Cincinnati, Ohio
Overview
Cincinnati is a city in the U.S. state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 of Ohio
Ohio
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the United States. The 34th largest state by area in the U.S.,it is the 7th‑most populous with over 11.5 million residents, containing several major American cities and seven metropolitan areas with populations of 500,000 or more.The state's capital is Columbus...

. Cincinnati is the county seat of Hamilton County
Hamilton County, Ohio
As of 2000, there were 845,303 people, 346,790 households, and 212,582 families residing in the county. The population density was 2,075 people per square mile . There were 373,393 housing units at an average density of 917 per square mile...

. Settled in 1788, the city is located to north of the Ohio River
Ohio River
The Ohio River is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River. At the confluence, the Ohio is even bigger than the Mississippi and, thus, is hydrologically the main stream of the whole river system, including the Allegheny River further upstream...

 at the Ohio-Kentucky
Kentucky
The Commonwealth of Kentucky is a state located in the East Central United States of America. As classified by the United States Census Bureau, Kentucky is a Southern state, more specifically in the East South Central region. Kentucky is one of four U.S. states constituted as a commonwealth...

 border, near Indiana
Indiana
Indiana is a US state, admitted to the United States as the 19th on December 11, 1816. It is located in the Midwestern United States and Great Lakes Region. With 6,483,802 residents, the state is ranked 15th in population and 16th in population density. Indiana is ranked 38th in land area and is...

. The population within city limits is 296,943 according to the 2010 census, making it Ohio's third-largest city. According to the 2010 Census Bureau estimate, the Cincinnati metropolitan area had a population of 2,130,151, the 27th most populous Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

.
Encyclopedia
Cincinnati is a city in the U.S. state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 of Ohio
Ohio
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the United States. The 34th largest state by area in the U.S.,it is the 7th‑most populous with over 11.5 million residents, containing several major American cities and seven metropolitan areas with populations of 500,000 or more.The state's capital is Columbus...

. Cincinnati is the county seat of Hamilton County
Hamilton County, Ohio
As of 2000, there were 845,303 people, 346,790 households, and 212,582 families residing in the county. The population density was 2,075 people per square mile . There were 373,393 housing units at an average density of 917 per square mile...

. Settled in 1788, the city is located to north of the Ohio River
Ohio River
The Ohio River is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River. At the confluence, the Ohio is even bigger than the Mississippi and, thus, is hydrologically the main stream of the whole river system, including the Allegheny River further upstream...

 at the Ohio-Kentucky
Kentucky
The Commonwealth of Kentucky is a state located in the East Central United States of America. As classified by the United States Census Bureau, Kentucky is a Southern state, more specifically in the East South Central region. Kentucky is one of four U.S. states constituted as a commonwealth...

 border, near Indiana
Indiana
Indiana is a US state, admitted to the United States as the 19th on December 11, 1816. It is located in the Midwestern United States and Great Lakes Region. With 6,483,802 residents, the state is ranked 15th in population and 16th in population density. Indiana is ranked 38th in land area and is...

. The population within city limits is 296,943 according to the 2010 census, making it Ohio's third-largest city. According to the 2010 Census Bureau estimate, the Cincinnati metropolitan area had a population of 2,130,151, the 27th most populous Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. Residents of Cincinnati are called Cincinnatians.

In the early 19th century, Cincinnati was the first American boomtown
Boomtown
A boomtown is a community that experiences sudden and rapid population and economic growth. The growth is normally attributed to the nearby discovery of a precious resource such as gold, silver, or oil, although the term can also be applied to communities growing very rapidly for different reasons,...

 in the heart of the country to rival the larger coastal cities in size and wealth. As the first major inland city in the country, it is sometimes thought of as the first purely American city. It developed initially without as much recent European immigration or influence as took place in eastern cities. However, by the end of the 19th century, with the shift from steamboats to railroads, Cincinnati's growth had slowed considerably and the city became surpassed in population by many other inland Midwest cities, especially Chicago.

Cincinnati is home to two major sports teams, the Cincinnati Reds
Cincinnati Reds
The Cincinnati Reds are a Major League Baseball team based in Cincinnati, Ohio. They are members of the National League Central Division. The club was established in 1882 as a charter member of the American Association and joined the National League in 1890....

 and the Cincinnati Bengals
Cincinnati Bengals
The Cincinnati Bengals are a professional football team based in Cincinnati, Ohio. They are members of the AFC's North Division in the National Football League . The Bengals began play in 1968 as an expansion team in the American Football League , and joined the NFL in 1970 in the AFL-NFL...

, a major tennis tournament, the Cincinnati Masters
Cincinnati Masters
The Cincinnati Open is an annual outdoor hardcourts tennis event held in the Cincinnati suburb of Mason, Ohio, USA. The event started on September 18, 1899 and is the oldest tennis tournament in the United States played in its original city., Between...

, and home to large events such as the Flying Pig Marathon
Flying Pig Marathon
The Cincinnati Flying Pig Marathon is a race run the 1st Sunday of every May in Cincinnati, Ohio. It is the 3rd largest first-time marathon in the United States, and had nearly 5000 finishers in 2008. An official time from the Flying Pig Marathon can be used to qualify for the Boston Marathon...

, the Ohio Valley Jazz Festival, and the Thanksgiving Day race. The University of Cincinnati
University of Cincinnati
The University of Cincinnati is a comprehensive public research university in Cincinnati, Ohio, and a part of the University System of Ohio....

 traces its foundation to the Medical College of Ohio, which was founded in 1819.

Cincinnati is known for its large collection of historic architecture. Over-the-Rhine
Over-the-Rhine
Over-the-Rhine, sometimes shortened to OTR, is a neighborhood in Cincinnati, Ohio. It is believed to be the largest, most intact urban historic district in the United States. Over-the-Rhine was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983 with 943 contributing buildings...

, a neighborhood just to the north of Downtown Cincinnati
Downtown Cincinnati
Downtown Cincinnati is the central business district of Cincinnati, Ohio, and one of its 52 neighborhoods.-Geography:Downtown Cincinnati's streets are arranged in a grid configuration. It is bisected by Vine Street....

, boasts among the world's largest collections of Italianate architecture
Italianate architecture
The Italianate style of architecture was a distinct 19th-century phase in the history of Classical architecture. In the Italianate style, the models and architectural vocabulary of 16th-century Italian Renaissance architecture, which had served as inspiration for both Palladianism and...

, rivaling similar neighborhoods in New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

, Vienna
Vienna
Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

 and Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

 in size and scope. Constructed mainly between 1850-1900, Over-the-Rhine was the center of life for German immigrants for many years, and is one of the largest historic districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation...

.

History

Cincinnati was founded in 1788 by John Cleves Symmes
John Cleves Symmes
John Cleves Symmes was a delegate to the Continental Congress from New Jersey, and later a pioneer in the Northwest Territory. He was also the father-in-law of President William Henry Harrison .-Early biography:He was the son of the Rev...

 and Colonel Robert Patterson
Colonel Robert Patterson
Colonel Robert Patterson was a soldier and settler who helped found the cities of Lexington, Kentucky, and Cincinnati, Ohio, then moved to Dayton, Ohio....

. Surveyor John Filson
John Filson
John Filson was an American author, historian of Kentucky, pioneer, surveyor and one of the founders of Cincinnati, Ohio.-Biography:...

 (also the author of The Adventures of Colonel Daniel Boone
Daniel Boone
Daniel Boone was an American pioneer, explorer, and frontiersman whose frontier exploits mad']'e him one of the first folk heroes of the United States. Boone is most famous for his exploration and settlement of what is now the Commonwealth of Kentucky, which was then beyond the western borders of...

) named it "Losantiville" from four terms, each of a different language, meaning "the city opposite the mouth of the Licking River
Licking River (Kentucky)
The Licking River is a tributary of the Ohio River in northeastern Kentucky in the United States. The river and its tributaries drain much of the region of northeastern Kentucky between the watersheds of the Kentucky River to the west and the Big Sandy River to the east.-Origin of name:The Native...

". Ville is French for "city", anti is Greek for "opposite", os is Latin for "mouth", and "L" was all that was included of "Licking River".

In 1790, Arthur St. Clair
Arthur St. Clair
Arthur St. Clair was an American soldier and politician. Born in Scotland, he served in the British Army during the French and Indian War before settling in Pennsylvania, where he held local office...

, the governor of the Northwest Territory
Northwest Territory
The Territory Northwest of the River Ohio, more commonly known as the Northwest Territory, was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 13, 1787, until March 1, 1803, when the southeastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Ohio...

, changed the name of the settlement to "Cincinnati" in honor of the Society of the Cincinnati
Society of the Cincinnati
The Society of the Cincinnati is a historical organization with branches in the United States and France founded in 1783 to preserve the ideals and fellowship of the American Revolutionary War officers and to pressure the government to honor pledges it had made to officers who fought for American...

, of which he was a member. The society honored General George Washington
George Washington
George Washington was the dominant military and political leader of the new United States of America from 1775 to 1799. He led the American victory over Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army from 1775 to 1783, and presided over the writing of...

, who was considered a latter day Cincinnatus
Cincinnatus
Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus was an aristocrat and political figure of the Roman Republic, serving as consul in 460 BC and Roman dictator in 458 BC and 439 BC....

, the Roman
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 farmer who was called to serve Rome as dictator
Roman dictator
In the Roman Republic, the dictator , was an extraordinary magistrate with the absolute authority to perform tasks beyond the authority of the ordinary magistrate . The office of dictator was a legal innovation originally named Magister Populi , i.e...

, an office which he resigned after completing his task of defeating the Aequians in no less than 16 days, and was considered the role model dictator. To this day, Cincinnati in particular, and Ohio in general, are homes to a statistically significant number of descendants of Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War , the American War of Independence, or simply the Revolutionary War, began as a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and thirteen British colonies in North America, and ended in a global war between several European great powers.The war was the result of the...

 soldiers who were granted lands
United States Military Lands
The United States Military Lands were land grants given to Continental Army servicemen by the United States Congress for service in the American Revolutionary War, in lieu of giving them pay or pensions. Beginning in 1796, Congress provided 2.6 million acres of land to Army soldiers and officers,...

 in the state as payment for their war service.

In 1802, Cincinnati was chartered as a village
Village
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet with the population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand , Though often located in rural areas, the term urban village is also applied to certain urban neighbourhoods, such as the West Village in Manhattan, New...

. David Ziegler
David Ziegler
David Ziegler was a German immigrant to the United States who served in the U.S. military and became the first mayor of Cincinnati, Ohio.-Early life and career:...

 (1748–1811), a Revolutionary War veteran from Heidelberg
Heidelberg
-Early history:Between 600,000 and 200,000 years ago, "Heidelberg Man" died at nearby Mauer. His jaw bone was discovered in 1907; with scientific dating, his remains were determined to be the earliest evidence of human life in Europe. In the 5th century BC, a Celtic fortress of refuge and place of...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, became the first mayor. Cincinnati was incorporated as a city in 1819. The introduction of steam navigation on the Ohio River
Ohio River
The Ohio River is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River. At the confluence, the Ohio is even bigger than the Mississippi and, thus, is hydrologically the main stream of the whole river system, including the Allegheny River further upstream...

 in 1811 and the completion of the Miami and Erie Canal
Miami and Erie Canal
The Miami and Erie Canal was a canal that connected the Ohio River in Cincinnati, Ohio with Lake Erie in Toledo, Ohio. Construction on the canal began in 1825 and was completed in 1845. It consisted of 19 aqueducts, three guard locks, and 103 canal locks. Each lock measured by and they...

 helped the city grow to 115,000 citizens by 1850.
Construction on the Miami and Erie Canal
Miami and Erie Canal
The Miami and Erie Canal was a canal that connected the Ohio River in Cincinnati, Ohio with Lake Erie in Toledo, Ohio. Construction on the canal began in 1825 and was completed in 1845. It consisted of 19 aqueducts, three guard locks, and 103 canal locks. Each lock measured by and they...

 began on July 21, 1825, when it was called the Miami Canal, related to its origin at the Great Miami River
Great Miami River
The Great Miami River is a tributary of the Ohio River, approximately long, in southwestern Ohio in the United States...

. The canal became operational in 1827. In 1827, the canal connected Cincinnati to nearby Middletown
Middletown, Ohio
Middletown is an All-America City located in Butler and Warren counties in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Formerly in Lemon, Turtlecreek, and Franklin townships, Middletown was incorporated by the Ohio General Assembly on February 11, 1833, and became a city in 1886...

; by 1840, it had reached Toledo
Toledo, Ohio
Toledo is the fourth most populous city in the U.S. state of Ohio and is the county seat of Lucas County. Toledo is in northwest Ohio, on the western end of Lake Erie, and borders the State of Michigan...

. The name was changed to the Miami and Erie Canal, signifying the connection between the Great Miami River and Lake Erie
Lake Erie
Lake Erie is the fourth largest lake of the five Great Lakes in North America, and the tenth largest globally. It is the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume of the Great Lakes and therefore also has the shortest average water residence time. It is bounded on the north by the...

.

During this period of rapid expansion, citizens of Cincinnati began referring to the city as the "Queen" city. In his poem "Catawba Wine", Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was an American poet and educator whose works include "Paul Revere's Ride", The Song of Hiawatha, and Evangeline...

 wrote that the city was "the Queen of the West".

Cincinnati depended on trade with the slave states south of the Ohio river, at a time when growing numbers of African Americans were settling in the state. This led to tensions between anti-abolitionists and citizens in favor of lifting restrictions on blacks codified in the "Black Code" of 1804. There were riots in 1829
Cincinnati riots of 1829
The Cincinnati Riots of 1829 were triggered by competition between Irish immigrants and the African American community for employment opportunities in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA....

, where many blacks lost their homes and property, further riots in 1836
Cincinnati Riots of 1836
The Cincinnati Riots of 1836 were caused by racial tensions at a time when African Americans, some of whom had escaped from slavery in the southern states of the USA, were competing with whites for jobs....

 in which an abolitionist press was twice destroyed, and more rioting in 1842.

Railroads were the next major form of transportation to come to Cincinnati. In 1836, the Little Miami Railroad was chartered. Construction began soon after, to connect Cincinnati with the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, and provide access to the ports of the Sandusky Bay
Sandusky Bay
Sandusky Bay is a body of water situated in between Erie, Ottawa, and Sandusky counties in the U.S. state of Ohio and just to the south of Lake Erie. Sandusky Bay runs from Muddy Creek Bay to Cedar Point, which is part of Sandusky....

 on Lake Erie.

The first sheriff, John Brown, was appointed September 2, 1788. The Ohio Act in 1802 provided for Cincinnati to have a village marshall and James Smith was appointed; the following year the town started a "night watch". In 1819, when Cincinnati was incorporated as a city, the first city marshal, William Ruffin, was appointed. In May 1828, the police force consisted of one captain; one assistant and five patrolmen. By 1850, the city authorized positions for a police chief and six lieutenants, but it was 1853 before the first police chief, Jacob Keifer, was appointed and he was dismissed after 3 weeks.

