Casein
Overview
 
Casein is the name for a family of related phosphoprotein
Phosphoprotein
Phosphoproteins are proteins that are physically bonded to a substance containing phosphoric acid . This category of organic molecules includes Fc receptors, Ulks, Calcineurins, K chips, and urocortins....

 proteins (αS1, αS2, β, κ). These proteins are commonly found in mammalian milk, making up 80% of the proteins in cow milk
Milk
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mother's antibodies to the baby and can reduce the risk of many...

 and between 60% and 65% of the proteins in human milk.
Casein has a wide variety of uses, from being a major component of cheese, to use as a food additive, to a binder for safety matches. As a food source, casein supplies amino acids; carbohydrates; and two inorganic elements, calcium
Calcium
Calcium is the chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It has an atomic mass of 40.078 amu. Calcium is a soft gray alkaline earth metal, and is the fifth-most-abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust...

 and phosphorus
Phosphorus
Phosphorus is the chemical element that has the symbol P and atomic number 15. A multivalent nonmetal of the nitrogen group, phosphorus as a mineral is almost always present in its maximally oxidized state, as inorganic phosphate rocks...

.
Casein consists of a fairly high number of proline
Proline
Proline is an α-amino acid, one of the twenty DNA-encoded amino acids. Its codons are CCU, CCC, CCA, and CCG. It is not an essential amino acid, which means that the human body can synthesize it. It is unique among the 20 protein-forming amino acids in that the α-amino group is secondary...

 peptides, which do not interact.
Encyclopedia
Casein is the name for a family of related phosphoprotein
Phosphoprotein
Phosphoproteins are proteins that are physically bonded to a substance containing phosphoric acid . This category of organic molecules includes Fc receptors, Ulks, Calcineurins, K chips, and urocortins....

 proteins (αS1, αS2, β, κ). These proteins are commonly found in mammalian milk, making up 80% of the proteins in cow milk
Milk
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mother's antibodies to the baby and can reduce the risk of many...

 and between 60% and 65% of the proteins in human milk.
Casein has a wide variety of uses, from being a major component of cheese, to use as a food additive, to a binder for safety matches. As a food source, casein supplies amino acids; carbohydrates; and two inorganic elements, calcium
Calcium
Calcium is the chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It has an atomic mass of 40.078 amu. Calcium is a soft gray alkaline earth metal, and is the fifth-most-abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust...

 and phosphorus
Phosphorus
Phosphorus is the chemical element that has the symbol P and atomic number 15. A multivalent nonmetal of the nitrogen group, phosphorus as a mineral is almost always present in its maximally oxidized state, as inorganic phosphate rocks...

.

Description

Casein consists of a fairly high number of proline
Proline
Proline is an α-amino acid, one of the twenty DNA-encoded amino acids. Its codons are CCU, CCC, CCA, and CCG. It is not an essential amino acid, which means that the human body can synthesize it. It is unique among the 20 protein-forming amino acids in that the α-amino group is secondary...

 peptides, which do not interact. There are also no disulfide bridges. As a result, it has relatively little tertiary structure
Tertiary structure
In biochemistry and molecular biology, the tertiary structure of a protein or any other macromolecule is its three-dimensional structure, as defined by the atomic coordinates.-Relationship to primary structure:...

. It is relatively hydrophobic, making it poorly soluble in water
Water
Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. A water molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state . Water also exists in a...

. It is found in milk as a suspension
Suspension (chemistry)
In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogeneous fluid containing solid particles that are sufficiently large for sedimentation. Usually they must be larger than 1 micrometer. The internal phase is dispersed throughout the external phase through mechanical agitation, with the use of certain...

 of particles called casein micelles
Micelle
A micelle is an aggregate of surfactant molecules dispersed in a liquid colloid. A typical micelle in aqueous solution forms an aggregate with the hydrophilic "head" regions in contact with surrounding solvent, sequestering the hydrophobic single tail regions in the micelle centre. This phase is...

 which show some resemblance with surfactant-type micellae
Micelle
A micelle is an aggregate of surfactant molecules dispersed in a liquid colloid. A typical micelle in aqueous solution forms an aggregate with the hydrophilic "head" regions in contact with surrounding solvent, sequestering the hydrophobic single tail regions in the micelle centre. This phase is...

