Coiba Island Howler
The Coiba Island howler (Alouatta coibensis) is a species of howler monkey
Howler monkey
Howler monkeys are among the largest of the New World monkeys. Fifteen species are currently recognised. Previously classified in the family Cebidae, they are now placed in the family Atelidae. These monkeys are native to South and Central American forests...

, a type of New World monkey
New World monkey
New World monkeys are the five families of primates that are found in Central and South America: Callitrichidae, Cebidae, Aotidae, Pitheciidae, and Atelidae. The five families are ranked together as the Platyrrhini parvorder and the Ceboidea superfamily, which are essentially synonymous since...

, endemic
Endemic (ecology)
Endemism is the ecological state of being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. For example, all species of lemur are endemic to the...

 to Panama
Panama , officially the Republic of Panama , is the southernmost country of Central America. Situated on the isthmus connecting North and South America, it is bordered by Costa Rica to the northwest, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The...

. Although the Coiba Island howler is generally recognized as a separate species, mitochondrial DNA
Mitochondrial DNA
Mitochondrial DNA is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria, structures within eukaryotic cells that convert the chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate...

 testing is inconclusive as to whether it is actually a subspecies of the mantled howler
Mantled Howler
The mantled howler , or golden-mantled howling monkey, is a species of howler monkey, a type of New World monkey, from Central and South America. It is one of the monkey species most often seen and heard in the wild in Central America...

. The reason for treating it as a separate species is that the dermal ridges of its hands and feet differ from those of the Mantled Howler.


There are two subspecies of this howler:
  • Alouatta coibensis coibensis
    Alouatta coibensis coibensis
    Alouatta coibensis coibensis is a subspecies of the Coiba Island howler, A. coibensis. This subspecies lives only on Coiba Island and Jicaron, off the Pacific coast of Panama. A. c. coibensis is smaller than other Central American howler monkeys and has duller pelage than the Azuero howler,...

    Oldfield Thomas
    Oldfield Thomas FRS was a British zoologist.Thomas worked at the Natural History Museum on mammals, describing about 2,000 new species and sub-species for the first time. He was appointed to the Museum Secretary's office in 1876, transferring to the Zoological Department in 1878...

    , 1902
  • Azuero Howler Monkey
    Azuero Howler Monkey
    The Azuero howler a type of monkey that is a subspecies of the Coiba Island howler A. coibensis. This subspecies is endemic to the Azuero Peninsula in Panama. The Azuero howler is distinguished primarily by its golden flanks and loins, and browner appearance on the rest of its body.Although...

    , Alouatta coibensis trabeata Lawrence, 1933

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