Cincinnati accompanied its growth by paying men to act as its fire department in 1853, making the first full-time paid fire department in the United States. It was the first in the world to use steam fire engines.

Six years later, in 1859, Cincinnati laid out six streetcar lines, making it easier for people to get around the city. By 1872, Cincinnatians could travel on the streetcars within the city and transfer to rail cars for travel to the hill communities. The Cincinnati Inclined Plane Company began transporting people to the top of Mount Auburn that year.

The Cincinnati Red Stockings
Cincinnati Red Stockings
The Cincinnati Red Stockings of were baseball's first fully professional team, with ten salaried players. The Cincinnati Base Ball Club formed in 1866 and fielded competitive teams in the National Association of Base Ball Players 1867–1870, a time of a transition that ambitious Cincinnati,...

, a baseball team whose name and heritage inspired today's Cincinnati Reds
Cincinnati Reds
The Cincinnati Reds are a Major League Baseball team based in Cincinnati, Ohio. They are members of the National League Central Division. The club was established in 1882 as a charter member of the American Association and joined the National League in 1890....

, began their career in the 19th century as well. In 1868, meetings were held at the law offices of Tilden, Sherman, and Moulton to make Cincinnati's baseball team a professional one; it became the first regular professional team in the country in 1869. In its first year, the team won 57 games and tied one, giving it the best winning record of any professional baseball team in history.

During the American Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

, Cincinnati played a key role as a major source of supplies and troops for the Union Army
Union Army
The Union Army was the land force that fought for the Union during the American Civil War. It was also known as the Federal Army, the U.S. Army, the Northern Army and the National Army...

. It also served as the headquarters for much of the war for the Department of the Ohio, which was charged with the defense of the region, as well as directing the army's offensive into Kentucky and Tennessee. Due to Cincinnati's commerce with slave states and history of settlement by southerners from eastern states, many people in the area were "Southern sympathizers". Some participated in the Copperhead
Copperheads (politics)
The Copperheads were a vocal group of Democrats in the Northern United States who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. Republicans started calling anti-war Democrats "Copperheads," likening them to the venomous snake...

 movement in Ohio. In July 1863, the Union Army instituted martial law
Martial law
Martial law is the imposition of military rule by military authorities over designated regions on an emergency basis— only temporary—when the civilian government or civilian authorities fail to function effectively , when there are extensive riots and protests, or when the disobedience of the law...

 in Cincinnati due to the imminent danger posed by the Confederate Morgan's Raiders. Bringing the war to the North, they attacked several outlying villages, such as Cheviot
Cheviot, Ohio
Cheviot is a city located in west central Hamilton County, Ohio. The population was 9,015 at the 2000 census.- History :In 1814 a Scottish immigrant named John Craig purchased a half section of of Green Township from Elias Boudinot. He built an inn and tavern on the Harrison Pike. In 1818 Craig...

 and Montgomery
Montgomery, Ohio
Montgomery is a city in Hamilton County, Ohio, United States settled in 1796. The town was a coach stop on the Cincinnati-Zanesville Road, later known as the Montgomery Pike with an Inn, two taverns, a grist mill and a carding mill to process its agricultural products...

.

In 1879, Procter & Gamble
Procter & Gamble
Procter & Gamble is a Fortune 500 American multinational corporation headquartered in downtown Cincinnati, Ohio and manufactures a wide range of consumer goods....

, one of Cincinnati's major soap manufacturers, began marketing Ivory Soap
Ivory (soap)
The name "Ivory" refers to a series of products created by the Procter & Gamble Company , including varieties of a white and mildly fragranced bar soap, that became famous for its pure content and for floating in water. Over the years, the bar soap has been altered into other varieties...

. It was marketed as "light enough to float." After a fire at the first factory, Procter & Gamble moved to a new factory on the Mill Creek
Mill Creek (Ohio)
The Mill Creek is a stream in southwest Ohio. It flows southwest and south from its headwaters in Liberty Township of Butler County through central Hamilton County and the heart of Cincinnati into the Ohio River just west of downtown...

 and renewed soap production. The area became known as Ivorydale.

In 1884, one of the most severe riots in American history took place in Cincinnati. On Christmas Eve 1883 Joe Palmer and William Berner robbed and murdered their employer, a stable owner named William Kirk. The duo dumped his body near Mill Creek before they were captured. One of the men, William Berner, was spared the gallows in sentencing after his conviction, but the case had provoked outrage and an angry mob formed. The Courthouse Riots began on March 28 when thousands of citizens stormed the county jail and set the Hamilton County Courthouse on fire while seeking Berner. A small group of Hamilton County deputies, led by Sheriff Morton Lytle Hawkins, fought to save the jail from a complete takeover. After losing ground, they succeeded in protecting the inmates from the mob. Two deputies were killed in the conflict, including Captain John Desmond, whose statue stands in the Courthouse lobby. In total, 45 men were killed and 125 injured in the rioting.

Cincinnati weathered the Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

 better than most American cities of its size, largely because of a resurgence in river trade, which was less expensive than rail. The rejuvenation of downtown began in the 1920s and continued into the next decade with the construction of Union Terminal
Cincinnati Museum Center at Union Terminal
The Cincinnati Museum Center at Union Terminal, originally Cincinnati Union Terminal, is a passenger railroad station in the Queensgate neighborhood of Cincinnati, Ohio, United States...

, the post office, and a large Bell Telephone building.

The flood of 1937 was one of the worst in the nation's history. Afterward the city built protective flood walls. After World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, Cincinnati unveiled a master plan for urban renewal that resulted in modernization of the inner city. Like other older industrial cities, Cincinnati suffered from economic restructuring and loss of jobs following deindustrialization in the mid-century.

In 1970 and 1975, the city completed Riverfront Stadium and Riverfront Coliseum
U.S. Bank Arena
U.S. Bank Arena is an indoor arena, located in downtown Cincinnati, Ohio, along the banks of the Ohio River, next to the Great American Ball Park. Completed in September 1975, the arena seats 17,556 people...

, respectively, as the Cincinnati Reds
Cincinnati Reds
The Cincinnati Reds are a Major League Baseball team based in Cincinnati, Ohio. They are members of the National League Central Division. The club was established in 1882 as a charter member of the American Association and joined the National League in 1890....

 baseball team emerged as one of the dominant teams of the decade. In fact, the Big Red Machine of 1975 and 1976 is considered by many to be one of the best baseball teams to ever play the game. Three key players on the team (Johnny Bench
Johnny Bench
Johnny Lee Bench is a former professional baseball catcher who played in the Major Leagues for the Cincinnati Reds from 1967 to 1983 and is a member of the National Baseball Hall of Fame...

, Tony Perez
Tony Pérez
Atanasio Pérez Rigal , more commonly known as Tony Pérez, is a former Major League Baseball player. He was also known by the nickname "Big Dog," "Big Doggie," and "Doggie."...

, and Joe Morgan
Joe Morgan
Joe Leonard Morgan is a former Major League Baseball second baseman who played for the Houston Astros, Cincinnati Reds, San Francisco Giants, Philadelphia Phillies, and Oakland Athletics from 1963 to 1984. He won two World Series championships with the Reds in 1975 and 1976 and was also named the...

), as well as manager Sparky Anderson
Sparky Anderson
George Lee "Sparky" Anderson was an American Major League Baseball manager. He managed the National League's Cincinnati Reds to the 1975 and 1976 championships, then added a third title in 1984 with the Detroit Tigers of the American League. He was the first manager to win the World Series in both...

, were elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame, while a fourth, Pete Rose
Pete Rose
Peter Edward Rose , nicknamed "Charlie Hustle", is a former Major League Baseball player and manager. Rose played from 1963 to 1986, and managed from 1984 to 1989....

, still holds the title for the most hits (4,256), singles (3,215), games played (3,562), games played in which his team won (1,971), at-bats (14,053) and outs (10,328) in baseball history. On May 28, 1977 165 persons were killed in a fire at the Beverly Hills Supper Club in nearby Southgate, Kentucky
Southgate, Kentucky
Southgate is a city in Campbell County, Kentucky, United States, a part of metropolitan Cincinnati, Ohio. The population was 3,472 at the 2000 census.-History:...

. On December 3, 1979 11 persons were killed in a crowd crush at the entrance of Riverfront Coliseum for a rock concert by the British band The Who
The Who
The Who are an English rock band formed in 1964 by Roger Daltrey , Pete Townshend , John Entwistle and Keith Moon . They became known for energetic live performances which often included instrument destruction...

.

In 1988, the 200th anniversary of the city's founding, much attention was focused on the city's Year 2000 plan, which involved further revitalization. The completion of several major new development projects enhance the city as it enters the early years of the new millennium. Cincinnati's beloved Bengals and Reds teams both have new, state-of-the-art homes: Paul Brown Stadium
Paul Brown Stadium
Paul Brown Stadium is an American sports stadium located in Cincinnati, Ohio. It is the home venue of the Cincinnati Bengals of the National Football League. It opened on August 19, 2000. The stadium was named after Bengals' founder Paul Brown. The stadium is located on approximately of land and...

, opened in 2000; and the Great American Ball Park
Great American Ball Park
The Great American Ball Park is a Major League Baseball park in Cincinnati, Ohio. It is the home of the National League's Cincinnati Reds. It opened in 2003, replacing the Reds' former home, Cinergy Field, which was known as Riverfront Stadium from its opening in June 1970 until the 1996...

, opened in 2003, respectively. Two new museums have opened: the Rosenthal Center for Contemporary Art
Rosenthal Center for Contemporary Art
The Contemporary Arts Center in Cincinnati, Ohio chose to honor two of its major donors by naming its new home, designed by Zaha Hadid, the Lois and Richard Rosenthal Center for Contemporary Art. The Rosenthal Center was Zaha Hadid's first American project...

 in 2003, and the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center
National Underground Railroad Freedom Center
The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center is a museum in downtown Cincinnati, Ohio based on the history of the Underground Railroad. The Center also pays tribute to all efforts to "abolish human enslavement and secure freedom for all people." Billed as part of a new group of "museums of...

 in 2004.

The City of Cincinnati and Hamilton County are currently planning the Banks
The Banks
The Banks is the name given to the current mixed-use project being developed on the land between Paul Brown Stadium and Great American Ball Park along the Ohio River in Cincinnati, Ohio.-History:...

 - development of a 24-hour urban neighborhood along the city's riverfront, to include restaurants, clubs, offices, and homes with sweeping skyline views. Cincinnati has received accolades for its quality of life:
  • 1993 - "Most Livable City"
  • 2004 - Partners for Livable Communities
  • 2004 - Ranked #5 as a U.S. arts destination, American Style Magazine
  • 2004 - Top Ten "Cities that Rock", Esquire
    Esquire (magazine)
    Esquire is a men's magazine, published in the U.S. by the Hearst Corporation. Founded in 1932, it flourished during the Great Depression under the guidance of founder and editor Arnold Gingrich.-History:...

     magazine, April 2004
  • 2007 - Ranked #1 city in Ohio for "Best Cities For Young Professionals" and #18 overall, Forbes
    Forbes
    Forbes is an American publishing and media company. Its flagship publication, the Forbes magazine, is published biweekly. Its primary competitors in the national business magazine category are Fortune, which is also published biweekly, and Business Week...

    magazine
  • 2008 - Ranked #10 as the most walkable city in the United States and #1 in Ohio.
  • 2011 - Ranked #5 in "America's Most Affordable Cities" Forbes
    Forbes
    Forbes is an American publishing and media company. Its flagship publication, the Forbes magazine, is published biweekly. Its primary competitors in the national business magazine category are Fortune, which is also published biweekly, and Business Week...

    magazine
  • 2011 - Ranked #1 "residential remodeling market" in the United States by Remodeling Magazine
  • 2011 - Ranked #7 as the "Most Romantic City" in the United States by Amazon.com
    Amazon.com
    Amazon.com, Inc. is a multinational electronic commerce company headquartered in Seattle, Washington, United States. It is the world's largest online retailer. Amazon has separate websites for the following countries: United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Japan, and...


Geography

Cincinnati's core metro area spans parts of southern Ohio and northern Kentucky. According to the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

, the city has a total area of 79.6 square miles (206.2 km²), of which, 78 square miles (202 km²) of it is land and 1.6 square miles (4.1 km²) of it (2.01%) is water. The city spreads over a number of hills, bluffs, and low ridges overlooking the Ohio River
Ohio River
The Ohio River is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River. At the confluence, the Ohio is even bigger than the Mississippi and, thus, is hydrologically the main stream of the whole river system, including the Allegheny River further upstream...

 in the Bluegrass region
Bluegrass region
The Bluegrass Region is a geographic region in the state of Kentucky, United States. It occupies the northern part of the state and since European settlement has contained a majority of the state's population and its largest cities....

 of the country. Cincinnati is geographically located within the Midwest and is on the far northern periphery of the Upland South
Upland South
The terms Upper South and Upland South refer to the northern part of the Southern United States, in contrast to the Lower South or Deep South.-Geography:There is a slight difference in usage between the two terms...

. Two-thirds of the American population live within a one-day drive of the city.

Climate

Cincinnati belongs to a climatic transition zone, at the northern limit of the humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

 and the southern limit of the humid continental climate
Humid continental climate
A humid continental climate is a climatic region typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters....

 zone (Koppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

: Cfa/Dfa, respectively). Summers are hot and humid, with significant rainfall in each month. July is the warmest month, with highs just above 86 °F (30 °C), reaching 90 °F (32 °C) or above on 18 days per year, often with high dew points and humidity. Winters tend to be cold and snowy, with January, the coolest month, averaging at 29.7 °F (-1.3 °C); however, lows may reach 0 °F (-18 °C) several times a year. An average season will see just above 20 inches (50.8 cm) of snowfall, contributing to the annual 42.6 inches (108.2 cm) of precipitation, which is somewhat evenly distributed. Extremes range from −25 °F on January 18, 1977 and July 21, 1934, respectively.


Cityscape

Downtown Cincinnati
Downtown Cincinnati
Downtown Cincinnati is the central business district of Cincinnati, Ohio, and one of its 52 neighborhoods.-Geography:Downtown Cincinnati's streets are arranged in a grid configuration. It is bisected by Vine Street....

 is focused around Fountain Square
Fountain Square, Cincinnati
Fountain Square is a city square in Cincinnati. Founded in 1871, it was renovated in 1971 and 2005 and currently features many shops, restaurants, hotels, and offices.- History :...

, a popular public square and event location.

Cincinnati is home to numerous structures that are noteworthy due to their architectural characteristics or historic associations including the Carew Tower
Carew Tower
Carew Tower is the second tallest building in Cincinnati, Ohio, United States. However, it is still the highest elevated building in the city. The Great American Insurance building is only taller because of the basement. Completed in 1930, it stands 49 stories tall in the heart of downtown,...

, the Scripps Center
Scripps Center
The Scripps Center is a 35-story office building in downtown Cincinnati, Ohio.Completed in 1990, the building is located just off the Cincinnati riverfront at 312 Walnut Street. Home to a number of different companies, the skyscraper overlooks the Ohio River, the National Underground Railroad...