 in a sense that the hydrophilic parts reside at the surface. The caseins in the micelles are held together by calcium
Calcium
Calcium is the chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It has an atomic mass of 40.078 amu. Calcium is a soft gray alkaline earth metal, and is the fifth-most-abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust...

 ions and hydrophobic interactions. Several models account for the special conformation of casein in the micelles (Dalgleish, 1998). One of them proposes the micellar nucleus is formed by several submicelles, the periphery consisting of microvellosities of κ-casein (Walstra, 1979; Lucey, 2002). Another model
Molecular modelling
Molecular modelling encompasses all theoretical methods and computational techniques used to model or mimic the behaviour of molecules. The techniques are used in the fields of computational chemistry, computational biology and materials science for studying molecular systems ranging from small...

 suggests the nucleus is formed by casein-interlinked fibrils (Holt, 1992). Finally, the most recent model (Horne, 1998) proposes a double link among the caseins for gelling to take place. All three models consider micelles as colloidal particles formed by casein aggregates wrapped up in soluble κ-casein molecules.

The isoelectric point
Isoelectric point
The isoelectric point , sometimes abbreviated to IEP, is the pH at which a particular molecule or surface carries no net electrical charge....

 of casein is 4.6. Since milk's pH is 6.6, casein has a negative charge in milk. The purified protein is water insoluble. While it is also insoluble in neutral salt solutions, it is readily dispersible in dilute alkali
Alkali
In chemistry, an alkali is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal element. Some authors also define an alkali as a base that dissolves in water. A solution of a soluble base has a pH greater than 7. The adjective alkaline is commonly used in English as a synonym for base,...

s and in salt
Salt
In chemistry, salts are ionic compounds that result from the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base. They are composed of cations and anions so that the product is electrically neutral...

 solutions such as sodium oxalate
Oxalate
Oxalate , is the dianion with formula C2O42− also written 22−. Either name is often used for derivatives, such as disodium oxalate, 2C2O42−, or an ester of oxalic acid Oxalate (IUPAC: ethanedioate), is the dianion with formula C2O42− also written (COO)22−. Either...

 and sodium acetate
Acetate
An acetate is a derivative of acetic acid. This term includes salts and esters, as well as the anion found in solution. Most of the approximately 5 billion kilograms of acetic acid produced annually in industry are used in the production of acetates, which usually take the form of polymers. In...

.

The enzyme
Enzyme
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical reactions in a biological cell need enzymes in order to occur at rates...

 trypsin
Trypsin
Trypsin is a serine protease found in the digestive system of many vertebrates, where it hydrolyses proteins. Trypsin is produced in the pancreas as the inactive proenzyme trypsinogen. Trypsin cleaves peptide chains mainly at the carboxyl side of the amino acids lysine or arginine, except when...

 can hydrolyze off a phosphate
Phosphate
A phosphate, an inorganic chemical, is a salt of phosphoric acid. In organic chemistry, a phosphate, or organophosphate, is an ester of phosphoric acid. Organic phosphates are important in biochemistry and biogeochemistry or ecology. Inorganic phosphates are mined to obtain phosphorus for use in...

-containing peptone. It is used to form a type of organic adhesive
Adhesive
An adhesive, or glue, is a mixture in a liquid or semi-liquid state that adheres or bonds items together. Adhesives may come from either natural or synthetic sources. The types of materials that can be bonded are vast but they are especially useful for bonding thin materials...

.

Paint

Casein paint
Casein paint
Casein paint, derived from milk casein, is a fast-drying, water-soluble medium used by artists. It generally has a glue-like consistency, but can be thinned with water to the degree that fits a particular artist's style and desired result. It can be used on canvas panels, illustration boards,...

 is a fast-drying, water-soluble medium used by artists. Casein paint has been used since ancient Egyptian times as a form of tempera
Tempera
Tempera, also known as egg tempera, is a permanent fast-drying painting medium consisting of colored pigment mixed with a water-soluble binder medium . Tempera also refers to the paintings done in this medium. Tempera paintings are very long lasting, and examples from the 1st centuries AD still exist...

 paint, and was widely used by commercial illustrators as the material of choice until the late 1960s when, with the advent of acrylic paint
Acrylic paint
Acrylic paint is fast drying paint containing pigment suspension in acrylic polymer emulsion. Acrylic paints can be diluted with water, but become water-resistant when dry...

