Cessna 177
Overview
 
The Cessna 177 Cardinal is a light, high-wing general aviation
General aviation
General aviation is one of the two categories of civil aviation. It refers to all flights other than military and scheduled airline and regular cargo flights, both private and commercial. General aviation flights range from gliders and powered parachutes to large, non-scheduled cargo jet flights...

 aircraft
Aircraft
An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air, or, in general, the atmosphere of a planet. An aircraft counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines.Although...

 that was intended to replace Cessna's 172 Skyhawk
Cessna 172
The Cessna 172 Skyhawk is a four-seat, single-engine, high-wing fixed-wing aircraft. First flown in 1955 and still in production, more Cessna 172s have been built than any other aircraft.-Design and development:...

. First announced in 1967
1967 in aviation
This is a list of aviation-related events from 1967:- Events :* The Canadian Golden Centennaires aerobatic team is formed and performs all year to celebrate the Canadian centennial year....

, it was produced from 1968 to 1978.
The Cessna 177 was designed in the mid-1960s when the engineers at Cessna were asked to create a "futuristic 1970s successor to the Cessna 172
Cessna 172
The Cessna 172 Skyhawk is a four-seat, single-engine, high-wing fixed-wing aircraft. First flown in 1955 and still in production, more Cessna 172s have been built than any other aircraft.-Design and development:...

". The resulting aircraft featured newer technology such as a cantilever
Cantilever
A cantilever is a beam anchored at only one end. The beam carries the load to the support where it is resisted by moment and shear stress. Cantilever construction allows for overhanging structures without external bracing. Cantilevers can also be constructed with trusses or slabs.This is in...

 wing with a laminar flow airfoil.

The 177 is the only production high-wing single-engined Cessna since the Cessna 190 & 195
Cessna 195
The Cessna 190 and 195 Businessliner are a family of light single radial engine powered, conventional landing gear equipped, general aviation aircraft which were manufactured by Cessna between 1947 and 1954....

 series to have both fixed landing gear and a cantilever wing without strut bracing.
The 1968 model 177 was introduced in late 1967 with a 150 hp (112 kW) engine.
Encyclopedia
The Cessna 177 Cardinal is a light, high-wing general aviation
General aviation
General aviation is one of the two categories of civil aviation. It refers to all flights other than military and scheduled airline and regular cargo flights, both private and commercial. General aviation flights range from gliders and powered parachutes to large, non-scheduled cargo jet flights...

 aircraft
Aircraft
An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air, or, in general, the atmosphere of a planet. An aircraft counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines.Although...

 that was intended to replace Cessna's 172 Skyhawk
Cessna 172
The Cessna 172 Skyhawk is a four-seat, single-engine, high-wing fixed-wing aircraft. First flown in 1955 and still in production, more Cessna 172s have been built than any other aircraft.-Design and development:...

. First announced in 1967
1967 in aviation
This is a list of aviation-related events from 1967:- Events :* The Canadian Golden Centennaires aerobatic team is formed and performs all year to celebrate the Canadian centennial year....

, it was produced from 1968 to 1978.

Development

The Cessna 177 was designed in the mid-1960s when the engineers at Cessna were asked to create a "futuristic 1970s successor to the Cessna 172
Cessna 172
The Cessna 172 Skyhawk is a four-seat, single-engine, high-wing fixed-wing aircraft. First flown in 1955 and still in production, more Cessna 172s have been built than any other aircraft.-Design and development:...

". The resulting aircraft featured newer technology such as a cantilever
Cantilever
A cantilever is a beam anchored at only one end. The beam carries the load to the support where it is resisted by moment and shear stress. Cantilever construction allows for overhanging structures without external bracing. Cantilevers can also be constructed with trusses or slabs.This is in...

 wing with a laminar flow airfoil.

The 177 is the only production high-wing single-engined Cessna since the Cessna 190 & 195
Cessna 195
The Cessna 190 and 195 Businessliner are a family of light single radial engine powered, conventional landing gear equipped, general aviation aircraft which were manufactured by Cessna between 1947 and 1954....

 series to have both fixed landing gear and a cantilever wing without strut bracing.

Cessna 177

The 1968 model 177 was introduced in late 1967 with a 150 hp (112 kW) engine. One of the design goals of this 172 replacement was to allow the pilot an unobstructed view when making a turn. In the 172 the pilot sits under the wing and when the wing is lowered to begin a turn that wing blocks the pilot's view of where the turn will lead to. The engineers resolved this problem by placing the pilot forward of the wing's leading edge, but that led to a too-far-forward center of gravity.

This problem was partially counteracted by the decision to use the significantly lighter Lycoming O-320
Lycoming O-320
The Lycoming O-320 is a large family of 92 different normally aspirated, air-cooled, four-cylinder, direct-drive engines commonly used on light aircraft such as the Cessna 172 and Piper Cherokee. Different variants are rated for 150 or 160 horsepower...

 four-cylinder engine in place of the six-cylinder O-300 Continental used on the 172. The forward CG situation still existed even with the lighter engine, so a stabilator
Stabilator
A stabilator is an aircraft control surface that combines the functions of an elevator and a horizontal stabilizer...

 was chosen, to provide sufficient elevator control authority at low airspeeds.