, the Ingalls Building
Ingalls Building
The Ingalls Building, built in 1903 in Cincinnati, Ohio, was the world's first reinforced concrete skyscraper. The 15 story building was designed by the Cincinnati architectural firm Elzner & Anderson and was named for its primary financial investor, Melville E. Ingalls...

, Cincinnati Museum Center at Union Terminal
Cincinnati Museum Center at Union Terminal
The Cincinnati Museum Center at Union Terminal, originally Cincinnati Union Terminal, is a passenger railroad station in the Queensgate neighborhood of Cincinnati, Ohio, United States...

, and the Isaac M. Wise Temple
Isaac M. Wise Temple
The Isaac M. Wise Temple is the historic synagogue erected for Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise. Rabbi Wise was the founder of American Reform Judaism. The temple building was designed by prominent Cincinnati architect James Keys Wilson.The temple is located at 720 Plum Street in Cincinnati, Ohio and was...

.

The city is undergoing significant changes due to new development and private investment, as well as the construction of the long-stalled Banks project
The Banks
The Banks is the name given to the current mixed-use project being developed on the land between Paul Brown Stadium and Great American Ball Park along the Ohio River in Cincinnati, Ohio.-History:...

. Nearly $3.5 billion has been invested in the urban core of Cincinnati (including Northern Kentucky). More investment is expected to take place.

Construction recently was finished on a new office building that will dominate the Cincinnati skyline. Queen City Square
Great American Insurance Building at Queen City Square
The Great American Tower at Queen City Square, is a skyscraper in Cincinnati, Ohio. The tower, built by Western & Southern Financial Group, began construction in July 2008 and opened in January 2011 at a cost of $322 million. Half the building is occupied by the heaquarters of the Great American...

 opened on January 11, 2011, at 1:11 p.m. EST. The building is the tallest in Cincinnati (surpassing the Carew Tower), and is the third tallest in Ohio, reaching a height of 660 feet.

Government

The city is governed by a nine-member city council
Election Results, City Council of Cincinnati, Ohio
The nine-member city council of Cincinnati, Ohio is elected at-large in a single election in which each voter chooses nine candidates from the field. The nine top vote-getters win seats on the council for a two-year term....

, whose members are elected at large. Prior to 1924, city council was elected through a system of wards. The ward system was subject to corruption and as with any one-party dominance, abuses arose. From the 1880s-1920s, the Republican Party
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP . The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S...

 dominated city politics, with the political machine
Political machine
A political machine is a political organization in which an authoritative boss or small group commands the support of a corps of supporters and businesses , who receive rewards for their efforts...

 of "Boss" Cox
George B. Cox
George Barnsedale Cox was a political boss in Cincinnati, Ohio, United States, a member of the Republican Party, and associate of William Howard Taft. Cox was the son of British immigrants. As a teen during the Civil War years, he supported his widowed mother as an errand boy. Later he drove a...

 exerting control.

A reform movement arose in 1923, led by another Republican
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP . The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S...

, Murray Seasongood
Murray Seasongood
Murray Seasongood was a Jewish American politician, who served as the Mayor of Cincinnati, Ohio from 1926-1930. After his tenure as mayor, Seasongood was appointed as professor of law at Harvard University. He was named as one of the 100 Greatest Ohio Citizens in 1974.- References :...

. Seasongood founded the Charter Committee, which used ballot initiatives in 1924 to replace the ward system with the current at-large system. They also gained approval by voters for a city manager
Council-manager government
The council–manager government form is one of two predominant forms of municipal government in the United States; the other common form of local government is the mayor-council government form, which characteristically occurs in large cities...

 form of government. From 1924 to 1957, the council was selected by proportional representation
Proportional representation
Proportional representation is a concept in voting systems used to elect an assembly or council. PR means that the number of seats won by a party or group of candidates is proportionate to the number of votes received. For example, under a PR voting system if 30% of voters support a particular...

. Beginning in 1957, all candidates ran in a single race and the top nine vote-getters were elected (the "9-X system"). The mayor was selected by the council. In 1977, thirty-three year old Jerry Springer
Jerry Springer
Gerald Norman "Jerry" Springer is a British-born American television presenter, best known as host of the tabloid talk show The Jerry Springer Show since its debut in 1991...

, later a notable television talk show
Talk show
A talk show or chat show is a television program or radio program where one person discuss various topics put forth by a talk show host....

 host, was chosen to serve one year as mayor.

Residents continued to work to improve their system. To have their votes count more, starting in 1987, the top vote-getter in the city council election was automatically selected as mayor. Starting in 1999, the mayor was elected separately in a general election for the first time. The city manager's role in government was reduced. These reforms were referred to as the "strong mayor
Mayor-council government
The mayor–council government system, sometimes called the mayor–commission government system, is one of the two most common forms of local government for municipalities...

" reforms, to make the city government accountable to voters. Cincinnati politics include the participation of the Charter Party, the party with the third-longest history of winning in local elections.

The current mayor of Cincinnati is Mark Mallory and the current City Manager is Milton Dohoney. The nine-member city council is composed of Vice-Mayor Roxanne Qualls
Roxanne Qualls
Roxanne Qualls is a former Democratic mayor of Cincinnati, Ohio, having served from December 1993 to November 1999. She also served a two-year term on the Cincinnati City Council prior to her service as mayor, having been elected in 1991. On August 8, 2007, the Charter Committee announced her...

 and Councilmembers Cecil Thomas (President Pro-Tem), Jeff Berding
Jeff Berding
Jeff Berding is an American politician of the Democratic Party, who currently serves as a councilman for Cincinnati, having held a seat on council since his election in November 2005...

, Chris Bortz
Chris Bortz
Chris Bortz is a politician from Cincinnati, Ohio. He was elected to the Cincinnati City Council in 2005 as a member of the Charter Party.. Because the Charter Party is not recognized by the state of Ohio as an official party, Bortz is a registered Republican. He currently serves as the chair of...

, Leslie Ghiz, Chris Monzel, Laure Quinlivan, Wendell Young, and Charlie Winburn.

Race relations

Because of its location on the Ohio River, Cincinnati was a border town between a state that allowed slavery, Kentucky, and one that did not, Ohio, before the Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

. Some residents of Cincinnati played a major role in abolitionism
Abolitionism
Abolitionism is a movement to end slavery.In western Europe and the Americas abolitionism was a movement to end the slave trade and set slaves free. At the behest of Dominican priest Bartolomé de las Casas who was shocked at the treatment of natives in the New World, Spain enacted the first...

. Many escaping slaves used the Ohio river and Cincinnati to escape to the North. Cincinnati had numerous stations on the Underground Railroad, as well as slave catchers.

In 1829, a riot broke out as anti-abolitionists attacked blacks in the city. As a result, 1,200 blacks left the city and resettled in Canada. The riot and its refugees were a topic of discussion throughout the nation, and at the first Negro Convention held in 1830 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Philadelphia is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the county seat of Philadelphia County, with which it is coterminous. The city is located in the Northeastern United States along the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers. It is the fifth-most-populous city in the United States,...

. Riots also occurred in 1836 and 1841. In 1836, a mob of 700 anti-abolitionists again attacked black neighborhoods, as well as a press run by James M. Birney
James M. Birney
James M. Birney was a politician from the U.S. state of Michigan.-Biography:Birney was born in Danville, Kentucky, the eldest son of Agatha and James Gillespie Birney, who was a presidential candidate for the Liberty Party in the 1840 and 1844 elections. James M. Birney spent his early years in...

, publisher of the anti-slavery weekly The Philanthropist. Tensions further increased after passage in 1850 of the Fugitive Slave Act.

Harriet Beecher Stowe
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Harriet Beecher Stowe was an American abolitionist and author. Her novel Uncle Tom's Cabin was a depiction of life for African-Americans under slavery; it reached millions as a novel and play, and became influential in the United States and United Kingdom...

 lived in Cincinnati for a time, met escaped slaves, and used their stories as a basis for her watershed novel Uncle Tom's Cabin
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly is an anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe. Published in 1852, the novel "helped lay the groundwork for the Civil War", according to Will Kaufman....

. Levi Coffin
Levi Coffin
Levi Coffin was an American Quaker, abolitionist, and businessman. Coffin was deeply involved in the Underground Railroad in Indiana and Ohio and his home is often called "Grand Central Station of the Underground Railroad"...

 made the Cincinnati area the center of his anti-slavery efforts in 1847. Today, the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center
National Underground Railroad Freedom Center
The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center is a museum in downtown Cincinnati, Ohio based on the history of the Underground Railroad. The Center also pays tribute to all efforts to "abolish human enslavement and secure freedom for all people." Billed as part of a new group of "museums of...

, located on the Cincinnati riverfront in the middle of "The Banks
The Banks
The Banks is the name given to the current mixed-use project being developed on the land between Paul Brown Stadium and Great American Ball Park along the Ohio River in Cincinnati, Ohio.-History:...

" area between Great American Ballpark and Paul Brown Stadium
Paul Brown Stadium
Paul Brown Stadium is an American sports stadium located in Cincinnati, Ohio. It is the home venue of the Cincinnati Bengals of the National Football League. It opened on August 19, 2000. The stadium was named after Bengals' founder Paul Brown. The stadium is located on approximately of land and...

, commemorates this era.

In the second half of the 20th century, Cincinnati, along with other rust belt
Rust Belt
The Rust Belt is a term that gained currency in the 1980s as the informal description of an area straddling the Midwestern and Northeastern United States, in which local economies traditionally garnered an increased manufacturing sector to add jobs and corporate profits...

 cities, underwent a vast demographic transformation. Predominately white, working-class families that had filled the urban core during the European immigration boom in the 19th century moved to the suburbs. Blacks, fleeing the oppression of the Jim Crow South in hopes of better socioeconomic opportunity, filled these older city neighborhoods. Racial tensions boiled over in 1968 with the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. when riots occurred in Cincinnati along with nearly every major U.S. city. By 2001, decades of inner-city neglect, the crack cocaine epidemic of the 80s and 90s, and backlash against several violent incidents involving the primarily white Cincinnati police force and black residents reached another boiling point. In April 2001, racially charged riots occurred after police shot and killed a black man, Timothy Thomas during a foot pursuit.

Crime

Before the riot of 2001
2001 Cincinnati riots
The Cincinnati riots of 2001 were the largest urban disorders in the United States since the Los Angeles riots of 1992. The four days of rioting were a reaction to the fatal shooting in Cincinnati, Ohio of Timothy Thomas, a 19-year-old black male, by Steven Roach, a white police officer, during an...

, Cincinnati's overall crime rate was dropping steadily and had reached its lowest point since 1992. After the riot violent crime increased, and in 2005 Cincinnati was ranked as the 20th most dangerous city in America. The police force "work slowdown" correlated with this increase. For the first four months of 2007, incidents of violent crime were 15.3 percent lower than they had been in the first four months of 2006. Children's Hospital saw a 78 percent decrease in gunshot wounds, and University Hospital had a 17 percent drop. In May and June 2006, together with the Hamilton County Sheriff, the Cincinnati Police Department created a task force of twenty deputies in Over-the-Rhine
Over-the-Rhine
Over-the-Rhine, sometimes shortened to OTR, is a neighborhood in Cincinnati, Ohio. It is believed to be the largest, most intact urban historic district in the United States. Over-the-Rhine was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983 with 943 contributing buildings...

 that helped reduce crime in downtown Cincinnati by 29% . This substantial decrease had still not reduced crime to levels before the 2001 riots.

The city attempted to reduce gun violence
Gun violence
Gun violence defined literally means the use of a firearm to threaten or inflict violence or harm. Gun violence may be broadly defined as a category of violence and crime committed with the use of a firearm; it may or may not include actions ruled as self-defense, actions for law enforcement, or...

 by using the Out of the Crossfire program at University Hospital, a rehabilitation program for patients with gunshot wounds. Mayor Mark Mallory is a member of the Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition
Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition
Mayors Against Illegal Guns is a coalition of over 600 mayors who support a number of gun control initiatives that the group calls "commonsense reforms" to fight illegal gun trafficking and gun violence in the United States...

, a bi-partisan group with a stated goal of "making the public safer by getting illegal guns off the streets." 2007 saw 68 homicides, nearly a 25% drop from 2006; however, this was still higher than homicide figures in the year 2000. By May 2008, violent crime was down by 12% compared to the same period in 2007; however, by year end, homicides increased 10% from the 2007. As of December 12, 2009 there had been 60 homicides in the city of Cincinnati. In 2009, the CQ Press
CQ Press
CQ Press, a division of SAGE Publications, publishes books, directories, periodicals, and electronic products on American government and politics, with an expanding list in international affairs and journalism and mass communication....

 ranked Cincinnati the 19th most dangerous city in the United States.

In 2010, there were 72 reported homicides and 41 of them have been solved as of February 2011.

Demographics

At the 2010 Census, there were 296,943 people residing in Cincinnati, a decrease of 10.4% since 2000.
At the 2010 Census, 48.1% of the population was non-Hispanic White, 44.6% non-Hispanic Black or African American, 0.2% non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaska Native, 1.8% non-Hispanic Asian, 0.1% non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 0.2% from some other race (non-Hispanic) and 2.2% of two or more races (non-Hispanic). 2.8% of Cincinnati's population was of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin (they may be of any race)
As of 2007, the city's population was 52.0% White (49.3% non-Hispanic-White alone), 46.5% African American, 0.9% American Indian and Alaska Native, 2.0% Asian, 1.0% from some other race and 2.4% from two or more races. 1.7% of the total population were Hispanic or Latino (of any race).

As of the census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

 of 2000, there were 331,285 people, 148,095 households, and 72,566 families residing in the city. The population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 was 3,879.8.0 people per square mile (1,498.0/km²) with a housing density of 2,129.2 per square mile (822.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 52.97% White
White American
White Americans are people of the United States who are considered or consider themselves White. The United States Census Bureau defines White people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa...

, 42.92% Black or African American
African American
African Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have at least partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa and are the direct descendants of enslaved Africans within the boundaries of the present United States...

, 0.21% Native American
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

, 1.55% Asian
Asian American
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent. The U.S. Census Bureau definition of Asians as "Asian” refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent, including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan,...

, 0.04% Pacific Islander
Pacific Islander American
Pacific Islander Americans, also known as Oceanian Americans, are residents of the United States with original ancestry from Oceania. They represent the smallest racial group counted in the United States census of 2000. They numbered 874,000 people or 0.3 percent of the United States population...

, 0.63% from other races, and 1.68% from two or more races
Multiracial American
Multiracial Americans, US residents who identify themselves as of "two or more races", were numbered at around 9 million, or 2.9% of the population, in the census of 2010. However there is considerable evidence that the real number is far higher. Prior to the mid-20th century many people hid their...

. Hispanics or Latinos
Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic or Latino Americans are Americans with origins in the Hispanic countries of Latin America or in Spain, and in general all persons in the United States who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino.1990 Census of Population and Housing: A self-designated classification for people whose origins...

 of any race were 1.28% of the population. The top 4 largest ancestries include German
German American
German Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry and comprise about 51 million people, or 17% of the U.S. population, the country's largest self-reported ancestral group...