, casein became less popular.

Glue

Casein-based glues were popular for woodworking, including for aircraft, as late as the de Havilland Mosquito
De Havilland Mosquito
The de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito was a British multi-role combat aircraft that served during the Second World War and the postwar era. It was known affectionately as the "Mossie" to its crews and was also nicknamed "The Wooden Wonder"...

.

Cheesemaking

Cheese consists of proteins and fat from milk
Milk
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mother's antibodies to the baby and can reduce the risk of many...

, usually the milk of cows
Cattle
Cattle are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, and are most commonly classified collectively as Bos primigenius...

, buffalo
Water Buffalo
The water buffalo or domestic Asian water buffalo is a large bovine animal, frequently used as livestock in southern Asia, and also widely in South America, southern Europe, northern Africa, and elsewhere....

, goat
Goat
The domestic goat is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe. The goat is a member of the Bovidae family and is closely related to the sheep as both are in the goat-antelope subfamily Caprinae. There are over three hundred distinct breeds of...

s, or sheep. It is produced by coagulation of casein. Typically, the milk is acidified and then coagulated by the addition of rennet
Rennet
Rennet is a complex of enzymes produced in any mammalian stomach to digest the mother's milk, and is often used in the production of cheese. Rennet contains many enzymes, including a proteolytic enzyme that coagulates the milk, causing it to separate into solids and liquid...

, a proteolytic enzyme
Enzyme
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical reactions in a biological cell need enzymes in order to occur at rates...

 typically obtained from the stomachs of calves
Calf
Calves are the young of domestic cattle. Calves are reared to become adult cattle, or are slaughtered for their meat, called veal.-Terminology:...

. The solids are separated and pressed into final form.

Unlike many proteins, casein is not coagulated by heat. During the process of clotting, milk-clotting proteases act on the soluble portion of the caseins, κ-casein
K-Casein
K-Casein is a mammalian milk protein involved in a number of important physiological processes. In the gut, the ingested protein is split into an insoluble peptide and a soluble hydrophilic glycopeptide...

, thus originating an unstable micellar
Micelle
A micelle is an aggregate of surfactant molecules dispersed in a liquid colloid. A typical micelle in aqueous solution forms an aggregate with the hydrophilic "head" regions in contact with surrounding solvent, sequestering the hydrophobic single tail regions in the micelle centre. This phase is...

 state that results in clot formation. When coagulated with chymosin
Chymosin
Chymosin or rennin is an enzyme found in rennet. It is produced by cows in the lining of the abomasum...

, casein is sometimes called paracasein. Chymosin
Chymosin
Chymosin or rennin is an enzyme found in rennet. It is produced by cows in the lining of the abomasum...

 (EC 3.4.23.4) is an aspartic protease that specifically hydrolyzes
Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction during which molecules of water are split into hydrogen cations and hydroxide anions in the process of a chemical mechanism. It is the type of reaction that is used to break down certain polymers, especially those made by condensation polymerization...

 the peptide bond in Phe105-Met106 of κ-casein, and is considered to be the most efficient protease for the cheese-making industry (Rao et al., 1998). British terminology, on the other hand, uses the term caseinogen for the uncoagulated protein and casein for the coagulated protein
Protein
Proteins are biochemical compounds consisting of one or more polypeptides typically folded into a globular or fibrous form, facilitating a biological function. A polypeptide is a single linear polymer chain of amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of...

. As it exists in milk, it is a salt of calcium
Calcium
Calcium is the chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It has an atomic mass of 40.078 amu. Calcium is a soft gray alkaline earth metal, and is the fifth-most-abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust...

.

