Confederate States Constitution
Overview
 
The Constitution of the Confederate States of America was the supreme law
Law
Law is a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior, wherever possible. It shapes politics, economics and society in numerous ways and serves as a social mediator of relations between people. Contract law regulates everything from buying a bus...

 of the Confederate States of America
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America was a government set up from 1861 to 1865 by 11 Southern slave states of the United States of America that had declared their secession from the U.S...

, as adopted on March 11, 1861 and in effect through the conclusion of the American Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

. The Confederacy also operated under a Provisional Constitution
Provisional Confederate States Constitution
The Provisional Constitution of the Confederate States of America was an interim constitution adopted by the Confederacy and in force from February 8, 1861 to March 11, 1861. On March 11 it was superseded by the more permanent Constitution of the Confederate States of America...

 from February 8, 1861 to March 11, 1861. The original Provisional Constitution is currently located at the Museum of the Confederacy
Museum of the Confederacy
The Museum of the Confederacy is located in Richmond, Virginia. The museum includes the former White House of the Confederacy and maintains a comprehensive collection of artifacts, manuscripts, Confederate imprints , and photographs from the Confederate States of America and the American Civil War...

 in Richmond, Virginia
Richmond, Virginia
Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia, in the United States. It is an independent city and not part of any county. Richmond is the center of the Richmond Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Greater Richmond area...

, and differs slightly from the version later adopted. The final, hand-written document is currently located in the University of Georgia
University of Georgia
The University of Georgia is a public research university located in Athens, Georgia, United States. Founded in 1785, it is the oldest and largest of the state's institutions of higher learning and is one of multiple schools to claim the title of the oldest public university in the United States...

 archives at Athens, Georgia
Athens, Georgia
Athens-Clarke County is a consolidated city–county in U.S. state of Georgia, in the northeastern part of the state, comprising the former City of Athens proper and Clarke County. The University of Georgia is located in this college town and is responsible for the initial growth of the city...

.

In regard to most articles of the Constitution, the document is a word-for-word duplicate of the United States Constitution
United States Constitution
The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America. It is the framework for the organization of the United States government and for the relationship of the federal government with the states, citizens, and all people within the United States.The first three...

.
Encyclopedia
The Constitution of the Confederate States of America was the supreme law
Law
Law is a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior, wherever possible. It shapes politics, economics and society in numerous ways and serves as a social mediator of relations between people. Contract law regulates everything from buying a bus...

 of the Confederate States of America
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America was a government set up from 1861 to 1865 by 11 Southern slave states of the United States of America that had declared their secession from the U.S...

, as adopted on March 11, 1861 and in effect through the conclusion of the American Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

. The Confederacy also operated under a Provisional Constitution
Provisional Confederate States Constitution
The Provisional Constitution of the Confederate States of America was an interim constitution adopted by the Confederacy and in force from February 8, 1861 to March 11, 1861. On March 11 it was superseded by the more permanent Constitution of the Confederate States of America...

 from February 8, 1861 to March 11, 1861. The original Provisional Constitution is currently located at the Museum of the Confederacy
Museum of the Confederacy
The Museum of the Confederacy is located in Richmond, Virginia. The museum includes the former White House of the Confederacy and maintains a comprehensive collection of artifacts, manuscripts, Confederate imprints , and photographs from the Confederate States of America and the American Civil War...

 in Richmond, Virginia
Richmond, Virginia
Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia, in the United States. It is an independent city and not part of any county. Richmond is the center of the Richmond Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Greater Richmond area...

, and differs slightly from the version later adopted. The final, hand-written document is currently located in the University of Georgia
University of Georgia
The University of Georgia is a public research university located in Athens, Georgia, United States. Founded in 1785, it is the oldest and largest of the state's institutions of higher learning and is one of multiple schools to claim the title of the oldest public university in the United States...

 archives at Athens, Georgia
Athens, Georgia
Athens-Clarke County is a consolidated city–county in U.S. state of Georgia, in the northeastern part of the state, comprising the former City of Athens proper and Clarke County. The University of Georgia is located in this college town and is responsible for the initial growth of the city...

.

In regard to most articles of the Constitution, the document is a word-for-word duplicate of the United States Constitution
United States Constitution
The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America. It is the framework for the organization of the United States government and for the relationship of the federal government with the states, citizens, and all people within the United States.The first three...

