Celiac artery
Overview
 
The celiac artery, also known as the celiac trunk, is the first major branch of the abdominal aorta
Abdominal aorta
The abdominal aorta is the largest artery in the abdominal cavity. As part of the aorta, it is a direct continuation of the descending aorta .-Path:...

. Branching from the aorta anterior to the upper border of L1 vertebra (almost immediately after entering the abdominal cavity through the diaphragm at T12) in humans, it is one of three anterior/ midline branches of the abdominal aorta (the others are the superior
Superior mesenteric artery
In human anatomy, the superior mesenteric artery arises from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta, just inferior to the origin of the celiac trunk, and supplies the intestine from the lower part of the duodenum through two-thirds of the transverse colon, as well as the pancreas.-Location...

 and inferior mesenteric arteries
Inferior mesenteric artery
In human anatomy, the inferior mesenteric artery, often abbreviated as IMA, supplies the large intestine from the left colic flexure to the upper part of the rectum, which includes the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and part of the rectum...

).
The celiac artery supplies oxygenated blood
Blood
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells....

 to the liver
Liver
The liver is a vital organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. It has a wide range of functions, including detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion...

, stomach
Stomach
The stomach is a muscular, hollow, dilated part of the alimentary canal which functions as an important organ of the digestive tract in some animals, including vertebrates, echinoderms, insects , and molluscs. It is involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication .The stomach is...

, abdominal esophagus
Esophagus
The esophagus is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. During swallowing, food passes from the mouth through the pharynx into the esophagus and travels via peristalsis to the stomach...

, spleen
Spleen
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrate animals with important roles in regard to red blood cells and the immune system. In humans, it is located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. It removes old red blood cells and holds a reserve of blood in case of hemorrhagic shock...

 and the superior half of both the duodenum
Duodenum
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds. In fish, the divisions of the small intestine are not as clear and the terms anterior intestine or proximal intestine may be used instead of duodenum...

 and the pancreas
Pancreas
The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine system of vertebrates. It is both an endocrine gland producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, as well as a digestive organ, secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that assist...

.
Discussions
Encyclopedia
The celiac artery, also known as the celiac trunk, is the first major branch of the abdominal aorta
Abdominal aorta
The abdominal aorta is the largest artery in the abdominal cavity. As part of the aorta, it is a direct continuation of the descending aorta .-Path:...

. Branching from the aorta anterior to the upper border of L1 vertebra (almost immediately after entering the abdominal cavity through the diaphragm at T12) in humans, it is one of three anterior/ midline branches of the abdominal aorta (the others are the superior
Superior mesenteric artery
In human anatomy, the superior mesenteric artery arises from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta, just inferior to the origin of the celiac trunk, and supplies the intestine from the lower part of the duodenum through two-thirds of the transverse colon, as well as the pancreas.-Location...

 and inferior mesenteric arteries
Inferior mesenteric artery
In human anatomy, the inferior mesenteric artery, often abbreviated as IMA, supplies the large intestine from the left colic flexure to the upper part of the rectum, which includes the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and part of the rectum...

).

Region supplied

The celiac artery supplies oxygenated blood
Blood
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells....

 to the liver
Liver
The liver is a vital organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. It has a wide range of functions, including detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion...

, stomach
Stomach
The stomach is a muscular, hollow, dilated part of the alimentary canal which functions as an important organ of the digestive tract in some animals, including vertebrates, echinoderms, insects , and molluscs. It is involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication .The stomach is...

, abdominal esophagus
Esophagus
The esophagus is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. During swallowing, food passes from the mouth through the pharynx into the esophagus and travels via peristalsis to the stomach...

, spleen
Spleen
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrate animals with important roles in regard to red blood cells and the immune system. In humans, it is located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. It removes old red blood cells and holds a reserve of blood in case of hemorrhagic shock...

 and the superior half of both the duodenum
Duodenum
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds. In fish, the divisions of the small intestine are not as clear and the terms anterior intestine or proximal intestine may be used instead of duodenum...

 and the pancreas
Pancreas
The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine system of vertebrates. It is both an endocrine gland producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, as well as a digestive organ, secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that assist...

. These structures correspond to the embryonic foregut
Foregut
The foregut is the anterior part of the alimentary canal, from the mouth to the duodenum at the entrance of the bile duct. At this point it is continuous with the midgut...

. (Similarly, the superior mesenteric artery
Superior mesenteric artery
In human anatomy, the superior mesenteric artery arises from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta, just inferior to the origin of the celiac trunk, and supplies the intestine from the lower part of the duodenum through two-thirds of the transverse colon, as well as the pancreas.-Location...

 and inferior mesenteric artery
Inferior mesenteric artery
In human anatomy, the inferior mesenteric artery, often abbreviated as IMA, supplies the large intestine from the left colic flexure to the upper part of the rectum, which includes the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and part of the rectum...

 feed structures arising from the embryonic midgut
Midgut
The midgut is the portion of the embryo from which most of the intestines develop. After it bends around the superior mesenteric artery, it is called the "midgut loop"...

 and hindgut
Hindgut
The hindgut is the posterior part of the alimentary canal. In mammals, it includes the distal third of the transverse colon and the splenic flexure, the descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum.-Blood flow:...

 respectively. Note that these three anterior branches of the abdominal aorta are distinct and cannot substitute for one another, although there are limited connections between their terminal branches.)

The celiac artery is an essential source of blood, since the interconnections with the other major arteries of the gut are not sufficient to sustain adequate perfusion
Perfusion
In physiology, perfusion is the process of nutritive delivery of arterial blood to a capillary bed in the biological tissue. The word is derived from the French verb "perfuser" meaning to "pour over or through."...