Plastics and fiber

Some of the earliest plastics were based on casein. In particular, galalith
Galalith
Galalith , is a synthetic plastic material manufactured by the interaction of casein and formaldehyde. Given a commercial name derived from the Greek words gala and lithos , it is odourless, insoluble in water, biodegradable, antiallergenic, antistatic and virtually nonflammable.-Discovery:In...

 was well-known for use in buttons. Fiber can be made from extruded casein. Lanital, a fabric made from casein fiber products, was particularly popular in Italy during the 1930s.

Protein supplements

An attractive property of the casein molecule is its ability to form a gel or clot in the stomach, which makes it very efficient in nutrient supply. The clot is able to provide a sustained slow release of amino acids into the blood stream, sometimes lasting for several hours. This provides better nitrogen retention and use by the body. Plasma immunoreactive IGF-1 concentration in rats given a casein diet was higher than that in rats given a soya-bean-protein or protein-free diet. Because of its slow digesting properties, casein is widely used between meals and before bed to help bodybuilders maintain in an anabolic state. Casein is also added to "Devotion Vodka, " promoted by former reality star Mike "the Situation."

Medical and dental uses

Casein-derived compounds are used in tooth remineralization
Remineralisation of teeth
Remineralisation of teeth is a process in which minerals are returned to the molecular structure of the tooth itself. Teeth are porous allowing fluids and demineralisation beneath the surface of the tooth. When demineralised, these pores become larger...

 products to stabilize amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and release the ACP onto tooth surfaces, where it can facilitate remineralization.

Autism

Casein has been documented to break down to produce the peptide casomorphin
Casomorphin
Casomorphins are peptides, i.e., protein fragments, derived from the digestion of milk protein casein. The distinguishing characteristic of casomorphins is that they have an opioid effect....

, an opioid
Opioid
An opioid is a psychoactive chemical that works by binding to opioid receptors, which are found principally in the central and peripheral nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract...

 that appears to act primarily as a histamine
Histamine
Histamine is an organic nitrogen compound involved in local immune responses as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter. Histamine triggers the inflammatory response. As part of an immune response to foreign pathogens, histamine is produced by...

 releaser. Some research indicates that this casomorphine aggravates the symptoms of autism
Autism
Autism is a disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. These signs all begin before a child is three years old. Autism affects information processing in the brain by altering how nerve cells and their...

. A 2006 review of seven studies indicated that, although benefits were seen in all studies from the introduction of elimination diets (e.g., casein-free or gluten-free) in the treatment of autism spectrum disorders, none of the studies were performed in a manner to create an unbiased scientific opinion. Preliminary data
Data
The term data refers to qualitative or quantitative attributes of a variable or set of variables. Data are typically the results of measurements and can be the basis of graphs, images, or observations of a set of variables. Data are often viewed as the lowest level of abstraction from which...

 from the first and only double-blind randomized control trial of a gluten- and casein-free diet "indicated no statistically significant findings even though several parents reported improvement in their children." Although research has shown high rates of use of complementary and alternative therapies (CAM) for children with autism, including gluten and/or casein exclusion diets, the evidence for efficacy of these diets is currently unsubstantiated.

A1/A2 beta caseins

Four casein proteins make up about 80% of the protein in cow's milk. One of the major caseins is beta-casein, of which there are several types, but "A1" and "A2" are the most common. According to Food Standards Australia New Zealand
Food Standards Australia New Zealand
Food Standards Australia New Zealand is the governmental body responsible for developing food standards for Australia and New Zealand .FSANZ develops food standards after consulting with other government agencies and stakeholders...

 (FSANZ), certain breeds of cows, such as Friesians
Holstein (cattle)
Holstein cattle is a breed of cattle known today as the world's highest production dairy animal. Originating in Europe, Holsteins were bred in what is now the Netherlands and more specifically in the two northern provinces of North Holland and Friesland...

, produce mostly A1 milk, whereas other breeds, such as Guernsey
Guernsey cattle
The Guernsey is a breed of cattle used in dairy farming. It is fawn and white in colour, and is particularly renowned for the rich flavour of its milk, as well as its hardiness and docile disposition.-Milk:...

s, as well as sheep and goats, produce mostly A2 milk
A2 milk
A2 Milk is a trademark of the A2 Corporation. The A2 Corporation licenses milk producers + distributors to apply the trademarked A2 Milk label to their milk. Only companies with cows that produce A2, β-casein protein, not A1, are given a license to use the trademarked label...