 (19.8%), Irish
Irish American
Irish Americans are citizens of the United States who can trace their ancestry to Ireland. A total of 36,278,332 Americans—estimated at 11.9% of the total population—reported Irish ancestry in the 2008 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau...

 (10.4%), English
English American
English Americans are citizens or residents of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England....

 (5.4%), Italian
Italian American
An Italian American , is an American of Italian ancestry. The designation may also refer to someone possessing Italian and American dual citizenship...

 (3.5%).

There were 148,095 households out of which 25.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 26.6% were married couples
Marriage
Marriage is a social union or legal contract between people that creates kinship. It is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually intimate and sexual, are acknowledged in a variety of ways, depending on the culture or subculture in which it is found...

 living together, 18.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 51.0% were non-families. 42.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 3.02.

The age distribution was 24.5% under 18, 12.9% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 18.7% from 45 to 64, and 12.3% who were 65 or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 89.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $29,493, and the median income for a family was $37,543. Males had a median income of $33,063 versus $26,946 for females. The per capita income
Per capita income
Per capita income or income per person is a measure of mean income within an economic aggregate, such as a country or city. It is calculated by taking a measure of all sources of income in the aggregate and dividing it by the total population...

 for the city was $19,962. About 18.2% of families and 21.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.0% of those under age 18 and 14.8% of those age 65 or over.

For several decades the Census Bureau had been reporting a steady decline in the city's population. But according to the Census Bureau's 2006 estimates, the population was 332,252, representing an increase from 331,310 in 2005. Despite the fact that this change was due to an official challenge by the city however, Mayor Mark Mallory has repeatedly argued that the city's population is actually at 378,259 after a drill-drown study was performed by an independent, non-profit group based in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....



The Cincinnati-Middletown
Middletown, Ohio
Middletown is an All-America City located in Butler and Warren counties in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Formerly in Lemon, Turtlecreek, and Franklin townships, Middletown was incorporated by the Ohio General Assembly on February 11, 1833, and became a city in 1886...

-Wilmington
Wilmington, Ohio
Wilmington is a city in and the county seat of Clinton County, Ohio, United States. The population was 12,520 at the 2010 census. At city entrances from state routes, county roads, and U.S. highways, the city slogan of "We Honor Our Champions" is seen, accompanied by signs that highlight various...

 Metropolitan Statistical Area has a population of 2,155,137 people, making it the 24th largest MSA in the country. It includes the Ohio
Ohio
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the United States. The 34th largest state by area in the U.S.,it is the 7th‑most populous with over 11.5 million residents, containing several major American cities and seven metropolitan areas with populations of 500,000 or more.The state's capital is Columbus...

 counties of Hamilton
Hamilton County, Ohio
As of 2000, there were 845,303 people, 346,790 households, and 212,582 families residing in the county. The population density was 2,075 people per square mile . There were 373,393 housing units at an average density of 917 per square mile...

, Butler
Butler County, Ohio
Butler County is a county located in the state of Ohio, United States. As of 2010, the population was 368,130. Its county seat is Hamilton. It is named for General Richard Butler, who died in 1791 fighting Indians in northern Ohio. Butler's army marched out of Fort Hamilton, where the city of...

, Warren
Warren County, Ohio
Warren County is a county located in the state of Ohio, United States. The population was 212,693 at the 2010 census. Its county seat is Lebanon. Warren County was erected May 1, 1803, from Hamilton County, and named for Dr...

, Clermont
Clermont County, Ohio
Clermont County is a county located in the state of Ohio, United States, just east of Cincinnati. As of 2010, the population was 197,363. Its county seat is Batavia...

, and Brown
Brown County, Ohio
As of the census of 2000, there were 42,285 people, 15,555 households, and 11,790 families residing in the county. The population density was 86 people per square mile . There were 17,193 housing units at an average density of 35 per square mile...

, as well as the Kentucky
Kentucky
The Commonwealth of Kentucky is a state located in the East Central United States of America. As classified by the United States Census Bureau, Kentucky is a Southern state, more specifically in the East South Central region. Kentucky is one of four U.S. states constituted as a commonwealth...

 counties of Boone
Boone County, Kentucky
Boone County is a county located in the U.S. state of Kentucky. It was formed in 1798. The population was 118,811 in the 2010 Census. Its county seat is Burlington. The county is named for frontiersman Daniel Boone...

, Bracken
Bracken County, Kentucky
Bracken County is a county located in the U.S. state of Kentucky. It was formed in 1797. The population was 8,488 in the 2010 Census. Its county seat is Brooksville, Kentucky.-History:...

, Campbell
Campbell County, Kentucky
Campbell County is a county located in the U.S. state of Kentucky. It was formed on December 17, 1794, from sections of Scott, Harrison and Mason counties. As of 2010, the population was 90,336. Its county seats are Alexandria and Newport...

, Gallatin
Gallatin County, Kentucky
Gallatin County is a county located in the U.S. state of Kentucky along the Ohio River, which at its formation was the main transportation route. It was formed in 1799. As of 2000, the population was 7,870. Its county seat is Warsaw...

, Grant
Grant County, Kentucky
Grant County is a county located in the U.S. state of Kentucky. It was formed in 1820. As of 2000, the population was 22,384. Its county seat is Williamstown...

, Kenton
Kenton County, Kentucky
Kenton County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Kentucky, United States. It was formed in 1840. In 2010, the population was 159,720. It is the third most populous county in Kentucky behind Jefferson County and Fayette County. Its county seats are Covington and Independence...

, and Pendleton
Pendleton County, Kentucky
Pendleton County is a county located in the U.S. state of Kentucky. As of 2000, the population was 14,390. Its county seat is Falmouth.- Geography :...

, and the Indiana
Indiana
Indiana is a US state, admitted to the United States as the 19th on December 11, 1816. It is located in the Midwestern United States and Great Lakes Region. With 6,483,802 residents, the state is ranked 15th in population and 16th in population density. Indiana is ranked 38th in land area and is...

 counties of Dearborn
Dearborn County, Indiana
Dearborn County is a county located in the U.S. state of Indiana. As of 2010, the population was 50,047. It is part of the Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky metropolitan area. The county seat is Lawrenceburg.-History:...

, Franklin
Franklin County, Indiana
As of the census of 2000, there were 22,151 people, 7,868 households, and 6,129 families residing in the county. The population density was 57 people per square mile . There were 8,596 housing units at an average density of 22 per square mile...

, and Ohio
Ohio County, Indiana
As of the census of 2000, there were 5,623 people, 2,201 households, and 1,586 families residing in the county. The population density was 65 people per square mile . There were 2,424 housing units at an average density of 28 per square mile...

.

Economy

Cincinnati is home to many major and diverse corporations such as Procter & Gamble
Procter & Gamble
Procter & Gamble is a Fortune 500 American multinational corporation headquartered in downtown Cincinnati, Ohio and manufactures a wide range of consumer goods....

, The Kroger Company, Macy's, Inc. (owner of Macy's
Macy's
Macy's is a U.S. chain of mid-to-high range department stores. In addition to its flagship Herald Square location in New York City, the company operates over 800 stores in the United States...

 and Bloomingdale's
Bloomingdale's
Bloomingdale's is an American department store owned by Macy's, Inc. .Bloomingdale's started in 1861 when brothers Joseph and Lyman G. Bloomingdale started selling hoop-skirts in their Ladies Notions' Shop on Manhattan's Lower East Side...

), American Financial Group
American Financial Group
American Financial Group Incorporated is a holding company based in Cincinnati, Ohio whose primary business is insurance and investments. American Financial Group's purpose is to enable businesses and individuals to manage risk using insurance products and services tailored to meet their specific...

, Convergys
Convergys
Convergys Corporation is a corporation based in Cincinnati, Ohio that provides solutions in customer management and information management. Customer management solutions include agent assisted, self-service and proactive care solutions tailored to the communications, financial services,...

, Chiquita Brands International
Chiquita Brands International
Chiquita Brands International Inc. is an American producer and distributor of bananas and other produce, under a variety of subsidiary brand names, collectively known as Chiquita. Other brands include Fresh Express salads, which it purchased from Performance Food Group in 2005...

, Omnicare
Omnicare
Omnicare is a Fortune 500 company based in Covington, Kentucky. Omnicare functions primarily as a provider of pharmaceuticals, related consulting and data management services. As of December 31, 2009 the company provided its pharmacy services to skilled nursing, assisted living, and other...

, Great American Insurance Company, Fifth Third Bank
Fifth Third Bank
Fifth Third Bank is a U.S. regional banking corporation, headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio and is the principal subsidiary of holding company Fifth Third Bancorp ....

, Western & Southern Financial Group
Western & Southern Financial Group
Western & Southern Financial Group, also commonly referred to as Western & Southern, is a Cincinnati, Ohio-based diversified family of financial services companies with assets owned, managed and under care in excess of $52 billion as of March, 2011...

, The E. W. Scripps Company, Cincom
Cincom
Cincom Systems is a privately held, multinational, computer technology corporation founded in 1968 by Tom Nies, Tom Richley and Claude Bogardus....

 Systems, Cincinnati Bell
Cincinnati Bell
Cincinnati Bell is the dominant telephone company for Cincinnati, Ohio, and its nearby suburbs in the U.S. states of Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky. The parent company is named Cincinnati Bell Inc. Its incumbent local exchange carrier subsidiary uses the name Cincinnati Bell Telephone Company LLC,...

, Kendle International, DunnhumbyUSA, and Kao Corporation's United States division. Cincinnati is also home to thousands of small and medium size businesses that are a vital part of the Cincinnati economy.

The Cincinnati area is also home to Ashland Inc. (neighboring city of Covington
Covington, Kentucky
-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 43,370 people, 18,257 households, and 10,132 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,301.3 people per square mile . There were 20,448 housing units at an average density of 1,556.5 per square mile...

), General Cable Corporation (suburb of Highland Heights
Highland Heights, Kentucky
Highland Heights is a city in Campbell County, Kentucky, United States. The population was 6,554 at the 2000 census.Highland Heights is home to Northern Kentucky University...

), GE Aviation (suburb of Evendale
Evendale, Ohio
Evendale is a village in Hamilton County, Ohio, United States. The population was 3,090 at the 2000 census.Evendale was the home of John Van Zandt, a participant in the Underground Railroad....

), United States Playing Card Company
United States Playing Card Company
The United States Playing Card Company, started in 1867, produces and distributes many brands of playing cards, including Bicycle, Bee, Hoyle, Kem, and others, plus novelty and custom cards, and other playing card accessories such as poker chips. The company was once based in Cincinnati, Ohio, but...

 (suburb of Erlanger
Erlanger, Kentucky
Erlanger is a city in Kenton County, Kentucky, United States. The population was 16,676 at the 2000 census.- Geography :Erlanger is located at ....

), Cintas
Cintas
Cintas Corporation , based in Mason, Ohio, is a publicly traded company that operates more than 400 facilities throughout North America. The company provides specialized services to businesses, including the design and manufacturing of corporate identity uniform programs, entrance mats, restroom...

 (suburb of Mason
Mason, Ohio
Mason is an affluent city in southwestern Warren County, Ohio, United States, 22 miles away from Cincinnati . As of the 2010 census, Mason's population was 30,712. Mason has experienced fast growth, with its historic Main Street remaining at the center of the community...

), AK Steel Holding
AK Steel Holding
AK Steel Corporation is an American steel company whose predecessor, Armco, was founded in 1899 in Middletown, Ohio. Today, the company's corporate headquarters is situated in West Chester, Ohio, after having moved from Middletown, Ohio, in August 2007.- Products :AK Steel's main products are...

 (suburb of West Chester
West Chester Township, Butler County, Ohio
West Chester Township, formerly known as Union Township, is a township located in the southeast corner of Butler County in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Ohio, one of thirteen townships in the county. It is situated between Sharonville and Monroe, about 18 miles north of Cincinnati, and...

), Cincinnati Financial
Cincinnati Financial
Cincinnati Financial Corporation offers property and casualty insurance, its main business, through The Cincinnati Insurance Company, The Cincinnati Indemnity Company and The Cincinnati Casualty Company...

 (suburb of Fairfield
Fairfield, Ohio
Fairfield is a city in Butler County in the U.S. state of Ohio, near Cincinnati. Fairfield was incorporated in 1955. The population was 42,510 at the 2010 census. The city school district is one of the largest in Ohio, with Fairfield High School graduating 842 students in June 2009. Fairfield is...

), Columbia Sussex
Columbia Sussex
Columbia Sussex is a private hospitality company based in Crestview Hills, Kentucky. The company, owned by the Yung family, owns and operates hotels in various parts of the United States. , the company operated 73 hotels under 13 different brands. The current president is William J...

 (suburb of Crestview Hills
Crestview Hills, Kentucky
Crestview Hills is a city in Kenton County, Kentucky, United States. The population was 2,889 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Crestview Hills is located at ....

) and Sunny Delight Beverages Co. (suburb of Blue Ash
Blue Ash, Ohio
Blue Ash is a city in Hamilton County, Ohio, United States, and an inner suburb of Cincinnati, which is located just to the south. The population was 12,513 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Blue Ash is located at ....

). Toyota also has many operations in the Cincinnati area with U.S. headquarters of Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America (suburb of Erlanger) and Toyota Boshoku America.

Altogether, nine Fortune 500 companies and fifteen Fortune 1000 companies are headquartered in the Cincinnati area. With nine Fortune 500 company headquarters in Cincinnati, the region ranks in the nation's Top 10 markets for number of Fortune 500 headquarters per million residents, higher than New York, Boston, Chicago, or Los Angeles. In addition to Fortune 500 headquarters, more than 360 Fortune 500 companies maintain operations in Cincinnati. Cincinnati has three Fortune Global 500 companies; three of the five Global 500 companies in the state of Ohio
Ohio
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the United States. The 34th largest state by area in the U.S.,it is the 7th‑most populous with over 11.5 million residents, containing several major American cities and seven metropolitan areas with populations of 500,000 or more.The state's capital is Columbus...

.

The largest employer in Cincinnati is the University of Cincinnati
University of Cincinnati
The University of Cincinnati is a comprehensive public research university in Cincinnati, Ohio, and a part of the University System of Ohio....

, with 15,862 employees. Kroger
Kroger
The Kroger Co. is an American supermarket chain founded by Bernard Kroger in 1883 in Cincinnati, Ohio. It reported US$ 76.7 billion in sales during fiscal year 2009. It is the country's largest grocery store chain and its second-largest grocery retailer by volume and second-place general retailer...

 is the second largest, with 15,600 employees.

Education


The Cincinnati Public School (CPS) district includes 16 high schools accepting students on a city-wide basis. The district includes public Montessori school
Montessori method
Montessori education is an educational approach developed by Italian physician and educator Maria Montessori. Montessori education is practiced in an estimated 20,000 schools worldwide, serving children from birth to eighteen years old.-Overview:...

s, including the first public Montessori high school established in the United States, Clark Montessori
Clark Montessori High School
Peter H. Clark Montessori Junior High and High School, usually referred to as Clark Montessori, is a junior and senior high school in Cincinnati, Ohio, United States....