. However, there are crucial differences between the two documents, in tone and legal content.

Changes from U.S. constitution

  • The Preamble The elastic clauses in the preamble "to promote the general welfare" and the powers of congress, Article I section viii, "to provide . . . for the general welfare" are both absent, reflecting the confederate founders' wariness of a growing and ever more powerful federal government. The phrase "more perfect union" in the US Constitution is replaced with "permanent federal government". The words "invoking the favor and guidance of Almighty God" are added to the confederate constitution.

  • The President of the Confederate States of America is to be elected by electors, chosen by the individual states, for a single six-year term
    Term limit
    A term limit is a legal restriction that limits the number of terms a person may serve in a particular elected office. When term limits are found in presidential and semi-presidential systems they act as a method to curb the potential for monopoly, where a leader effectively becomes "president for...

    , rather than an unlimited (at that time) number of four-year terms. The description is listed as: "The term of the President and Vice President is six years. The President cannot serve a non-consecutive term."

  • The following provisions were added to the original text of Article 1 of the Constitution of the United States;
    • Amended Article 1 Sec. 2 Clause 1 to prohibit persons "of foreign birth" who were "not a citizen of the Confederate States" from voting "for any officer, civil or political, State or Federal." While some would argue that amendment is the result of the lingering influence of the Nativist ideology advanced by the Know-Nothing Party, further research would suggest it is simply an attempt to install a safety mechanism within the new government that would prevent U.S. citizens from moving into the Confederacy and installing pro-union or anti-slavery representatives into the new nation's government, a practice already established and utilized by anti-slavery forces during their efforts to prevent the spread of slavery into Kansas, a series of events referred to as Bleeding Kansas
      Bleeding Kansas
      Bleeding Kansas, Bloody Kansas or the Border War, was a series of violent events, involving anti-slavery Free-Staters and pro-slavery "Border Ruffian" elements, that took place in the Kansas Territory and the western frontier towns of the U.S. state of Missouri roughly between 1854 and 1858...

      . While Article 2 Sec. 1 Cl. 7 of the Confederate Constitution provides citizenship to people "born in the United States prior to the 20th of December, 1860" it also requires candidates for the President of the Confederacy to have resided "within the limits of the Confederate States" for 14 years. While these restrictions allow for the growth of the Confederacy, by offering citizenship to the population of any state which joins the Confederacy it also ensures that citizens of the now foreign nation of the United States could not simply move into member states of the Confederacy and gain citizenship and voting privileges. It may seem odd to label U.S. citizens as foreign born, but upon the creation of the Confederate States of America the states remaining in the Union and therefore members of the union of states known as the United States would have been a wholly separate and foreign nation, and most likely a hostile nation at that.
    • Amended Article 1 Section 2 Clause 5 to allow the state legislatures to impeach federal officials who live and work only within their state with 2/3 vote in both houses of the state legislature.
    • Amended Article 1 Section 6 Clause 2 to allow the House of Representatives and Senate the ability to grant seats to the heads of each Executive Department in order to discuss issues involving their departments with Congress.
    • Amended Article 1 Section 7 Clause 2 to provide the President of the Confederate States of America with a line item veto but also required any bill which the president used the veto in to be resubmitted to both houses for a possible override vote by 2/3 of both houses.
  • The first twelve amendments to the U.S. Constitution, including the Bill of Rights
    United States Bill of Rights
    The Bill of Rights is the collective name for the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. These limitations serve to protect the natural rights of liberty and property. They guarantee a number of personal freedoms, limit the government's power in judicial and other proceedings, and...

    , were directly incorporated into the Confederate Constitution. This was originally suggested by James Madison for the Bill of Rights in the time after the Constitution Convention, but he was defeated. By adding the text at the end of Article I, Section 9, the Framers of the Confederate Constitution made clear that only the conduct of the federal (confederate) government was restrained, and that the provisions did not limit the powers of the states.
  • The Powers of Congress, Article I section viii

The Congress shall have power -
1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises for revenue, necessary to pay the debts, provide for the common defense, and carry on the Government of the Confederate States; but no bounties shall be granted from the Treasury; nor shall any duties or taxes on importations from foreign nations be laid to promote or foster any branch of industry; and all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the Confederate States.