.

FSANZ
Food Standards Australia New Zealand
Food Standards Australia New Zealand is the governmental body responsible for developing food standards for Australia and New Zealand .FSANZ develops food standards after consulting with other government agencies and stakeholders...

 also reports despite some hypotheses that consumption of A2 milk
A2 milk
A2 Milk is a trademark of the A2 Corporation. The A2 Corporation licenses milk producers + distributors to apply the trademarked A2 Milk label to their milk. Only companies with cows that produce A2, β-casein protein, not A1, are given a license to use the trademarked label...

 "provides levels of protection to consumers from autism in children as well as schizophrenia, diabetes and heart disease", the scientific evidence for such claims is "very limited". Additionally, the European Food Safety Authority carried out a literature review in 2009 concluding "a cause and effect relationship is not established between the dietary intake of BCM7, related peptides or their possible protein precursors and non-communicable diseases" (see A2 milk
A2 milk
A2 Milk is a trademark of the A2 Corporation. The A2 Corporation licenses milk producers + distributors to apply the trademarked A2 Milk label to their milk. Only companies with cows that produce A2, β-casein protein, not A1, are given a license to use the trademarked label...

). Studies supporting these claims have had significant flaws, and the data are inadequate to guide autism treatment recommendations.

Cancer

T. Colin Campbell
T. Colin Campbell
T. Colin Campbell is an American biochemist who specializes in the effects of nutrition on long-term health. He is the Jacob Gould Schurman Professor Emeritus of Nutritional Biochemistry at Cornell University, and the author of over 300 research papers...

's The China Study
The China Study
The China Study is a 2005 book by T. Colin Campbell and his son, Thomas M. Campbell II. It examines the relationship between the consumption of animal products and illnesses such as cancers of the breast, prostate, and large bowel, diabetes, coronary heart disease, obesity, autoimmune disease,...

(2005), a book about one of the largest nutritional studies ever conducted, describes a direct correlation between casein administered to rats and the promotion of cancer cell growth when exposed to carcinogens. Aflatoxin (a potent carcinogen) was administered to these rats over a 2 week dosing period. The rats were given a 1 week post-dosing period before beginning the test (promotion period). During the promotion period, one group of rats was put on a 5% casein protein diet and another group on a 20% casein protein diet. None of the rats on 5% casein protein developed foci, precursors to cancerous cell growth, and every rat on 20% casein protein developed the pre-cancer foci. It should be noted that all test groups were fed a 20% casein diet for a total of 5 weeks (2-wk acclimation, 2-wk dosing, 1-wk post-dosing) prior to the 12 week promotion period in order to survive the initial aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) dosing, regardless of whether they were in the 5% or 20% test groups.

Other studies conducted by Dr. Campbell on humans confirmed this correlation between the amount of casein protein consumed and the promotion of cancerous cell growth. Basically, he discovered that cancer growth could be turned on and off by adjusting the amount of casein protein in the diet. A 2001 study suggests another milk protein, whey protein
Whey protein
Whey protein is a mixture of globular proteins isolated from whey, the liquid material created as a by-product of cheese production. Some preclinical studies in rodents have suggested that whey protein may possess anti-inflammatory or anti-cancer properties; however, human data is lacking...

, but not casein, may play a protective role against colon tumors in rats. According to a study from the Australian Dairy Council, casein has antimutagenic effects.

Casein-free diet

Casein has a molecular structure quite similar to that of gluten
Gluten
Gluten is a protein composite found in foods processed from wheat and related grain species, including barley and rye...

. Thus, some gluten-free diets are combined with casein-free diets and referred to as a gluten-free, casein-free diet
Gluten-free, casein-free diet
A gluten-free casein-free diet eliminates dietary intake of the naturally occurring proteins gluten and casein .-Controversial autism diet:...

. Casein is often listed as sodium caseinate, calcium caseinate or milk protein. These are often found in energy bars, drinks, and packaged goods. A small fraction of the population is allergic to casein.