The 177 design was intended to be a replacement for the 172, which was to be discontinued after introduction of the new aircraft. The new design was originally to be called the 172J (to follow the 1968 model 172I). However, as the time came to make the transition, there was considerable resistance to the replacement of the 172 from the company's Marketing Division. The 1969 172 jumped to the designator 172K—there is no 172J.

Performance and Handling Problems

Soon after delivery of the first Cardinals to customers there were reported incidents of pilot-induced oscillation that alarmed Cessna enough that the factory initiated a priority program to eliminate the problem. Reviewer Joe Christy explains:
The solution, which was provided to all aircraft already delivered at no cost, was known as Operation "Cardinal Rule" and included a series of 23 inspection, installation, and modification instructions. This Service Letter, SE68-14, consisted of modifying the stabilator to install slots just behind the leading edge (to delay the onset of stabilator stall) and installing full counterbalance (11 pounds versus the original 7 pounds) on the stabilator to eliminate the PIO problem.

The 177, with its 150 hp (112 kW) powerplant, was considered "underpowered", even though it had more power than the 145 hp (108 kW) Cessna 172.

Cessna 177A

Recognizing that the aircraft was underpowered, Cessna introduced the 177A in 1969. The revision featured a 180 hp (135 kW) version of the same four-cylinder Lycoming used in the 177, moving the design's price and role somewhere between that of the 172 and 182
Cessna 182
The Cessna 182 Skylane is an American four-seat, single-engine, light airplane, built by Cessna of Wichita, Kansas. It has the option of adding two child seats, installed in the baggage area....

. The additional power improved cruise speed by 11 knots (20 km/h).
The 177A also included the fiberglass, downward-shaped, conical wing tips that had been introduced on the 172 of the same year.

Cessna 177B

1970
1970 in aviation
This is a list of aviation-related events from 1970:-January:* January 1 – Nord-Aviation, Sud-Aviation, and SEREB merge to form SNIAS .* January 31 – Mikhail Mil dies, aged 61-February:...

 saw the introduction of the 177B, which had a new wing airfoil
Airfoil
An airfoil or aerofoil is the shape of a wing or blade or sail as seen in cross-section....

, a constant-speed propeller, and other minor improvements. The 177B weighed 145 lb (66 kg) more empty than the earlier 177, with maximum takeoff weight increased from 2,350 lb (1,067 kg) to 2,500 lb (1,135 kg).

In 1978, Cessna built a deluxe version of the 177B, the Cardinal Classic, with leather upholstery, a table for the rear passengers, and a 28-Volt electrical system.

Cessna 177RG

The final aircraft in the 177 line was the retractable-gear
Undercarriage
The undercarriage or landing gear in aviation, is the structure that supports an aircraft on the ground and allows it to taxi, takeoff and land...

 177RG Cardinal RG, which Cessna began producing in 1971 as a direct competitor to the Piper PA-28-200R Cherokee Arrow and Beechcraft Sierra
Beechcraft Musketeer
The Beechcraft Musketeer is a family of single-engine, low-wing, light aircraft that was produced by Beechcraft. The line includes the Model 19 Musketeer Sport, the Model 23 Musketeer, Custom and Sundowner, the Model 23-24 Musketeer Super III the retractable gear Model 24-R Sierra and the military...

. To offset the 145 lb (66 kg) increase in empty weight, much of which was from the electrically powered hydraulic gear mechanism, the 177RG has a 200 hp Lycoming IO-360 engine. This also allowed increase of the maximum weight by 300 lbs.

The additional power and cleaner lines of the 177RG result in a cruise speed of 148 kn (290 km/h), 22 kn (43 km/h) faster than the 177B. 1,543 177RGs were delivered between the US and Reims, Cessna's licensed partner in France. Those built in France by Reims were referred to as the Reims F177RG.

Present day

Today, both the 177 and 177RG are considered desirable aircraft to own. This is mostly because of the large doors which offer easy entry, the aircraft's reasonable performance for the power, active owners groups and the aircraft's attractive looks.

The 177 offers much better upward visibility than a 172 because of its steeply raked windshield and more aft-mounted wing. The absence of an obstructing wing support strut also makes the aircraft an excellent platform for aerial photography.

Accidents and incidents

  • On 11 April 1996, a Cessna 177B carrying 7-year-old Jessica Dubroff
    Jessica Dubroff
    Jessica Whitney Dubroff was a seven-year-old pilot trainee who died attempting to become the youngest person to fly an airplane across the United States...

    , her certified flight instructor and her father, crashed after take-off from Cheyenne Airport in Cheyenne, Wyoming
    Cheyenne, Wyoming
    Cheyenne is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Wyoming and the county seat of Laramie County. It is the principal city of the Cheyenne, Wyoming, Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Laramie County. The population is 59,466 at the 2010 census. Cheyenne is the...

    , killing all on board. Dubroff was attempting to set a cross-country record for young pilots, although her instructor was thought to have been at the controls at the time of the accident. No defect in the aircraft itself was found. The accident resulted in general public concern and new Federal legislation banning record attempts by non-holders of private pilot or higher certificates.

Specifications (Cessna 177B)

See also

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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