The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;
Notice the break in the confederate constitution's first power of congress which leaves no doubt that Congress only has power to levy taxes for the following powers and not just for anything at all that is in the common defense or general welfare. The phrase "to promote or foster any branch of industry" was added to the "tax uniformity clause" in Article I, Section 8(1) to stress the opposition of the Confederacy to non-uniform tariffs such as the Tariff of 1828
Tariff of 1828
The Tariff of 1828 was a protective tariff passed by the Congress of the United States on May 19, 1828, designed to protect industry in the northern United States...

, also known as the Tariff of Abominations.
  • The third power of the confederate congress prohibits all federal expenditure on internal improvements
    Internal improvements
    Internal improvements is the term used historically in the United States for public works from the end of the American Revolution through much of the 19th century, mainly for the creation of a transportation infrastructure: roads, turnpikes, canals, harbors and navigation improvements...

     except those of waterways and oceans, and even these costs will not be externalized on the public coffer but billed to the industries that benefit from the improvements.

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes; but neither this, nor any other clause contained in the Constitution, shall ever be construed to delegate the power to Congress to appropriate money for any internal improvement intended to facilitate commerce; except for the purpose of furnishing lights, beacons, and buoys, and other aids to navigation upon the coasts, and the improvement of harbors and the removing of obstructions in river navigation; in all which cases such duties shall be laid on the navigation facilitated thereby as may be necessary to pay the costs and expenses thereof.

  • Despite some opposition, the international slave trade was banned in the Confederacy, as it had been in the U.S. since 1808. Delegates feared that European governments would not recognize a CSA that did not prohibit the international trade. The international slave trade was distasteful to many slaveowners. Prohibition of foreign slave trade also protected the substantial domestic slave trade in Virginia
    Virginia
    The Commonwealth of Virginia , is a U.S. state on the Atlantic Coast of the Southern United States. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" and sometimes the "Mother of Presidents" after the eight U.S. presidents born there...

     and Maryland
    Maryland
    Maryland is a U.S. state located in the Mid Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east...

    , who had yet to join the CSA.
  • Confederate officials serving within a state could be impeached by the legislature of that state, as well as by the Confederate Congress.
  • The process of amendment became easier, requiring two-thirds of the states rather than three-fourths.
  • A bill, or any resolution carrying the force of law, could only deal with a single subject, which had to be stated in the title.
    :20. Every law, or resolution having the force of law, shall relate to but one subject, and that shall be expressed in the title.

Such a provision minimizes the chance of logrolling
Logrolling
Logrolling is the trading of favors, or quid pro quo, such as vote trading by legislative members to obtain passage of actions of interest to each legislative member...

, which is the practice of including multiple subjects in the same bill, hoping to attract supporters who might not vote for one or more subjects if presented separately.
  • If there was a vacancy in the House of Representatives, the governor of the state represented could fill the vacancy. He could do so for a Senate vacancy only during the recess of the legislature, and only for a term until the legislature met and made its own choice.

Slavery

Whereas the original constitution did not even use the word slavery, but "Person[s] held to Service or Labour" which included whites in indentured servitude, the confederate constitution addresses the legality of slavery directly and by name.

Continuing the US government's prohibition of importation of slaves after the year 1808, which is in the Articles of the confederate constitution unlike the U.S. Constitution, the confederate constitution does make explicit the legal protection of owning slaves.
No bill of attainder
Bill of attainder
A bill of attainder is an act of a legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of some crime and punishing them without benefit of a judicial trial.-English law:...

, ex post facto law, or law denying or impairing the right of property in negro slaves shall be passed [by Congress]


The constitution likewise prohibited the Confederate Congress from abolishing or limiting slavery in Confederate territories (unlike the United States, where, prior to the Dred Scott decision
Dred Scott v. Sandford
Dred Scott v. Sandford, , also known as the Dred Scott Decision, was a ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court that people of African descent brought into the United States and held as slaves were not protected by the Constitution and could never be U.S...

, Congress had prohibited slavery in some territories). This did not necessarily mean that individual states could not ban slavery. However, section 2 of Article IV specified that "citizens of each State shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States; and shall have the right of transit and sojourn in any State of this Confederacy, with their slaves and other property; and the right of property in said slaves shall not be thereby impaired".

A proposal to prohibit free states from joining the Confederate States of America was narrowly defeated, largely due to the efforts of moderates such as Alexander Stephens
Alexander Stephens
Alexander Hamilton Stephens was an American politician from Georgia. He was Vice President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. He also served as a U.S...