Altering the effects of polyphenols

A study of Charité Hospital
Charité
The Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin is the medical school for both the Humboldt University and the Free University of Berlin. After the merger with their fourth campus in 2003, the Charité is one of the largest university hospitals in Europe....

 in Berlin by Lorenzo et al., published in The European Heart Journal, showed adding milk to tea
Tea
Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by adding cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant to hot water. The term also refers to the plant itself. After water, tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world...

 causes the casein to bind to the molecules in tea that cause the arteries to relax, especially a catechin molecule called EGCG
Epigallocatechin gallate
Epigallocatechin gallate , also known as epigallocatechin 3-gallate, is the ester of epigallocatechin and gallic acid, and is a type of catechin....

, although a more recent study by Reddy et al. (2005) suggests the addition of milk to tea does not alter the antioxidant activity in vivo, and the cardiovascular effect remains controversial. A study published in the journal Free Radical Biology and Medicine indicates casein reduced the peak plasma levels of beneficial polyphenol
Polyphenol
Polyphenols are a structural class of natural, synthetic, and semisynthetic organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large multiples of phenol structural units...

s after the consumption of blueberries.

Drug-casein interaction

Caseinate salts have been shown to reduce the bioavailability of some drugs, including phenytoin
Phenytoin
Phenytoin sodium is a commonly used antiepileptic. Phenytoin acts to suppress the abnormal brain activity seen in seizure by reducing electrical conductance among brain cells by stabilizing the inactive state of voltage-gated sodium channels...

. A patient on this drug should consult their doctor about altering their diet so that the efficacy of the drug is not diminished.

See also

  • A2 milk
    A2 milk
    A2 Milk is a trademark of the A2 Corporation. The A2 Corporation licenses milk producers + distributors to apply the trademarked A2 Milk label to their milk. Only companies with cows that produce A2, β-casein protein, not A1, are given a license to use the trademarked label...

     - high in β-casein
  • CAS registry number
    CAS registry number
    CAS Registry Numbersare unique numerical identifiers assigned by the "Chemical Abstracts Service" toevery chemical described in the...

  • K-Casein
    K-Casein
    K-Casein is a mammalian milk protein involved in a number of important physiological processes. In the gut, the ingested protein is split into an insoluble peptide and a soluble hydrophilic glycopeptide...

  • Casomorphin
    Casomorphin
    Casomorphins are peptides, i.e., protein fragments, derived from the digestion of milk protein casein. The distinguishing characteristic of casomorphins is that they have an opioid effect....

  • Cheese
    Cheese
    Cheese is a generic term for a diverse group of milk-based food products. Cheese is produced throughout the world in wide-ranging flavors, textures, and forms....

  • Dairy
    Dairy
    A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting of animal milk—mostly from cows or goats, but also from buffalo, sheep, horses or camels —for human consumption. A dairy is typically located on a dedicated dairy farm or section of a multi-purpose farm that is concerned...

  • Galalith
    Galalith
    Galalith , is a synthetic plastic material manufactured by the interaction of casein and formaldehyde. Given a commercial name derived from the Greek words gala and lithos , it is odourless, insoluble in water, biodegradable, antiallergenic, antistatic and virtually nonflammable.-Discovery:In...

     - a casein-derived plastic
  • Milk skin
    Milk skin
    Milk skin refers to a sticky film of protein that forms on top of milk and milk-containing liquids . It is caused by the denaturation of proteins such as casein....


Sources

  • Campbell, T. Colin
    T. Colin Campbell
    T. Colin Campbell is an American biochemist who specializes in the effects of nutrition on long-term health. He is the Jacob Gould Schurman Professor Emeritus of Nutritional Biochemistry at Cornell University, and the author of over 300 research papers...

     and Campbell, Thomas M. The China Study
    The China Study
    The China Study is a 2005 book by T. Colin Campbell and his son, Thomas M. Campbell II. It examines the relationship between the consumption of animal products and illnesses such as cancers of the breast, prostate, and large bowel, diabetes, coronary heart disease, obesity, autoimmune disease,...

    . Benbella Books, 2006.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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