. Cincinnati Public Schools' top rated school is Walnut Hills High School, ranked 34th on Newsweek's list of best public schools. Walnut Hills offers 28 Advanced Placement courses, highly ranked athletic teams, a wind ensemble that has performed in Carnegie Hall, and its marching band has performed in the London New Year's Day Parade. Cincinnati is also home to the first Kindergarten - 12th Grade Arts School in the country, The School for Creative and Performing Arts
School for Creative and Performing Arts
The School for Creative and Performing Arts is a magnet arts school in Cincinnati, Ohio, United States, and part of the Cincinnati Public Schools...

.

The Cincinnati area has one of the highest private school attendance rates in the United States; Hamilton County ranks second only to St. Louis County, Missouri
St. Louis County, Missouri
St. Louis County is a county located in the U.S. state of Missouri. Its county seat is Clayton. St. Louis County is part of the St. Louis Metro Area wherein the independent City of St. Louis and its suburbs in St. Louis County, as well as the surrounding counties in both Missouri and Illinois all...

 among the country's 100 largest counties.

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cincinnati accounts for numerous high schools in metro Cincinnati; ten of which are single-sex: four all-male, and six all-female. Cincinnati is also home to the all-girl RITSS (Regional Institute for Torah and Secular Studies) high school, a small Orthodox Jewish institution and the Hebrew Union College
Hebrew Union College
The Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion is the oldest extant Jewish seminary in the Americas and the main seminary for training rabbis, cantors, educators and communal workers in Reform Judaism.HUC-JIR has campuses in Cincinnati, New York, Los Angeles and Jerusalem.The Jerusalem...

- Jewish Institute of Religion (HUC-JIR) founded by Isaac Mayer Wise.

Cincinnati is home to the University of Cincinnati
University of Cincinnati
The University of Cincinnati is a comprehensive public research university in Cincinnati, Ohio, and a part of the University System of Ohio....

 and Xavier University
Xavier University (Cincinnati)
Xavier University is a co-educational Jesuit university in the United States located in Cincinnati, Ohio. The University is the sixth-oldest Catholic university in the nation and has an undergraduate enrollment of about 4,000 students and graduate enrollment of 2,600 students. Xavier is primarily...

. The University of Cincinnati, often referred to as "UC," is one of the United States' major graduate research institutions in engineering, music, architecture, classical archaeology, and psychology. The University of Cincinnati Medical Center is highly regarded, as well as the College Conservatory of Music, which has many notable alumni, including Kathleen Battle
Kathleen Battle
Kathleen Battle , is an African-American operatic soprano known for her agile and light voice and her silvery, pure tone. Battle initially became known for her work within the concert repertoire through performances with major orchestras during the early and mid 1970s. She made her opera debut in...

, Al Hirt
Al Hirt
Al Hirt was an American trumpeter and bandleader. He is best remembered for his million selling recordings of "Java", and the accompanying album, Honey in the Horn . His nicknames included 'Jumbo' and 'The Round Mound of Sound'...

 and Faith Prince
Faith Prince
Faith Prince is an American actress and singer known primarily for her work on Broadway. Prince has won the Tony Award as Best Actress in a Musical and received three Tony nominations.-Life and career:...

. Xavier, a Jesuit university, was at one time affiliated with The Athenaeum of Ohio, the seminary of the Cincinnati Archdiocese.

The Greater Cincinnati area has Miami University
Miami University
Miami University is a coeducational public research university located in Oxford, Ohio, United States. Founded in 1809, it is the 10th oldest public university in the United States and the second oldest university in Ohio, founded four years after Ohio University. In its 2012 edition, U.S...

 (one of the original "Public Ivies"), and the 17-thousand-student-strong Northern Kentucky University
Northern Kentucky University
|type = Public|president= Dr. James C. Votruba|city = Highland Heights|state = KY|country = U.S.|endowment = $68 million|students = 15,405|undergrad = 13,206|postgrad = 2,199|faculty = 1,159...

 campus in Highland Heights, Kentucky
Highland Heights, Kentucky
Highland Heights is a city in Campbell County, Kentucky, United States. The population was 6,554 at the 2000 census.Highland Heights is home to Northern Kentucky University...

, 8 miles (12.9 km) SSE of downtown. NKU is connected with downtown Cincinnati via the radiating-spoke interstate system: Daniel Carter Beard Bridge
Daniel Carter Beard Bridge
The Daniel Carter Beard Bridge , is a twin span steel tied arch bridge crossing the Ohio River in Cincinnati, Ohio. It carries Interstate 471 between Cincinnati, Ohio, and Newport, Kentucky. As to the origin of this nickname, its yellow arches are similar to the "Golden Arches" logo of...

 and I-471 which puts this newest public university of Commonwealth of Kentucky
Kentucky
The Commonwealth of Kentucky is a state located in the East Central United States of America. As classified by the United States Census Bureau, Kentucky is a Southern state, more specifically in the East South Central region. Kentucky is one of four U.S. states constituted as a commonwealth...

 within convenient reach of the Cincinnati city population. Antonelli College
Antonelli College
Antonelli College is a career training school with a main campus located in Cincinnati, Ohio. Founded in 1947 as the Gebhardt Art School, the college later switched its name to Ohio Visual Art Institute in the mid-1970s before finally settling with Antonelli College in 1982.- Accreditation...

, a career training school, is based in Cincinnati, OH with several satellite campuses in Ohio
Ohio
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the United States. The 34th largest state by area in the U.S.,it is the 7th‑most populous with over 11.5 million residents, containing several major American cities and seven metropolitan areas with populations of 500,000 or more.The state's capital is Columbus...

 and Mississippi
Mississippi
Mississippi is a U.S. state located in the Southern United States. Jackson is the state capital and largest city. The name of the state derives from the Mississippi River, which flows along its western boundary, whose name comes from the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi...

. Cincinnati State is a community college which includes the Midwest Culinary School, one of the best culinary institutes in the United States.

In 2009, Cincinnati was listed fourth on CNN's Top 10 cities for new grads.

Culture

Cincinnati's culture is influenced by its history of German
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 and Italian
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 immigration and its geographical position on the border of the Southern United States
Southern United States
The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South—constitutes a large distinctive area in the southeastern and south-central United States...

 and Midwestern United States
Midwestern United States
The Midwestern United States is one of the four U.S. geographic regions defined by the United States Census Bureau, providing an official definition of the American Midwest....

.
The History of the Jews in Cincinnati was developed by immigrants from England and Germany who made the city a center of Reform Judaism
Reform Judaism
Reform Judaism refers to various beliefs, practices and organizations associated with the Reform Jewish movement in North America, the United Kingdom and elsewhere. In general, it maintains that Judaism and Jewish traditions should be modernized and should be compatible with participation in the...

. In the mid-19th century, Cincinnati became home to Rabbi Isaac M. Wise who later influence construction of the Plum Street Temple. Rabbi Wise inspired unprecedented changes in Judaism that had not been known before in America.

Festivals

Cincinnati is home to numerous festivals and events throughout the year, including:
  • The annual Cincinnati Reds Opening Day Parade
  • Bockfest, a celebration of Bock beer and the coming of Lent/Spring
  • The annual Midwest Black Family Reunion.
  • The Cincinnati Flower Show
    Cincinnati Flower Show
    The Cincinnati Flower Show is an annual horticultural exhibition held in Cincinnati, Ohio. It is organized by the Cincinnati Horticultural Society....

    , organized by the Cincinnati Horticultural Society in late April. This floral event, endorsed by the Royal Horticultural Society
    Royal Horticultural Society
    The Royal Horticultural Society was founded in 1804 in London, England as the Horticultural Society of London, and gained its present name in a Royal Charter granted in 1861 by Prince Albert...

    , is staged at Symmes Township Park and claims to be the biggest outdoor flower show in the United States.
  • Oktoberfest
    Oktoberfest celebrations
    The Oktoberfest is a two-week festival held each year in Munich, Germany during late September and early October. It is attended by six million people each year and has inspired numerous similar events using the name Oktoberfest in Germany and around the world, many of which were founded by German...

    , celebrating Cincinnati's German heritage, is the largest Oktoberfest in the US.
  • Thanksgiving Day Race, the sixth-oldest race in the country.
  • The Taste of Cincinnati
    Taste of Cincinnati
    Taste of Cincinnati is the longest running culinary arts festival in the United States. Starting in 1979, the festival has been held annually on Memorial Day weekend in Downtown Cincinnati, Ohio. Approximately 500,000 people attend Taste of Cincinnati each year, making it one of the nation's...

     and since 1962 the Jazz Festival(now Macy's Music Fest), held annually during July.
  • The MidPoint Music Festival
    MidPoint Music Festival
    MidPoint Music Festival launched in 2002 in Cincinnati, Ohio, as an independent music festival and industry conference. The annual three-day event occurs each Septemberin the city's downtown and historic Over-the-Rhine entertainment district...

     is a yearly music festival that takes place in many venues across downtown and Over-The-Rhine
    Over-the-Rhine
    Over-the-Rhine, sometimes shortened to OTR, is a neighborhood in Cincinnati, Ohio. It is believed to be the largest, most intact urban historic district in the United States. Over-the-Rhine was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983 with 943 contributing buildings...

    .
  • The Tall Stacks
    Tall Stacks
    Tall Stacks, formally known as the Tall Stacks Music, Arts, and Heritage Festival, is a festival held every three or four years in the Cincinnati, Ohio area, which celebrates the city's heritage of the riverboat. The sixth edition was held on October 4 through October 8, 2006...

     Festival, held every three or four years to celebrate Cincinnati's riverboat history.
  • The Festival of Lights, hosted by the Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden
    Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden
    The Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden is the second-oldest zoo in the United States and is located in Cincinnati, Ohio. It opened in 1875, just 14 months after the Philadelphia Zoo on July 1, 1874. The Reptile House is the oldest zoo building in the United States, dating from 1875.The Cincinnati...

     during the year-end holiday season.
  • The Cincinnati Bell/WEBN Riverfest
    Cincinnati Bell/WEBN Riverfest
    The Cincinnati Riverfest is an annual tradition that has taken place since 1977. Its origin comes from the Rock and Roll radio station WEBN , when it celebrated its 10 year anniversary in 1977. This has now evolved into an all day event is held every year on the day before Labor Day. The corporate...

     fireworks display on Labor Day weekend, attracting annual crowds of over 500,000.
  • The Cincinnati Fringe Festival
    Cincinnati Fringe Festival
    The Cincinnati Fringe Festival, produced by Know Theatre of Cincinnati, was founded in Cincinnati, Ohio in 2004. It consiststs of 12 Days of Theatre, Film, Visual Art, and Music in the heart of Over-the-Rhine. It is Ohio's Largest Performing Arts Festival. It occurs annually and begins the day...

     12 Days of Theatre, Film, Visual Art, and Music in the heart of Over-the-Rhine. Ohio's Largest Performing Arts Festival. Begins the day after Memorial Day each year.

The city plays host to numerous musical and theater operations, operates a park system currently ranked 4th in the country boasting that any city resident is within 1 mile (2 km) of a park, and has a diverse dining culture. Cincinnati's Fountain Square
Fountain Square, Cincinnati
Fountain Square is a city square in Cincinnati. Founded in 1871, it was renovated in 1971 and 2005 and currently features many shops, restaurants, hotels, and offices.- History :...

 serves as one of the cultural cornerstones of the region. The city will be the United States' first hoster of the World Choir Games
World Choir Games
The World Choir Games is the largest choir competition in the world. Organized for amateur choirs from all over the world, regardless of their country of origin, race, genre of music or artistic ambitions, its motto is "Singing together brings nations together"...

 in 2012.

Cincinnati is identified with several unique foods. "Cincinnati chili
Cincinnati chili
Cincinnati chili is a regional style of Chili con carne characterized by the use of unusual seasonings such as cinnamon, cloves, allspice or chocolate. It is commonly served over spaghetti or as a hot dog sauce, and is normally of a thin, sauce-like consistency, unlike most chili con carne...

" is commonly served by several independent chains, including Skyline Chili
Skyline Chili
Skyline Chili is a chain of chili restaurants based in Cincinnati, Ohio. Founded in 1949 by Greek immigrant Nicholas Lambrinides, Skyline Chili is named for the view of Cincinnati's skyline that Lambrinides could see from his first restaurant , opened in the section of town now known as Price Hill...

, Gold Star Chili
Gold Star Chili
Gold Star Chili is a restaurant chain based in Cincinnati, Ohio, that sells Cincinnati chili. The original restaurant was established in the Cincinnati neighborhood of Mt. Washington in 1965 by four brothers from Jordan...

, Price Hill Chili, Empress Chili, Camp Washington Chili
Camp Washington Chili
Camp Washington Chili is a Cincinnati chili parlor founded in 1940 by Steve Andon and Fred Zannbus in the neighborhood of Camp Washington, near downtown Cincinnati, in southwestern Ohio. A well known Cincinnati landmark, the parlor is located at 3005 Colerain Avenue and the current owner is John...

, and Dixie Chili and Deli
Dixie Chili and Deli
Dixie Chili and Deli, originally Dixie Chili, is a chain of three Cincinnati chili restaurants located in the state of Kentucky. Greek immigrant Nicholas Sarakatsannis founded the first location in 1929 in Newport, Kentucky, just across the Ohio River from the city of Cincinnati...

. Cincinnati has been called the "Chili Capital of America" and "the World" because it has more chili restaurants per capita than any other city in the nation or world. Goetta
Goetta
Goetta is a breakfast sausage of likely German-American origin that is popular in the greater Cincinnati area. It is primarily composed of ground meat and steel-cut oats...

 is a meat product popular in Cincinnati consisting of sausage and pinhead oatmeal, usually fried and eaten as a breakfast food. Cincinnati also has many gourmet restaurants. Until 2005, when the restaurant closed, The Maisonette
The Maisonette
The Maisonette, now defunct, was North America’s most highly rated restaurant before it closed its doors on July 25, 2005.Owned and operated by the Comisar family and located at 114 E. 6th Street in Cincinnati, Ohio, the Maisonette boasted the longest running streak of five-star awards, the highest...

 carried the distinction of being Mobil
Mobil
Mobil, previously known as the Socony-Vacuum Oil Company, was a major American oil company which merged with Exxon in 1999 to form ExxonMobil. Today Mobil continues as a major brand name within the combined company, as well as still being a gas station sometimes paired with their own store or On...

 Travel Guide's longest running five-star
Star (classification)
Stars are often used as symbols for classification purposes. They are used by reviewers for ranking things such as movies, TV shows, restaurants, and hotels. For example, one to five stars is commonly employed to categorize hotels.-Restaurant ratings:...

 restaurant in the country for 41 consecutive years. Jean-Robert de Cavel has opened four new restaurants in the area since 2001, including Jean-Robert's at Pigall's which closed in March 2009. Cincinnati's German
German American
German Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry and comprise about 51 million people, or 17% of the U.S. population, the country's largest self-reported ancestral group...

 heritage is evidenced by the many restaurants that specialize in schnitzels and Bavarian cooking. Another element of German culture remains audible in the local vernacular; some residents use the word please when asking a speaker to repeat a statement. This usage is taken from the German word for please, bitte (a shortening of the formal, "Wie bitte ist es?" or "How please is that?" rendered word for word from German into English), which is used in this sense.