. Stephens believed that economics might persuade free states with strong economic ties to the South to join the Confederacy.

States' rights

The Preamble to the Confederate Constitution begins: "We, the people of the Confederate States, each State acting in its sovereign and independent character..."

The constitution contained many of the phrases and clauses which had led to disagreement among the states in the original Union, including a Supremacy Clause
Supremacy Clause
Article VI, Clause 2 of the United States Constitution, known as the Supremacy Clause, establishes the U.S. Constitution, U.S. Treaties, and Federal Statutes as "the supreme law of the land." The text decrees these to be the highest form of law in the U.S...

, a Commerce Clause
Commerce Clause
The Commerce Clause is an enumerated power listed in the United States Constitution . The clause states that the United States Congress shall have power "To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes." Courts and commentators have tended to...

 (albeit a more restrained version than in the U.S. Constitution, which itself had not been construed nearly as broadly as it is today), and a Necessary and Proper Clause. The Confederate Congress had powers almost identical to the US Congress; however, all the minor differences added together amounted to a much more constrained federal government than the US government of the times and of today. The Confederate Constitution contained clauses which increased the powers of the Executive Branch, such as the line item veto power given to the president. However, they also granted essentially a line item veto to the Senate and Congress by limiting each bill to one issue written in the name. By making both the executive and legislative branches of government more powerful they did more to tie the hands of the Federal government overall—enhancing the planned ineffectiveness of the central government. The Confederate Constitution also provided for a Supreme Court, which, through the supremacy clause, could acquire all the powers claimed for the U.S. Supreme Court by John Marshall
John Marshall
John Marshall was the Chief Justice of the United States whose court opinions helped lay the basis for American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court of the United States a coequal branch of government along with the legislative and executive branches...

. The Confederate Constitution was to take effect upon ratification by five states, like the U.S. Constitution, which took effect after nine states ratified it. This had been a major point of contention in the Anti-Federalist Papers
Anti-Federalist Papers
The Anti-Federalist Papers are a collection of articles, written in opposition to the ratification of the 1787 United States Constitution. Unlike the Federalist Papers written in support of the Constitution, the authors of these articles, mostly operating under pen names, were not engaged in a...

. The framers of the Confederate Constitution, having studied the various constitutional crises
Constitutional crisis
A constitutional crisis is a situation that the legal system's constitution or other basic principles of operation appear unable to resolve; it often results in a breakdown in the orderly operation of government...

 which had arisen in the United States between 1787 and 1860, tried to revise the constitution to eliminate the grievances which had been raised in that period.

Signatories

The signatories of the constitution were:
  • Howell Cobb
    Howell Cobb
    Howell Cobb was an American political figure. A Southern Democrat, Cobb was a five-term member of the United States House of Representatives and Speaker of the House from 1849 to 1851...

    , President of the Congress.
  • South Carolina
    South Carolina
    South Carolina is a state in the Deep South of the United States that borders Georgia to the south, North Carolina to the north, and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. Originally part of the Province of Carolina, the Province of South Carolina was one of the 13 colonies that declared independence...

    : Robert Barnwell Rhett
    Robert Rhett
    Robert Barnwell Rhett, Sr. , was a United States secessionist politician from South Carolina.-Biography:...

    , C. G. Memminger
    Christopher Memminger
    Christopher Gustavus Memminger was a prominent political leader and the first Secretary of the Treasury for the Confederate States of America.-Early life and career:...

    , William Porcher Miles
    William Porcher Miles
    William Porcher Miles was among the ardent States' Rights advocates, supporters of slavery, and Southern secessionists who came to be known as the "Fire-Eaters." Born in South Carolina, he showed little early interest in politics and his early career included the study of law and a tenure as a...

    , James Chesnut, Jr.
    James Chesnut, Jr.
    James Chesnut, Jr. of Camden, South Carolina, was a planter, lawyer, United States Senator, a signatory of the Constitution of the Confederate States of America, and a Confederate States Army general...

    , R. W. Barnwell
    Robert Woodward Barnwell
    Robert Woodward Barnwell was an American planter, lawyer, and educator from South Carolina who served as a Senator in both the United States Senate and that of the Confederate States of America.-Biography:...

    , William W. Boyce, Lawrence M. Keitt, Thomas Jefferson Withers
    Thomas Jefferson Withers
    Thomas Jefferson Withers was a Confederate politician from South Carolina who served in the Confederate States Congress during the American Civil War....

