54.8%) participated in the referendum. Of those, 32,937,630 people (54.5%) voted for adoption of the Constitution.

Declaration of adoption

"We, the multinational people of the Russian Federation, united by a common fate on our land, establishing human rights and freedoms, civic peace and accord, preserving the historically established state unity, proceeding from the universally recognized principles of equality and self-determination of peoples, revering the memory of ancestors who have conveyed to us the love for the Motherland, belief in the good and justice, reviving the sovereign statehood of Russia and asserting the firmness of its democratic base, striving to ensure the well-being and prosperity of Russia, proceeding from the responsibility for our Motherland before the present and future generations, recognizing ourselves as part of the world community, adopt the Constitution of the Russian Federation."

Section One

  1. Fundamentals of the Constitutional System
  2. Rights and Liberties of Man and Citizen
  3. Federative system
  4. President of the Russian Federation
  5. Federal Assembly
  6. Government of the Russian Federation
  7. Judiciary
  8. Local Self-Government
  9. Constitutional Amendments and Revisions


The Russian Constitution has entrenched world standards for human rights and basic principles of democratic state-building such as ideological neutrality of the state, political pluralism, competitive elections and separation of powers
Separation of powers
The separation of powers, often imprecisely used interchangeably with the trias politica principle, is a model for the governance of a state. The model was first developed in ancient Greece and came into widespread use by the Roman Republic as part of the unmodified Constitution of the Roman Republic...

. The constitution establishes a super-presidential system, resembling the French system but with stronger executive power
Executive Power
Executive Power is Vince Flynn's fifth novel, and the fourth to feature Mitch Rapp, an American agent that works for the CIA as an operative for a covert counter terrorism unit called the "Orion Team."-Plot summary:...

 due to the increased independence of the president in comparison to the French model.

Presidential powers

The President of the Russian Federation holds primary power in the Russian government system. The President who is elected for a six year term, is the head of state and the Supreme Commander in Chief. He determines "guidelines for the domestic and foreign policy of the state". Although the President may preside over Government meetings, he is not the head of the Russian Government. As the head of the state the President appoints the members of the Government and directs it's activities. While in general the presidential "direction" of the activities of the Government is limited to establishing guidelines, under the 1997 Constitutional Law on the Government the President has a special authority over ministries dealing with defense, security
Security is the degree of protection against danger, damage, loss, and crime. Security as a form of protection are structures and processes that provide or improve security as a condition. The Institute for Security and Open Methodologies in the OSSTMM 3 defines security as "a form of protection...

, internal and foreign affairs
Foreign Affairs
Foreign Affairs is an American magazine and website on international relations and U.S. foreign policy published since 1922 by the Council on Foreign Relations six times annually...


Legislative Branch

Internal checks and balances within the legislative power work through the procedure of the Federation Council
Federation Council
Federation Council may refer to:* Federation Council of Russia, the upper house of the Federal Assembly of Russia* Federation Council , an organization in the fictional Star Trek universe-See also:...

's reviewing of the laws adopted by the State Duma
State Duma
The State Duma , common abbreviation: Госду́ма ) in the Russian Federation is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia , the upper house being the Federation Council of Russia. The Duma headquarters is located in central Moscow, a few steps from Manege Square. Its members are referred to...

 and giving it's consent to them. In the case of the bill rejection by the Federation Council, the State Duma in its turn may override the rejection by a two-thirds vote. The legislative branch may check the presidential power of the Russian Federation through hearing the addresses of the President by both houses of the Federal Assembly; giving approval to the decree of the president on the introduction of martial law and state of emergency; granting consent to the president for the appointment of the chairman of the government
Government of Russia
The Government of the Russian Federation exercises executive power in the Russian Federation. The members of the government are the prime minister , the deputy prime ministers, and the federal ministers...

, the chairman of the Central Bank, the Procourator General, members of the Constitutional Court, Supreme Court and more.

See also

  • Institute of State and Law
    Institute of State and Law
    The Institute of State and Law of the Russian Academy of Sciences is the largest scientific legal center in the Russian Federation. The ISL is part of the Philosophical, Sociological, Psychological, and Law Department of RAS...

  • Russia
    Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

  • Law of the Russian Federation
    Law of the Russian Federation
    The primary and fundamental statement of laws in the Russian Federation is the Constitution of the Russian Federation.-Domestic sources:Since its adoption in a 1993 referendum the Russian Constitution is considered to be the supreme law of the land...

  • Constitution of the Soviet Union
    Constitution of the Soviet Union
    There were three versions of the constitution of the Soviet Union, modeled after the 1918 Constitution established by the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic , the immediate predecessor of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics....

  • 2008 Amendments to the Constitution of Russia
    2008 Amendments to the Constitution of Russia
    The amendments of 2008, which were proposed in November 2008 and came into force on 31 December 2008, have become the first substantial amendments to the Constitution of Russia of 1993 and extended the terms of the President of Russia and the State Duma from four to six and five years, respectively...

  • Constitutional economics
    Constitutional economics
    Constitutional economics is a research program in economics and constitutionalism that has been described as extending beyond the definition of 'the economic analysis of constitutional law' in explaining the choice "of alternative sets of legal-institutional-constitutional rules that constrain the...

  • Constitutionalism
    Constitutionalism has a variety of meanings. Most generally, it is "a complex of ideas, attitudes, and patterns of behavior elaborating the principle that the authority of government derives from and is limited by a body of fundamental law"....

External links

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