. Thus it cannot be safely ligated in a living person, and obstruction of the celiac artery will lead to necrosis
Necrosis
Necrosis is the premature death of cells in living tissue. Necrosis is caused by factors external to the cell or tissue, such as infection, toxins, or trauma. This is in contrast to apoptosis, which is a naturally occurring cause of cellular death...

 of the structures it supplies.

Branches

There are three main divisions of the celiac artery, and each in turn has its own named branches.
| left gastric artery
Left gastric artery
In human anatomy, the left gastric artery arises from the celiac artery, and runs along the superior portion of the lesser curvature of the stomach. Branches also supply the lower esophagus...

 >
Artery Branches
>-
| common hepatic artery
Common hepatic artery
In anatomy, the common hepatic artery is a short blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the liver, pylorus , duodenum and pancreas....

 
right gastric artery
Right gastric artery
The right gastric artery arises from the common hepatic artery, above the pylorus, descends to the pyloric end of the stomach, and passes from right to left along its lesser curvature, supplying it with branches, and anastomosing with the left gastric artery.-Additional images:-External links: -...

, gastroduodenal artery
Gastroduodenal artery
In anatomy, the gastroduodenal artery is a small blood vessel in the abdomen.It supplies blood directly to the pylorus and proximal part of the duodenum, and indirectly to the pancreatic head .It most commonly arises from the common hepatic artery of the celiac trunk, but there are...


>-
| splenic artery
Splenic artery
In anatomy, the splenic artery is the blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the spleen. It branches from the celiac artery, and follows a course superior to the pancreas.-Branches:...

 
dorsal pancreatic artery
Dorsal pancreatic artery
The dorsal pancreatic artery is a branch of the splenic artery. It anastomoses with the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery and continues as the inferior pancreatic artery on its lower border. -External links:...

, short gastric arteries
Short gastric arteries
The short gastric arteries consist of from five to seven small branches, which arise from the end of the splenic artery, and from its terminal divisions....

, left gastro-omental artery
Left gastro-omental artery
The left gastro-omental artery , the largest branch of the splenic artery, runs from left to right about a finger’s breadth or more from the greater curvature of the stomach, between the layers of the greater omentum, and anastomoses with the right gastroepiploic.In its course it distributes:*...

, greater pancreatic artery


The celiac artery may also give rise to the inferior phrenic arteries
Inferior phrenic arteries
The inferior phrenic arteries are two small vessels, which supply the diaphragm but present much variety in their origin.They may arise separately from the front of the aorta, immediately above the celiac artery, or by a common trunk, which may spring either from the aorta or from the celiac artery...

.

Drainage

The celiac artery is the only major artery
Artery
Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. This blood is normally oxygenated, exceptions made for the pulmonary and umbilical arteries....

 that nourishes the abdominal digestive organs that does not have a similarly named vein.

Most blood returning from the digestive organs (including from the area of distribution of the celiac artery) is diverted to the liver via the portal venous system
Portal venous system
In human anatomy, the hepatic portal system is the system of veins comprising the hepatic portal vein and its tributaries. It is also called the portal venous system, although it is not the only example of a portal venous system, and splanchnic veins, which is not synonymous with hepatic portal...

 for further processing and detoxification in the liver before returning to the systemic circulation
Systemic circulation
Systemic circulation is the part of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart. This physiologic theory of circulation was first described by William Harvey...

 via the hepatic vein
Hepatic vein
In human anatomy, the hepatic veins are the blood vessels that drain de-oxygenated blood from the liver and blood cleaned by the liver into the inferior vena cava....

s.

In contrast to the drainage of midgut and hindgut structures by the superior mesenteric vein
Superior mesenteric vein
In anatomy, the superior mesenteric vein is a blood vessel that drains blood from the small intestine . At its termination behind the neck of the pancreas, the SMV combines with the splenic vein to form the hepatic portal vein...

 and inferior mesenteric vein
Inferior mesenteric vein
In human anatomy, the inferior mesenteric vein is a blood vessel that drains blood from the large intestine. It usually terminates when reaching the splenic vein, which goes on to form the portal vein with the superior mesenteric vein...

 respectively, venous return from the celiac artery is through either the splenic vein
Splenic vein
In anatomy, the splenic vein is the blood vessel that drains blood from the spleen.It joins with the superior mesenteric vein, to form the hepatic portal vein and follows a course superior to the pancreas, alongside of the similarly named artery, the splenic artery.It collects branches from the...

 emptying into the hepatic portal vein
Hepatic portal vein
The hepatic portal vein is not a true vein, because it does not conduct blood directly to the heart. It is a vessel in the abdominal cavity that drains blood from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen to capillary beds in the liver...

 or via smaller tributaries of the portal venous system.

Notably, the splenic vein carries bilirubin
Bilirubin
Bilirubin is the yellow breakdown product of normal heme catabolism. Heme is found in hemoglobin, a principal component of red blood cells. Bilirubin is excreted in bile and urine, and elevated levels may indicate certain diseases...

 (the waste product of hemoglobin
Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates, with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae, as well as the tissues of some invertebrates...

 metabolism) to the liver for excretion via the bile duct
Bile duct
A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile.Bile, required for the digestion of food, is excreted by the liver into passages that carry bile toward the hepatic duct, which joins with the cystic duct to form the common bile duct, which opens into the intestine.The...

.

External links

- "Branches of the celiac trunk." - "Parietal and visceral branches of the abdominal aorta."
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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