    .
  • Georgia
    Georgia (U.S. state)
    Georgia is a state located in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1732, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies. The state is named after King George II of Great Britain. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788...

    : Francis S. Bartow
    Francis S. Bartow
    Colonel Francis Stebbins Bartow was an attorney, Confederate States of America political leader, and military officer during the early months of the American Civil War...

    , Martin J. Crawford, Benjamin Harvey Hill
    Benjamin Harvey Hill
    Benjamin Harvey Hill was a U.S. Representative, U.S. senator and a Confederate senator from the state of Georgia.-Biography:Hill was born September 14, 1823 in Hillsboro, Georgia in Jasper County...

    , Thomas R. R. Cobb.
  • Florida
    Florida
    Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

    : Jackson Morton
    Jackson Morton
    Jackson Morton was an antebellum United States Senator from Florida and then a member of the Congress of the Confederate States during the American Civil War.-Early life:...

    , James Patton Anderson
    James Patton Anderson
    James Patton Anderson was an American physician, lawyer, and politician, most notably serving as a United States Congressman from the Washington Territory, a Mississippi state legislator, and a delegate at the Florida state secession convention to withdraw from the United States.He also served in...

    , James Byeram Owens
    James Byeram Owens
    James Byeram Owens was a prominent Confederate politician. He was born in Fairfield County, South Carolina and later moved to Florida. He was the brother-in-law of Ethelbert Barksdale and the grandfather of John Wellborn Martin. He was elected to represent Florida in the Provisional Confederate...

    .
  • Alabama
    Alabama
    Alabama is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Mississippi to the west. Alabama ranks 30th in total land area and ranks second in the size of its inland...

    : Richard W. Walker
    Richard Wilde Walker
    Richard Wilde Walker was a prominent Confederate States of America politician.Walker was born and died in Huntsville, Alabama. He was the son of John Williams Walker, the brother of Percy Walker and LeRoy Pope Walker, and father of Richard Wilde Walker, Jr. Richard Walker, Sr...

    , Robert Hardy Smith
    Robert Hardy Smith
    Robert Hardy Smith was a prominent Alabama politician. He was born in Camden County, North Carolina and later moved to Alabama, where he served in the state House of Representatives in 1849 and the state Senate in 1851. He was elected to represent the state in the Provisional Confederate Congress...

    , Colin John McRae
    Colin John McRae
    Colin John McRae was a prominent Confederate politician. He was born in Anson County, North Carolina and later moved to Mississippi where he served in the state legislature in 1838. Afterwards he moved to Alabama and was elected to serve the state in the Provisional Confederate Congress from 1861...

    , William P. Chilton
    William Parish Chilton, Sr.
    William Parish Chilton was a prominent lawyer, jurist, and politician serving the people of Alabama and eventually the Confederate States of America. Tuesday 10 August 2010 marked the 200th anniversary of his birth....

    , Stephen F. Hale
    Stephen F. Hale
    Stephen F. Hale was an American politician and military officer. A resident of Alabama, he signed the Confederate States Constitution and was later commissioned as a Lieutenant Colonel in the Confederate States Army. He also served as Alabama's secession commissioner to Kentucky in an effort to...

    , David P. Lewis
    David P. Lewis
    David Peter Lewis was the 23rd Governor of the U.S. state of Alabama from 1872 to 1874. After his term was over, a Republican would not be elected Governor of Alabama for 119 years.He had previously been a delegate to the Confederate Provisional Congress in 1861. In 1868 he was a delegate to the...

    , Thomas Fearn
    Thomas Fearn
    Thomas Fearn was a prominent Confederate politician. He was born in Pittsylvania County, Virginia and later moved to Alabama. He served in the United States Army in the War of 1812 and as a member of the Alabama state legislature. He was the father-in-law of William Taylor Sullivan Barry...

    , John Gill Shorter
    John Gill Shorter
    John Gill Shorter was the 17th Governor of the U.S. state of Alabama from 1861 to 1863, during the Civil War.Shorter, an attorney, was born in 1818 in Monticello, Georgia and died in 1872 in Eufaula, Alabama.-References:...

    , J. L. M. Curry
    Jabez Lamar Monroe Curry
    Jabez Lamar Monroe Curry was a lawyer, soldier, U.S. Congressman, college professor and administrator, diplomat, and officer in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.-Biography:...

