Chronic granulomatous disease
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) (also known as Bridges–Good syndrome, Chronic granulomatous disorder, and Quie syndrome) is a diverse group of hereditary diseases
Genetic disorder
A genetic disorder is an illness caused by abnormalities in genes or chromosomes, especially a condition that is present from before birth. Most genetic disorders are quite rare and affect one person in every several thousands or millions....

 in which certain cells of the immune system
Immune system
An immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumor cells. It detects a wide variety of agents, from viruses to parasitic worms, and needs to distinguish them from the organism's own...

 have difficulty forming the reactive oxygen
Oxygen is the element with atomic number 8 and represented by the symbol O. Its name derives from the Greek roots ὀξύς and -γενής , because at the time of naming, it was mistakenly thought that all acids required oxygen in their composition...

 compounds (most importantly, the superoxide
A superoxide, also known by the obsolete name hyperoxide, is a compound that possesses the superoxide anion with the chemical formula O2−. The systematic name of the anion is dioxide. It is important as the product of the one-electron reduction of dioxygen O2, which occurs widely in nature...

 radical) used to kill certain ingested pathogen
A pathogen gignomai "I give birth to") or infectious agent — colloquially, a germ — is a microbe or microorganism such as a virus, bacterium, prion, or fungus that causes disease in its animal or plant host...

s. This leads to the formation of granuloma
Granuloma is a medical term for a tiny collection of immune cells known as macrophages. Granulomas form when the immune system attempts to wall off substances that it perceives as foreign but is unable to eliminate. Such substances include infectious organisms such as bacteria and fungi as well as...

ta in many organs. CGD affects about 1 in 200,000 people in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, with about 20 new cases diagnosed each year.

This condition was first discovered in 1950 in a series of 4 boys from Minnesota, and in 1957 was named "a fatal granulomatosus of childhood" in a publication describing their disease.