Findlay Market
Findlay Market
Findlay Market in historic Over-the-Rhine, Cincinnati, Ohio, is the state's oldest continuously operated public market. The Findlay Market Building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on June 5, 1972...

 is Ohio's oldest continuously-operated public market and one of Cincinnati's most famous institutions. The market is the last remaining market among the many that once served Cincinnati.

In August 2008, Forbes
Forbes
Forbes is an American publishing and media company. Its flagship publication, the Forbes magazine, is published biweekly. Its primary competitors in the national business magazine category are Fortune, which is also published biweekly, and Business Week...

magazine ranked Cincinnati as tenth in a list of "America's Hard-Drinking Cities".

Media and music

Cincinnati is served by The Cincinnati Enquirer
The Cincinnati Enquirer
The Cincinnati Enquirer, a daily morning newspaper, is the highest-circulation print publication in Greater Cincinnati and Northern Kentucky. The Cincinnati Enquirer, a daily morning newspaper, is the highest-circulation print publication in Greater Cincinnati (Ohio) and Northern Kentucky. The...

, a daily newspaper. The city is home to several alternative, weekly, and monthly publications, as well as twelve television stations and many radio stations. Free weekly print magazine publications include CityBeat and Metromix, which have a local events and entertainment focus.

Movies that were filmed in part in Cincinnati include Ides of March
The Ides of March (film)
The Ides of March is a 2011 American political drama thriller film directed by George Clooney from a screenplay written by Clooney, along with Grant Heslov and Beau Willimon. The film is an adaptation of Willimon's 2008 play Farragut North...

, Fresh Horses
Fresh Horses
Fresh Horses is a 1988 drama film starring Andrew McCarthy and Molly Ringwald, directed by David Anspaugh.-Plot:A Cincinnati college student breaks off his engagement to his wealthy fiancée after he falls in love with a backwoods Kentucky girl he meets at a party...

, The Asphalt Jungle
The Asphalt Jungle
The Asphalt Jungle is a 1950 film noir directed by John Huston. The caper film is based on the novel of the same name by W. R. Burnett and stars an ensemble cast including Sterling Hayden, Jean Hagen, Sam Jaffe, Louis Calhern, James Whitmore, and, in a minor but key role, Marilyn Monroe, an unknown...

(opening is shot from the Public Landing, and takes place in Cincinnati although only Boone County, KY is mentioned), Rain Man
Rain Man
Rain Man is a 1988 drama film written by Barry Morrow and Ronald Bass and directed by Barry Levinson. It tells the story of an abrasive and selfish yuppie, Charlie Babbitt, who discovers that his estranged father has died and bequeathed all of his multimillion-dollar estate to his other son,...

, Airborne, Grimm Reality
Grimm Reality
Grimm Reality is a BBC Books original novel written by Simon Bucher-Jones and Kelly Hale and based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. It features the Eighth Doctor, Fitz and Anji....

, Little Man Tate
Little Man Tate
Little Man Tate is a 1991 motion picture drama directed by and starring Jodie Foster.It tells the story of Fred Tate, a 7-year-old child prodigy who struggles to self-actualize in a social and psychological construct that largely fails to accommodate his intelligence...

, City of Hope
City of Hope (film)
City of Hope is an American drama film written and directed by John Sayles.The film features Vincent Spano, Stephen Mendillo and Chris Cooper....

, Eight Men Out
Eight Men Out
Eight Men Out is an American dramatic sports film, released in 1988 and based on Eliot Asinof 1963 book 8 Men Out. It was written and directed by John Sayles....

, Milk Money,Traffic
Traffic (2000 film)
Traffic is a 2000 American crime drama film directed by Steven Soderbergh and written by Stephen Gaghan. It explores the illegal drug trade from a number of perspectives: a user, an enforcer, a politician and a trafficker. Their stories are edited together throughout the film, although some of the...

, The Pride of Jesse Hallam
The Pride of Jesse Hallam
The Pride of Jesse Hallam is a 1981 made-for-TV movie starring Johnny Cash, first airing on CBS.-Plot:Jesse Hallam is a recently widowed coal miner, who's also recently lost his job. His daughter Jenny is in need of an operation on her back, and the nearest hospital that can successfully perform...

, The Great Buck Howard
The Great Buck Howard
The Great Buck Howard is a 2008 American comedy-drama film directed by Sean McGinly that stars Colin Hanks and John Malkovich. Tom Hanks also appears as the father of his real-life son's character. The character Buck Howard is inspired by the mentalist The Amazing Kreskin, whose popularity was at...

, In Too Deep, Public Eye
The Public Eye (film)
The Public Eye is a 1992 American neo-noir film written and directed by Howard Franklin, and produced by Robert Zemeckis and Sue Baden-Powell. The drama features Joe Pesci, Barbara Hershey, Stanley Tucci, and Richard Schiff....

, The Last Late Night, and The Mighty
The Mighty
The Mighty is a 1998 drama film based on the book Freak the Mighty by Rodman Philbrick.-Plot:Kevin is a 12-year-old boy who suffers Mucopolysaccharidosis IV, or Morquio syndrome. He is extremely intelligent and prone to flights of fancy, but is physically crippled and is forced to walk with crutches...

. In addition, Wild Hogs
Wild Hogs
Wild Hogs is a 2007 comedy film directed by Walt Becker and starring Tim Allen, John Travolta, Martin Lawrence, and William H. Macy. It was released nationwide in the United States and Canada on March 2, 2007, though preview film screenings were held in select areas on February 24, 2007.-Plot:Doug...

is set, though not filmed, in Cincinnati.

The Cincinnati skyline was prominently featured in the opening and closing sequences of the daytime drama The Edge of Night
The Edge of Night
The Edge of Night is an American television mystery series/soap opera produced by Procter & Gamble. It debuted on CBS on April 2, 1956, and ran as a live broadcast on that network until November 28, 1975; the series then moved to ABC, where it aired from December 1, 1975, until December 28, 1984...

from its start in 1956 until 1980, when it was replaced by the Los Angeles skyline; the cityscape was the stand-in for the show's setting, Monticello. Procter & Gamble, the show's producer, is based in Cincinnati. The sitcom WKRP in Cincinnati
WKRP in Cincinnati
WKRP in Cincinnati is an American situation comedy that featured the misadventures of the staff of a struggling fictional radio station in Cincinnati, Ohio. The show was created by Hugh Wilson and was based upon his experiences working in advertising sales at Top 40 radio station WQXI in Atlanta...

, and its sequel/spin-off The New WKRP in Cincinnati
The New WKRP in Cincinnati
The New WKRP in Cincinnati is a sequel/spin-off of the original CBS sitcom WKRP in Cincinnati. It was made for the syndication market from 1991 to 1993....

featured the city's skyline and other exterior shots in its credits, although was not filmed in Cincinnati. The city's skyline has also appeared in an April Fool's episode of The Drew Carey Show
The Drew Carey Show
The Drew Carey Show is an American sitcom that aired on ABC from 1995 to 2004. The show was set in Cleveland, Ohio, and revolved around the retail office and home life of "everyman" Drew Carey, a fictionalized version of the actor....

, which was set in Carey's hometown of Cleveland. 3 Doors Down
3 Doors Down
3 Doors Down is an American rock band from Escatawpa formed in 1996. The band consists of Brad Arnold , Matt Roberts , Todd Harrell , Chris Henderson , and Greg Upchurch ....

's music video "It's Not My Time" was filmed in Cincinnati, and features the skyline and Fountain Square. Also, Harry's Law
Harry's Law
Harry's Law is an American legal comedy-drama television series created by David E. Kelley. which premiered on January 17, 2011.On May 12, 2011, NBC renewed the show for a second season, which premiered Wednesday September 21, 2011...

, the NBC
NBC
The National Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network and former radio network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's Rockefeller Center with additional major offices near Los Angeles and in Chicago...

 legal drama created by David E. Kelley
David E. Kelley
David Edward Kelley is an American television writer and producer, known as the creator of Picket Fences, Chicago Hope, The Practice, Ally McBeal, Boston Public, Boston Legal and Harry's Law, as well as several films. Kelley is one of the only screenwriters to have had a show created by him run on...

 and starring Kathy Bates
Kathy Bates
Kathleen Doyle "Kathy" Bates is an American actress and director.After several small roles in film and television, Bates rose to prominence with her performance in Misery , for which she won both the Academy Award for Best Actress and a Golden Globe...

, is set in Cincinnati.

Cincinnati has given rise to popular musicians and singers Doris Day
Doris Day
Doris Day is an American actress, singer and, since her retirement from show business, an animal rights activist. With an entertainment career that spanned through almost 50 years, Day started her career as a big band singer in 1939, but only began to be noticed after her first hit recording,...

, Dinah Shore
Dinah Shore
Dinah Shore was an American singer, actress, and television personality...

, Fats Waller
Fats Waller
Fats Waller , born Thomas Wright Waller, was a jazz pianist, organist, composer, singer, and comedic entertainer...

, Rosemary Clooney
Rosemary Clooney
Rosemary Clooney was an American singer and actress. She came to prominence in the early 1950s with the novelty hit "Come On-a My House" written by William Saroyan and his cousin Ross Bagdasarian , which was followed by other pop numbers such as "Botch-a-Me" Rosemary Clooney (May 23, 1928 –...

, The Students, Bootsy Collins
Bootsy Collins
William Earl "Bootsy" Collins is an American funk bassist, singer, and songwriter.Rising to prominence with James Brown in the late 1960s, and with Parliament-Funkadelic in the '70s, Collins's driving bass guitar and humorous vocals established him as one of the leading names in funk...

, The Isley Brothers
The Isley Brothers
The Isley Brothers are a highly influential, successful and long-running American music group consisting of different line-ups of six brothers, and a brother-in-law, Chris Jasper...

, Merle Travis
Merle Travis
Merle Robert Travis was an American country and western singer, songwriter, and musician born in Rosewood, Kentucky. His lyrics often discussed the life and exploitation of coal miners. Among his many well-known songs are "Sixteen Tons", "Re-Enlistment Blues" and "Dark as a Dungeon"...

, Hank Ballard
Hank Ballard
Hank Ballard , born John Henry Kendricks, was a rhythm and blues singer and songwriter, the lead vocalist of Hank Ballard and The Midnighters and one of the first proto-rock 'n' roll artists to emerge in the early 1950s...

, Otis Williams
Otis Williams
Otis Williams is an American baritone singer. Nicknamed "Big Daddy", he has also acted as a sporadic songwriter and record producer. Williams co-founded the Motown vocal group The Temptations in early 1960 as The Elgins, a group in which he continues to perform...

, Mood, Midnight Star
Midnight Star
Midnight Star is an R&B and electro-funk group that had a string of R&B hits in the 1980s.-Band history:The group was formed in 1976 at Kentucky State University by trumpeter Reggie Calloway, vocalist Belinda Lipscomb, guitarist/vocalist Melvin Gentry, bassist Kenneth Gant, multi-instrumentalist...

, The Afghan Whigs
The Afghan Whigs
The Afghan Whigs were a soul-influenced American rock band from Cincinnati, Ohio. PopMatters described the band as "beyond simple genre categorization, and though lauded by the music press, never got their just due."-Band history:...

, Over the Rhine, Blessid Union of Souls
Blessid Union of Souls
Blessid Union of Souls is an American rock band from Morrow, Ohio that was formed in 1990 by friends Jeff Pence and Eliot Sloan....

, ONE38, Freddie Meyer, Popeye Maupin, 98 Degrees
98 Degrees
98 Degrees is an American adult contemporary boy band consisting of four vocalists: brothers Nick and Drew Lachey, Justin Jeffre, and Jeff Timmons. The group was formed by Timmons in Los Angeles, California....

, The Greenhornes
The Greenhornes
The Greenhornes are an American garage rock band from Cincinnati, Ohio, formed in 1996 by vocalist/guitarist Craig Fox, bass guitarist Jack Lawrence and drummer Patrick Keeler. They released their debut album Gun For You in 1999, followed by a self-titled album in 2001. A third studio album, Dual...

, The Deele
The Deele
The Deele is an American 80s R&B band from Cincinnati, Ohio, originally consisting of Indianapolis native Kenny "Babyface" Edmonds along with Antonio "L.A." Reid, Carlos "Satin" Greene, Darnell "Dee" Bristol, Stanley Burke, and Kevin "Kayo" Roberson...

, Enduser, Heartless Bastards
Heartless Bastards
Heartless Bastards is a garage rock band formed in Cincinnati, Ohio in 2003. They are often compared to fellow Ohioans and Fat Possum labelmates The Black Keys.- History :...

, The Dopamines
The Dopamines
The Dopamines are a punk rock band from Cincinnati, Ohio formed by Jon Lewis Jon Weiner , and Matt Hemingway . In 2008, Matt parted with The Dopamines and Michael Dickson quickly took over as the permanent drummer...

, Adrian Belew
Adrian Belew
Adrian Belew is an American guitarist, singer, songwriter, multi-instrumentalist and record producer...

, The National
The National (band)
The National is an indie rock band formed in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1999 and currently based in Brooklyn, New York. The band's lyrics are written and sung by Matt Berninger, a baritone...

, Foxy Shazam
Foxy Shazam
Foxy Shazam is an American rock band from Cincinnati, Ohio, formed in 2004. The band is composed of lead vocalist Eric Sean Nally, guitarist Loren Turner, pianist Sky White, and bass player Daisy. Later, trumpeter and back-up vocalist Alex Nauth joined, and Aaron McVeigh became the band's permanent...

, Why? (American band), and alternative Hip Hop producer Hi-Tek
Hi-Tek
Tony Cottrell, better known as Hi-Tek, is an American record producer and rapper from Cincinnati, Ohio. He is best known for his work with Talib Kweli on his Reflection Eternal album and on Black Star...

 and TraxxStarr call the Greater Cincinnati region home.

WCET
WCET (TV)
WCET is the PBS member public television station serving Cincinnati, Ohio. It broadcasts digitally on channel 34 but is displayed on-screen as channel 48, its former analog and present virtual channel, via the PSIP protocol. Its signal is multiplexed, broadcasting one high-definition channel, CET...

 channel 48, now known as CET, is the nation's oldest licensed public television station (License #1, issued in 1951).

The Cincinnati May Festival
Cincinnati May Festival
The Cincinnati May Festival is a two-week annual choral festival, held during the last two weekends in May in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. The festival's roots go back to the 1840s, when Saengerfests were held in that city, bringing singers from all over the United States and abroad to perform large...