    .
  • Mississippi
    Mississippi
    Mississippi is a U.S. state located in the Southern United States. Jackson is the state capital and largest city. The name of the state derives from the Mississippi River, which flows along its western boundary, whose name comes from the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi...

    : Alexander Mosby Clayton
    Alexander Mosby Clayton
    Alexander Mosby Clayton was a prominent Confederate politician. He was born in Campbell County, Virginia and later moved to Arkansas where he served on the Territorial Supreme Court in 1832. He then moved to Mississippi where he served as a state court judge from 1842 to 1852. In 1853 he served as...

    , James Thomas Harrison
    James Thomas Harrison
    James Thomas Harrison was an American politician and a signatory of the Confederate States Constitution. He was born in Anderson County, South Carolina and later moved to Columbus, Mississippi...

    , Michael K. Boleware, William Taylor Sullivan Barry, William Sydney Wilson
    William Sydney Wilson
    William Sydney Wilson was a prominent Confederate politician. He was born in Worcester County, Maryland, and later moved to Mississippi. He was the son of Ephraim King Wilson and brother to Ephraim King Wilson II. He was a member of the Mississippi state legislature from 1858 to 1859 and 1860 to...

    , Walker Brooke
    Walker Brooke
    Walker Brooke was a United States Senator from Mississippi.Born at Page Brooke, Clarke County, Virginia, he was the son of Humphrey Brooke and Sarah Walker Page. He attended the public schools in Richmond, Virginia and Georgetown, D.C...

    , Wiley Pope Harris, Josiah Abigail Patterson Campbell
    Josiah Abigail Patterson Campbell
    Josiah Abigail Patterson Campbell was a prominent Confederate States of America politician.He was born in Camden, South Carolina. He later moved to Mississippi and served in the state legislature in 1851 and 1859. He was elected to the Provisional Confederate Congress and served as its President...

    .
  • Louisiana
    Louisiana
    Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America. Its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are local governments equivalent to counties...

    : Alexandre Etienne DeClouet
    Alexandre Etienne DeClouet
    Alexandre Etienne DeClout was a prominent Confederate politician. He was born in St. Martin Parish, Louisiana and served in both houses of the Louisiana State Legislature. in 1837. He represented the state in the Provisional Confederate Congress from 1861 to 1862.-Notes:...

    , Charles Magill Conrad
    Charles Magill Conrad
    Charles Magill Conrad was a Louisiana politician who served in the United States Senate, United States House of Representatives, and Confederate Congress...

    , Duncan F. Kenner
    Duncan F. Kenner
    Duncan Farrar Kenner was a Louisiana politician, lawyer, and diplomat for the Confederate States of America.-Biography:...

    , Henry Marshall
    Henry Marshall
    Henry H. Marshall , is a former professional American football player who was selected by the Kansas City Chiefs in the 3rd round of the 1976 NFL Draft. A 6'2", 212-lb...

    .
  • Texas
    Texas
    Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

    : John Hemphill, Thomas Neville Waul
    Thomas Neville Waul
    Thomas Neville Waul was a prominent Confederate politician. He was born in Sumter County, South Carolina and later moved to Texas. He represented the state in the Provisional Confederate Congress from 1861 to 1862. Later he served in the Confederate Army....

    , John H. Reagan
    John Henninger Reagan
    John Henninger Reagan , was a leading 19th century American politician from the U.S. state of Texas. A Democrat, Reagan resigned from the U.S. House of Representatives when Texas seceded from the Union and joined the Confederate States of America. He served in the cabinet of Jefferson Davis as...

    , William Simpson Oldham, Sr.
    William Simpson Oldham, Sr.
    William Simpson Oldham, Sr. was a politician in the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War....

    , Louis T. Wigfall, John Gregg
    John Gregg
    John Gregg may refer to:* John Gregg Anglican Archbishop of Armagh 1939–59* John Gregg , founder of Greggs bakery* John Gregg , Anglican Bishop of Cork, Cloyne and Ross, 1862–78...

    , William Beck Ochiltree
    William Beck Ochiltree
    William Beck Ochiltree , was a settler, judge, and legislator in Texas. In 1963, Recorded Texas Historic Landmark Number 967, honoring Colonel Ochiltree, was placed at the courthouse in Perryton.-Biography:...

    .

External links

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