 Chorus is a prestigious amateur choir that has been in existence since 1880. Music Director James Conlon
James Conlon
James Conlon is an American conductor and the current Music Director of the Los Angeles Opera.-Early years:Conlon grew up in a family of five children on Cherry Street in Douglaston, Queens, New York. His mother, Angeline L. Conlon, was a freelance writer. His father was an assistant to the New...

 and Chorus Director Robert Porco
Robert Porco
Robert Porco is a noted American director of large choral groups performing orchestral works. He has directed the Cincinnati May Festival Chorus with the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra since 1989 along with the Cleveland Orchestra's Blossom Festival Chorus....

 lead the Chorus through an extensive repertoire of classical music. The May Festival Chorus is the mainstay of the oldest continuous choral festival in the Western Hemisphere. Cincinnati's Music Hall
Music Hall (Cincinnati)
Music Hall, completed in 1878, is Cincinnati's premier classical music performance hall. It serves as the home for the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, Cincinnati Opera, May Festival Chorus, and the Cincinnati Pops Orchestra. In January, 1975, it was recognized as a National Historic Landmark by the...

 was built specifically to house the May Festival. The city is home to the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra
Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra
As the fifth oldest orchestra in the United States, the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra has a legacy of fine music making as reflected in its performances in historic Music Hall, recordings, and international tours...

, Cincinnati Opera
Cincinnati Opera
Cincinnati Opera is an American opera company based in Cincinnati, Ohio and the second oldest opera company in the United States .-History:...

, Cincinnati Boychoir and Cincinnati Ballet
Cincinnati Ballet
The Cincinnati Ballet is a professional ballet company founded in 1958 in Cincinnati, Ohio, United States. The current artistic director is Victoria Morgan.-Founding:...

. The Greater Cincinnati area is also home to several regional orchestras and youth orchestras, including the Starling Chamber Orchestra.

The Hollows series
Hollows (series)
The Hollows series is a series of mystery novels in an urban fantasy alternate history setting by Kim Harrison that take place primarily in the city of Cincinnati. The city itself is mostly separated in two parts: The main part of the town and the enclave on the opposite side of the Ohio River...

 of books by Kim Harrison
Kim Harrison
Kim Harrison is a nom de plume of American author Dawn Cook. Under the name of Harrison, she is best known for her Rachel Morgan urban fantasy series set in an alternate history where a worldwide pandemic caused by genetically modified tomatoes led to the death of a large portion of the world's...

 is an urban fantasy
Urban fantasy
Urban fantasy is a sub-genre of fantasy defined by place; the fantastic narrative has an urban setting. Many urban fantasies are set in contemporary times and contain supernatural elements. However, the stories can take place in historical, modern, or futuristic periods...

 that takes place in Cincinnati.

Cincinnati also has its own chapter (or "Tent") of The Sons of the Desert
The Sons of the Desert
The Sons of the Desert is an international fraternal organization devoted to lives and films of comedians Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy. The group takes its name from a lodge that Laurel and Hardy belonged to in the 1933 movie Sons of the Desert....

 (The Laurel and Hardy Appreciation Society)
, which meets several times per year.

The mayor of Cincinnati, Mark Mallory, was featured on CBS' Undercover Boss
Undercover Boss
Undercover Boss is a television franchise series that has been released in multiple countries, originating in 2009 on the British Channel 4...



The Cincinnati Police Department was featured on TLC
TLC (TV channel)
TLC is an American cable TV specialty channel which initially focused on educational content. Since 1991 TLC has been owned by Discovery Communications, the same company that operates the Discovery Channel, Animal Planet and The Science Channel, as well as other learning-themed networks...

's Police Women of Cincinnati
Police Women of Cincinnati
Police Women of Cincinnati is the fifth season of Police Women on TLC. It follows four female members of the Cincinnati Police Department in Cincinnati, Ohio.-Cast:...

.

Sports


Cincinnati has seven major sports venues, two major league teams, six minor league teams, and five college institutions with their own sports teams. It is home to baseball's Reds
Cincinnati Reds
The Cincinnati Reds are a Major League Baseball team based in Cincinnati, Ohio. They are members of the National League Central Division. The club was established in 1882 as a charter member of the American Association and joined the National League in 1890....

, who were named for America's first professional baseball team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings
Cincinnati Red Stockings
The Cincinnati Red Stockings of were baseball's first fully professional team, with ten salaried players. The Cincinnati Base Ball Club formed in 1866 and fielded competitive teams in the National Association of Base Ball Players 1867–1870, a time of a transition that ambitious Cincinnati,...

; the Bengals
Cincinnati Bengals
The Cincinnati Bengals are a professional football team based in Cincinnati, Ohio. They are members of the AFC's North Division in the National Football League . The Bengals began play in 1968 as an expansion team in the American Football League , and joined the NFL in 1970 in the AFL-NFL...

 of the National Football League; and the historic international men's and women's tennis tournament, The A.T.P. Masters Series Cincinnati Masters
Cincinnati Masters
The Cincinnati Open is an annual outdoor hardcourts tennis event held in the Cincinnati suburb of Mason, Ohio, USA. The event started on September 18, 1899 and is the oldest tennis tournament in the United States played in its original city., Between...

 (often referred to as the "fifth Grand Slam"). The most notable minor league team is the Cincinnati Cyclones, a AA level professional hockey team. The team is a member of the ECHL. Founded in 1990, the team first played their games in the Cincinnati Gardens and now play at U.S. Bank Arena. They are the reigning ECHL Kelly Cup Champions, having won the 2010 Kelly Cup Finals in five games over the Idaho Steelheads, and currently enjoy their 2nd championship reign in three seasons. It is also home to three professional soccer teams, two outdoor teams, the Cincinnati Kings (men's) and Cincinnati LadyHawks (women's), and one indoor team, the Cincinnati Excite (men's). On Opening Day
Opening Day
Opening Day is the day on which professional baseball leagues begin their regular season. For Major League Baseball and most of the minor leagues, this day falls during the first week of April. For baseball fans, Opening Day serves as a symbol of rebirth; writer Thomas Boswell once penned a book...

, Cincinnati has the distinction of holding the "traditional opener" in baseball each year, due to its baseball history. Many children in Cincinnati skip school on Opening Day, which is commonly thought of as a city holiday.

Fans often refer to the city and its teams as "Cincy" for short. Even the Reds' official website uses that name frequently.
Club Sport Founded League Venue
Cincinnati Reds
Cincinnati Reds
The Cincinnati Reds are a Major League Baseball team based in Cincinnati, Ohio. They are members of the National League Central Division. The club was established in 1882 as a charter member of the American Association and joined the National League in 1890....

Baseball
Baseball
Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each. The aim is to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four bases arranged at the corners of a ninety-foot diamond...

1867 MLB, National League
National League
The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs, known simply as the National League , is the older of two leagues constituting Major League Baseball, and the world's oldest extant professional team sports league. Founded on February 2, 1876, to replace the National Association of Professional...

Great American Ball Park
Great American Ball Park
The Great American Ball Park is a Major League Baseball park in Cincinnati, Ohio. It is the home of the National League's Cincinnati Reds. It opened in 2003, replacing the Reds' former home, Cinergy Field, which was known as Riverfront Stadium from its opening in June 1970 until the 1996...

Cincinnati Bengals
Cincinnati Bengals
The Cincinnati Bengals are a professional football team based in Cincinnati, Ohio. They are members of the AFC's North Division in the National Football League . The Bengals began play in 1968 as an expansion team in the American Football League , and joined the NFL in 1970 in the AFL-NFL...

Football
American football
American football is a sport played between two teams of eleven with the objective of scoring points by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone. Known in the United States simply as football, it may also be referred to informally as gridiron football. The ball can be advanced by...

1968 National Football League
National Football League
The National Football League is the highest level of professional American football in the United States, and is considered the top professional American football league in the world. It was formed by eleven teams in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association, with the league changing...

Paul Brown Stadium
Paul Brown Stadium
Paul Brown Stadium is an American sports stadium located in Cincinnati, Ohio. It is the home venue of the Cincinnati Bengals of the National Football League. It opened on August 19, 2000. The stadium was named after Bengals' founder Paul Brown. The stadium is located on approximately of land and...

Cincinnati Cyclones
Cincinnati Cyclones
The Cincinnati Cyclones are a professional hockey team based in Cincinnati, Ohio. The team is a member of the ECHL. Founded in 1990, the team first played their games in the Cincinnati Gardens and now play at U.S. Bank Arena....

Ice hockey
Ice hockey
Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...

1990 East Coast Hockey League U.S. Bank Arena
U.S. Bank Arena
U.S. Bank Arena is an indoor arena, located in downtown Cincinnati, Ohio, along the banks of the Ohio River, next to the Great American Ball Park. Completed in September 1975, the arena seats 17,556 people...

Cincinnati Kings
Cincinnati Kings
Cincinnati Kings is an American soccer team based in Cincinnati, Ohio, United States. Founded in 2005, the team plays in the USL Premier Development League , the fourth tier of the American Soccer Pyramid, in the Great Lakes Division of the Central Conference.The team plays its home games at the...

Soccer 2005 USL Premier Development League
USL Premier Development League
The USL Premier Development League is the amateur league of the United Soccer Leagues in the United States, Canada, and Bermuda, forming part of the American Soccer Pyramid...

Town and Country Sports Club
Cincinnati Kings Indoor Team Indoor Soccer
Indoor soccer
Indoor soccer or arena soccer, or six-a-side football in the United Kingdom, is a game derived from association football adapted for play in an indoor arena such as a turf-covered hockey arena or skating rink. The most important difference in play is that the indoor field is surrounded by a wall...

2008 Professional Arena Soccer League
Professional Arena Soccer League
The Professional Arena Soccer League is an North American indoor soccer league recognized by FIFRA ....

Cincinnati Gardens
Cincinnati Gardens
The Cincinnati Gardens is an indoor sports and entertainment arena located in Cincinnati, Ohio, that opened in 1949. The 25,000 square foot brick and limestone building, whose entrance is decorated with six three-dimensional carved athletic figures, was modeled after Maple Leaf Gardens in Toronto,...

Cincinnati Commandos
Cincinnati Commandos
The Cincinnati Commandos are team of the Ultimate Indoor Football League. Based in Cincinnati, Ohio, the Commandos play their home games at the Cincinnati Gardens. Their team is based around Cincinnati area talent, such as Ben Mauk, Dominick Goodman, Robert Redd and Terrill Byrd...

Indoor Football 2010 Ultimate Indoor Football League
Ultimate Indoor Football League
The Ultimate Indoor Football League is a regional professional indoor football league that began its inaugural season on February 18, 2011.-History:...

Cincinnati Gardens
Cincinnati Gardens
The Cincinnati Gardens is an indoor sports and entertainment arena located in Cincinnati, Ohio, that opened in 1949. The 25,000 square foot brick and limestone building, whose entrance is decorated with six three-dimensional carved athletic figures, was modeled after Maple Leaf Gardens in Toronto,...


Transportation

Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport
Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport
Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport , sometimes called the Greater Cincinnati Airport is located in Hebron, unincorporated Boone County, Kentucky, United States and serves the Greater Cincinnati metropolitan area. Despite being located in Boone County, the airport operations are...

 (CVG) is the major international airport
International airport
An international airport is any airport that can accommodate flights from other countries and are typically equipped with customs and immigration facilities to handle these flights to and from other countries...

 serving the metropolitan area and is located across the river in Hebron, Kentucky
Hebron, Kentucky
Hebron is an unincorporated community in Boone County, Kentucky, United States. It is the location of Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport, which serves Cincinnati and the tri-state area.- Growth :...

. The airport is the fifth largest hub for Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines, Inc. is a major airline based in the United States and headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. The airline operates an extensive domestic and international network serving all continents except Antarctica. Delta and its subsidiaries operate over 4,000 flights every day...

 and the largest for its subsidiary, Comair
Comair
Comair is a wholly owned subsidiary of Delta Air Lines headquartered on the grounds of Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky International Airport in unincorporated Boone County, Kentucky, United States, west of Erlanger, and south of Cincinnati, Ohio...

. The city has four other airports; Lunken Airport, a municipal airfield used for smaller business jets and private planes; the Butler County Regional Airport, located between Fairfield
Fairfield, Ohio
Fairfield is a city in Butler County in the U.S. state of Ohio, near Cincinnati. Fairfield was incorporated in 1955. The population was 42,510 at the 2010 census. The city school district is one of the largest in Ohio, with Fairfield High School graduating 842 students in June 2009. Fairfield is...

 and Hamilton
Hamilton, Ohio
Hamilton is a city in Butler County, southwestern Ohio, United States. The population was 62,447 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Butler County. The city is part of the Cincinnati metropolitan area....

, which ranks just behind Lunken in business jets and has the largest private aircraft capacity of the Cincinnati area; Cincinnati West Airport, a smaller airport located in Harrison, Ohio
Harrison, Ohio
Harrison is a city in Hamilton County, Ohio, United States. The city is located in the Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky metropolitan area. The population was 7,487 as of the 2000 census.-History:...

; and the Blue Ash Airport
Blue Ash Airport
Blue Ash Airport , also known as Cincinnati-Blue Ash Airport, is a public airport located in the city of Blue Ash in Hamilton County, Ohio, United States. It is 16.5 miles northeast of downtown Cincinnati and is owned by the City of Cincinnati....

, in Blue Ash
Blue Ash, Ohio
Blue Ash is a city in Hamilton County, Ohio, United States, and an inner suburb of Cincinnati, which is located just to the south. The population was 12,513 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Blue Ash is located at ....

.

CVG Airport, along with the two other regional international airports, Dayton International Airport
Dayton International Airport
James M. Cox Dayton International Airport , also referred to as simply Dayton International Airport, is a public airport located nine miles north of the central business district of Dayton, a city in Montgomery County, Ohio, United States. The airport is situated in Vandalia and it is owned and...

 78 miles (125.5 km) north, and Port Columbus International Airport
Port Columbus International Airport
Port Columbus International Airport , commonly shortened to Port Columbus, is a Class C international airport located east of downtown Columbus, Ohio, USA. It is managed by the Columbus Regional Airport Authority, which also oversees operations at Rickenbacker International Airport and Bolton Field...

 128 miles (206 km) northeast, form an important regional transportation network. Combined, they anchor the corners of a triangular region that serves about 50% of the population of Ohio
Ohio
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the United States. The 34th largest state by area in the U.S.,it is the 7th‑most populous with over 11.5 million residents, containing several major American cities and seven metropolitan areas with populations of 500,000 or more.The state's capital is Columbus...

 and about 10% of Kentucky. The region encompasses over 6000 square miles (15,539.9 km²) with about 50% available for development.
Cincinnati is served by the Metro transit system, operated by the Southwest Ohio Regional Transit Authority
Southwest Ohio Regional Transit Authority
Southwest Ohio Regional Transit Authority , is the public transport agency serving Cincinnati, Ohio and its suburbs. The agency operates transit bus services under the name Metro...

 (SORTA). The Transit Authority of Northern Kentucky
Transit Authority of Northern Kentucky
The Transit Authority of Northern Kentucky is the public transit system serving the Northern Kentucky suburbs of Cincinnati, Ohio located in Kenton County, Boone County and Campbell County...

 (TANK) serves Northern Kentucky and connects downtown at Metro's Government Square hub.

There is inter-city rail service by Amtrak
Amtrak
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak , is a government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "track". It is headquartered at Union...

 with ticket offices and boarding stations at Cincinnati Union Terminal. Amtrak's Cardinal train travels to Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

 to the northwest and to Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

, Philadelphia
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Philadelphia is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the county seat of Philadelphia County, with which it is coterminous. The city is located in the Northeastern United States along the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers. It is the fifth-most-populous city in the United States,...

 and New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

 to the east. Several freight railroads service Cincinnati, the largest being CSX Transportation
CSX Transportation
CSX Transportation operates a Class I railroad in the United States known as the CSX Railroad. It is the main subsidiary of the CSX Corporation. The company is headquartered in Jacksonville, Florida, and owns approximately 21,000 route miles...

 which operates a railroad yard west of Interstate 75
Interstate 75
Interstate 75 is a major north–south Interstate Highway in the Great Lakes and Southeastern regions of the United States. It travels from State Road 826 and State Road 924 in Hialeah, Florida to Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, at the Ontario, Canada, border...

. Other railroads include Norfolk Southern, which operates a large intermodal yard in the west end neighborhood of Queensgate and the Indiana & Ohio Railroad which operates several small predecessor yards throughout the city.

The city has a river ferry and many bridges. The Anderson Ferry
Anderson Ferry
The Anderson Ferry is a ferry across the Ohio River between Cincinnati, Ohio and Constance, Kentucky. It has been in continuous operation since 1817. It was originally known as the Kottmyer ferry but was later sold to the Anderson family. It is the lone survivor of dozens of ferries that once...

 has been in continuous operation since 1817.
Cincinnati's major bridges include:
  • The Newport Southbank Bridge
    Newport Southbank Bridge
    The Newport Southbank Bridge stretches 2,670 feet over the Ohio River, connecting Newport, Kentucky to downtown Cincinnati, Ohio.- History :...

     (a.k.a. the Purple People Bridge because of its status as a pedestrian-only bridge as well as its color)
  • The John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge
    John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge
    The John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge spans the Ohio River between Cincinnati, Ohio and Covington, Kentucky. When the first pedestrians crossed on December 1, 1866, it was the longest suspension bridge in the world at 1,057 feet main span. Today, many pedestrians use the bridge to get between...

     Opened in 1866, this bridge was the prototype for the Brooklyn Bridge
    Brooklyn Bridge
    The Brooklyn Bridge is one of the oldest suspension bridges in the United States. Completed in 1883, it connects the New York City boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn by spanning the East River...

    , also designed by Roebling.
  • The Daniel Carter Beard Bridge
    Daniel Carter Beard Bridge
    The Daniel Carter Beard Bridge , is a twin span steel tied arch bridge crossing the Ohio River in Cincinnati, Ohio. It carries Interstate 471 between Cincinnati, Ohio, and Newport, Kentucky. As to the origin of this nickname, its yellow arches are similar to the "Golden Arches" logo of...

     (a.k.a. the Big Mac bridge for its yellow arches, reminiscent of the McDonald's logo) carries I-471 and connects Cincinnati with Newport, Kentucky
  • The Brent Spence Bridge
    Brent Spence Bridge
    The Brent Spence Bridge is a double decker cantilever truss bridge that carries Interstates 71 and 75 across the Ohio River between Covington, Kentucky and Cincinnati, Ohio. The top deck carries southbound traffic while the bottom deck carries northbound traffic. It is arguably the most important...

     A double-decker truss bridge carrying I-71/75 connecting Cincinnati with Covington, Kentucky
  • The Clay Wade Bailey Bridge
    Clay Wade Bailey Bridge
    The Clay Wade Bailey Bridge is a cantilever bridge carrying U.S. Route 42 and U.S. Route 127 across the Ohio River, connecting Cincinnati, Ohio and Covington, Kentucky. This also marks the termination of U.S. Route 25. The bridge's main span is...

  • The Taylor-Southgate Bridge
    Taylor-Southgate Bridge
    The Taylor–Southgate Bridge is a continuous truss bridge that was built in 1995. It has a main span of 850 feet , and a total span of 1850 feet . The bridge carries U.S...

  • The Combs-Hehl Bridge
    Combs-Hehl Bridge
    The Combs–Hehl Bridge is a twin span single pier cantilever bridge carrying Interstate 275 across the Ohio River. It connects Cincinnati, Ohio and Campbell County, Kentucky. The main span is 219 meters and the total length of each bridge is 460 meters . The bridge is named for former...

     a twin-span truss, part of the I-275 loop and commonly called "The 275 Bridge," it travels through Fort Thomas, Kentucky and connects to the neighborhood of California, the easternmost neighborhood in the city limits.


Cincinnati is served by three major interstate highways
Interstate Highway System
The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, , is a network of limited-access roads including freeways, highways, and expressways forming part of the National Highway System of the United States of America...

. Interstate 75
Interstate 75
Interstate 75 is a major north–south Interstate Highway in the Great Lakes and Southeastern regions of the United States. It travels from State Road 826 and State Road 924 in Hialeah, Florida to Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, at the Ontario, Canada, border...

 is a north-south route through the Mill Creek
Mill Creek (Ohio)
The Mill Creek is a stream in southwest Ohio. It flows southwest and south from its headwaters in Liberty Township of Butler County through central Hamilton County and the heart of Cincinnati into the Ohio River just west of downtown...

 valley. Interstate 71
Interstate 71
Interstate 71 is an Interstate Highway in the Great Lakes/Midwestern and Southeastern region of the United States. Its southern terminus is at an interchange with Interstate 64 and Interstate 65 in Louisville, Kentucky. Its northern terminus is at an interchange with Interstate 90 in Cleveland,...

 runs northeast towards Mount Adams
Mount Adams, Ohio
Mt. Adams is a geographic landmark and residential neighborhood of Cincinnati, Ohio, located directly east of downtown Cincinnati, south of Walnut Hills, south-west of East Walnut Hills, and west of the East End....

 and Walnut Hills. Interstate 74
Interstate 74
Interstate 74 is an Interstate Highway in the Midwestern and Southeastern United States. Its western end is at an intersection with Interstate 80 in Davenport, Iowa; the eastern end of its Midwest segment is at an intersection with Interstate 75 in Cincinnati, Ohio...

 begins at Interstate 75
Interstate 75
Interstate 75 is a major north–south Interstate Highway in the Great Lakes and Southeastern regions of the United States. It travels from State Road 826 and State Road 924 in Hialeah, Florida to Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, at the Ontario, Canada, border...

 west of downtown and connects to Indiana
Indiana
Indiana is a US state, admitted to the United States as the 19th on December 11, 1816. It is located in the Midwestern United States and Great Lakes Region. With 6,483,802 residents, the state is ranked 15th in population and 16th in population density. Indiana is ranked 38th in land area and is...

.

The city has an outer-belt, Interstate 275
Interstate 275 (Ohio)
Interstate 275 is an loop in Ohio, Indiana, and Kentucky that forms a complete beltway around the Cincinnati, Ohio area. It is the only auxiliary interstate that enters three states, including one state that the parent route does not enter . It is the longest loop interstate highway in the United...

 (which is the longest circle highway in the country), and a spur to Kentucky
Kentucky
The Commonwealth of Kentucky is a state located in the East Central United States of America. As classified by the United States Census Bureau, Kentucky is a Southern state, more specifically in the East South Central region. Kentucky is one of four U.S. states constituted as a commonwealth...

, Interstate 471
Interstate 471
Interstate 471 is a long United States Interstate Highway, linking Interstate 71 in downtown Cincinnati, Ohio to Interstate 275 in Highland Heights, Kentucky. South of I-275, the expressway continues south to U.S...

. It is also served by numerous U.S. highways: US 22, US 25, US 27, US 42, US 50, US 52, and US 127.

Cincinnati has an incomplete subway system
Cincinnati Subway
The Cincinnati Subway is a set of unused tunnels and stations for a rapid transit system beneath the streets of Cincinnati, Ohio. It is recognized as the largest abandoned subway tunnel in the United States...

. Construction stopped in 1924 when unexpected post-World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 inflation had doubled the cost of construction. As a result, the funds that were originally set aside were not enough to complete the subway system. There have been several attempts by SORTA
Southwest Ohio Regional Transit Authority
Southwest Ohio Regional Transit Authority , is the public transport agency serving Cincinnati, Ohio and its suburbs. The agency operates transit bus services under the name Metro...

 to utilize the subways for a modern light rail
Light rail
Light rail or light rail transit is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems...

 system within Hamilton County. All of these initiatives have thus far failed when placed on the ballot, with the most recent (a $2.7 billion plan
MetroMoves
MetroMoves was a 2002 proposal by the Southwest Ohio Regional Transit Authority to expand and improve public transportation in the greater Cincinnati metropolitan area. The 30-year vision included the addition of light rail lines, commuter rail lines, streetcars in the downtown area, and expanded...

) failing 2 to 1 in 2002. Today the subway is used as a conduit for fiber optic and water lines.

There have been numerous attempts over the past decade to build commuter rail
Eastern Corridor Commuter Rail
The Eastern Corridor Commuter Rail is first of several proposed commuter rail lines being developed by SORTA, Hamilton County and Cincinnati in the Greater Cincinnati metro area in conjunction with proposed Light Rail and Streetcar lines...

 from Milford (in nearby Clermont County) to the Downtown Transit Center in Cincinnati. The most recent of these began gaining support in early July 2007. The $411 million plan currently calls for using and upgrading existing rail lines and new diesel cars called DMU
Diesel multiple unit
A diesel multiple unit or DMU is a multiple unit train consisting of multiple carriages powered by one or more on-board diesel engines. They may also be referred to as a railcar or railmotor, depending on country.-Design:...

s (diesel multiple units).

According to Forbes Magazine, Cincinnatians spend 20% of their income on transit, which makes the city the sixth most expensive city for commuting in the United States. , the port of Cincinnati is ranked 5th by trip ton-miles for an inland port.

Planned streetcar system

Cincinnati is also currently planning a streetcar line to connect Downtown, Over-the-Rhine
Over-the-Rhine
Over-the-Rhine, sometimes shortened to OTR, is a neighborhood in Cincinnati, Ohio. It is believed to be the largest, most intact urban historic district in the United States. Over-the-Rhine was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983 with 943 contributing buildings...

 and the area around the University of Cincinnati
University of Cincinnati
The University of Cincinnati is a comprehensive public research university in Cincinnati, Ohio, and a part of the University System of Ohio....

. An initial study conducted by Omaha-based HDR Engineers was completed on May 31, 2007 and estimated the cost to be around $100 million. Additions made later, of a connection from Over-the-Rhine to Uptown and a loop through Uptown, have raised the overall estimated cost to $185 million. It is predicted that the system could generate more than $1.4 billion in new private investment over the next 15 years through property redevelopment and attracting new residents. However, the plans have faced opposition from some groups arguing that there are more urgent needs on which to spend public funds. Opening of the first streetcar line would not take place before 2013.

Sister cities

Cincinnati has eight sister cities
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

:, however one is currently suspended from being a sister city.
- Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

, Germany - South Kanpur
South Kanpur
South Kanpur is a section of Kanpur, India. It includes the localities of Jajmau, Lal Bangla, Golpark, Chakeri, Govind Nagar, Kanpur Cantonment, Govindpuri, Jajmau Industrial Area, Defence Colony, Gaushala, JK Colony, HAL, Highway City, Krishna Nagar, Shyam Nagar, Yashoda Nagar, Mirpur, Golagahat,...

, India - Tijuana, Mexico
- Liuzhou
Liuzhou
-History:thumb|Liuchow in 1945.Liuzhou has a history of more than 2,100 years. The city was founded in 111 B.C. when it was known as Tanzhong....

, Guangxi
Guangxi
Guangxi, formerly romanized Kwangsi, is a province of southern China along its border with Vietnam. In 1958, it became the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China, a region with special privileges created specifically for the Zhuang people.Guangxi's location, in...

, People's Republic of China - Gifu
Gifu, Gifu
is a city located in the south-central portion of Gifu Prefecture, Japan, and serves as the prefectural capital. The city has played an important role in Japan's history because of its location in the middle of the country. During the Sengoku period, various warlords, including Oda Nobunaga, used...

, Japan
- Nancy, France - New Taipei, Taiwan
Republic of China
The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan , is a unitary sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan , which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor...

- Kharkov, Ukraine


A sister city relationship with Harare
Harare
Harare before 1982 known as Salisbury) is the largest city and capital of Zimbabwe. It has an estimated population of 1,600,000, with 2,800,000 in its metropolitan area . Administratively, Harare is an independent city equivalent to a province. It is Zimbabwe's largest city and its...

, Zimbabwe was suspended in protest of irregularities in the 2008 Zimbabwean presidential election.

See also

  • Cincinnati Communities
    Cincinnati Communities
    The City of Cincinnati is made up of over 50 communities, each with a respective Community Council.The list of communities with links to their community councils follows:*Avondale Community Council*Bond Hill Community Council*California Community Council...

  • Cincinnati Airport
    Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport
    Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport , sometimes called the Greater Cincinnati Airport is located in Hebron, unincorporated Boone County, Kentucky, United States and serves the Greater Cincinnati metropolitan area. Despite being located in Boone County, the airport operations are...

  • Cincinnati nicknames
    Cincinnati nicknames
    Cincinnati has a number of nicknames, including the "The Queen City," "The Queen of the West," "The Blue Chip City," and "The City of Seven Hills," These are more typically associated with professional, academic, and public relations references to the city, including restaurant names such as Blue...

  • Cincinnati Public Schools
  • Cincinnati streetcars
    Cincinnati streetcars
    Cincinnati streetcars were the main form of public transportation in Cincinnati, Ohio at the turn of the twentieth century. The original streetcar system was dismantled in 1951....

  • City Plan for Cincinnati
    City Plan for Cincinnati
    The City Plan for Cincinnati is a set of plans to guide the development of Cincinnati. The earliest such plan was the 1907 Park Plan created by George Kessler. Every 20 or 30 years since then new comprehensive plans have been created as the city has grown....

  • Greater Cincinnati
    Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky metropolitan area
    The Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky metropolitan area is a metropolitan area that includes counties in the U.S. states of Ohio, Kentucky and Indiana, centered around the city of Cincinnati, Ohio. The United States Census defines the metropolitan area as the Cincinnati-Middletown Metropolitan...

  • List of Cincinnati neighborhoods
  • List of mayors of Cincinnati
  • List of people from Cincinnati
  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Cincinnati, Ohio
  • Northern Kentucky University
    Northern Kentucky University
    |type = Public|president= Dr. James C. Votruba|city = Highland Heights|state = KY|country = U.S.|endowment = $68 million|students = 15,405|undergrad = 13,206|postgrad = 2,199|faculty = 1,159...

  • The Athenaeum of Ohio
  • Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cincinnati
    Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cincinnati
    The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cincinnati covers the southwest region of the U.S. state of Ohio, including the greater Cincinnati and Dayton metropolitan areas. The Archbishop of Cincinnati is Most Rev...

  • Vine Street, Cincinnati
    Vine Street, Cincinnati
    Vine Street functions as Cincinnati's central thorough-fare. It bisects the downtown and Over-the-Rhine neighborhoods. The street also serves as the dividing line for the "east" and "west" sides of the city...

  • Xavier University

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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