Carrefour
Overview
 
Carrefour S.A. is an international hypermarket chain
Hypermarket
In commerce, a hypermarket is a superstore combining a supermarket and a department store. The result is an expansive retail facility carrying a wide range of products under one roof, including full groceries lines and general merchandise...

 headquartered in Levallois-Perret
Levallois-Perret
Levallois-Perret is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located from the centre of Paris.-Name:The name Levallois-Perret comes from two housing developments, Champerret and Village Levallois , and which resulted in the incorporation of the...

, France. It is one of the largest hypermarket chains in the world (1395 hypermarkets at the end of 2009, the second largest retail group in the world in terms of revenue
Revenue
In business, revenue is income that a company receives from its normal business activities, usually from the sale of goods and services to customers. In many countries, such as the United Kingdom, revenue is referred to as turnover....

 and third largest in profit
Profit (accounting)
In accounting, profit can be considered to be the difference between the purchase price and the costs of bringing to market whatever it is that is accounted as an enterprise in terms of the component costs of delivered goods and/or services and any operating or other expenses.-Definition:There are...

 after Wal-Mart
Wal-Mart
Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. , branded as Walmart since 2008 and Wal-Mart before then, is an American public multinational corporation that runs chains of large discount department stores and warehouse stores. The company is the world's 18th largest public corporation, according to the Forbes Global 2000...

 and Tesco
Tesco
Tesco plc is a global grocery and general merchandise retailer headquartered in Cheshunt, United Kingdom. It is the third-largest retailer in the world measured by revenues and the second-largest measured by profits...

). Carrefour operates mainly in Europe, Argentina, Brazil, China, Taiwan, Colombia, Dominican Republic, and in Saudi Arabia, but also has shops in North Africa and other parts of Asia, with most stores being of smaller size than hypermarket or even supermarket.
Encyclopedia
Carrefour S.A. is an international hypermarket chain
Hypermarket
In commerce, a hypermarket is a superstore combining a supermarket and a department store. The result is an expansive retail facility carrying a wide range of products under one roof, including full groceries lines and general merchandise...

 headquartered in Levallois-Perret
Levallois-Perret
Levallois-Perret is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located from the centre of Paris.-Name:The name Levallois-Perret comes from two housing developments, Champerret and Village Levallois , and which resulted in the incorporation of the...

, France. It is one of the largest hypermarket chains in the world (1395 hypermarkets at the end of 2009, the second largest retail group in the world in terms of revenue
Revenue
In business, revenue is income that a company receives from its normal business activities, usually from the sale of goods and services to customers. In many countries, such as the United Kingdom, revenue is referred to as turnover....

 and third largest in profit
Profit (accounting)
In accounting, profit can be considered to be the difference between the purchase price and the costs of bringing to market whatever it is that is accounted as an enterprise in terms of the component costs of delivered goods and/or services and any operating or other expenses.-Definition:There are...

 after Wal-Mart
Wal-Mart
Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. , branded as Walmart since 2008 and Wal-Mart before then, is an American public multinational corporation that runs chains of large discount department stores and warehouse stores. The company is the world's 18th largest public corporation, according to the Forbes Global 2000...

 and Tesco
Tesco
Tesco plc is a global grocery and general merchandise retailer headquartered in Cheshunt, United Kingdom. It is the third-largest retailer in the world measured by revenues and the second-largest measured by profits...

). Carrefour operates mainly in Europe, Argentina, Brazil, China, Taiwan, Colombia, Dominican Republic, and in Saudi Arabia, but also has shops in North Africa and other parts of Asia, with most stores being of smaller size than hypermarket or even supermarket. Carrefour means "crossroads" in French.

History

The first Carrefour store opened on January 1st, 1958, in suburban Annecy
Annecy
Annecy is a commune in the Haute-Savoie department in the Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.It lies on the northern tip of Lake Annecy , 35 kilometres south of Geneva.-Administration:...

 near a crossroads ( in French). The group was created by Marcel Fournier, Denis Defforey and Jacques Defforey and grew into a chain from this first sales outlet. In 1995 it merged with Promodès
Promodes
Promodès is a former French group of retailers. It was owned up to 56% by the Halley family. Paul-Auguste Halley, which was a simple grocer in the Mancha in the 1950s, had the idea of importing the concept of supermarkets in France....

, known as Continent
Continente
Modelo Continente is the biggest retailer in Portugal. Nowadays the hypermarket Continente chain is in Amadora, Antas , Cascais, Coimbra , Covilhã, Guia, Guimarães, Leiria, Lisboa Modelo Continente (full name: Modelo Continente, S.G.P.S., S.A.) is the biggest retailer in Portugal. Nowadays the...

, one of its major competitors in the French market.

Marcel Fournier, Denis Defforey and Jacques Defforey had attended several seminars in the United States led by "The Pope of modern distribution" Bernardo Trujillo, who influenced other famous French executives like Édouard Leclerc (E.Leclerc
E.Leclerc
E.Leclerc is a French hypermarket chain, headquartered in Ivry-sur-Seine. The chain enables semi-independent stores to operate under the Leclerc brand.E.Leclerc was established on 1st January 1948....

), Gérard Mulliez (Auchan
Auchan
Groupe Auchan SA is a French international retail group and multinational corporation headquartered in Croix, France. It is one of the world's principal distribution groups with a presence in 12 countries and 175,000 employees....

), Paul Dubrule (Accor), and Gérard Pélisson (Accor
Accor
Accor is Europe's leading hotel group , part of the CAC 40 index , and operates in over 90 countries. Headquartered in Courcouronnes, Essonne, France, near Évry, France, the group owns, operates and franchises 4,229 hotels ranging from economy to luxury on five continents .Previously, the group...

). Their slogan was "No parking, no business."

The Carrefour group was the first in Europe to open a hypermarket, a large supermarket and a department store
Department store
A department store is a retail establishment which satisfies a wide range of the consumer's personal and residential durable goods product needs; and at the same time offering the consumer a choice of multiple merchandise lines, at variable price points, in all product categories...

 under the same roof. They opened their first hypermarket June 15, 1963 in Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois
Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois, Essonne
Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located from the center of Paris.Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois lies just north of junction 42 on the orbital Francilienne autoroute....

, near Paris in France.
In April 1976, Carrefour launched a private label
Private label
Private label products or services are typically those manufactured or provided by one company for offer under another company's brand. Private label goods and services are available in a wide range of industries from food to cosmetics to web hosting...

 Produits libres (free products – libre meaning free in the sense of liberty as opposed to gratis
Gratis versus Libre
Gratis versus libre is the distinction between two meanings of the English adjective "free"; namely, "for zero price" and "with little or no restriction"...

) line of fifty foodstuffs, including oil, biscuits (crackers and cookies), milk, and pasta, sold in unbranded white packages at substantially lower prices.

In September 2009, Carrefour updated its logo.

May 2011: Considering the stagnant growth and has faced increased competition in France from rivals including Casino Guichard-Perrachon SA
Groupe Casino
Groupe Casino is a large French multinational corporation, formerly part of the CAC 40 index, whose main business is with retail and distribution in hyper and supermarkets. The company's head office is in Saint-Étienne....

, Carrefour will expense 1.5 billion-euro ($2.1 billion) to change the supermarket with new concept as Carrefour Planet in Western Europe.

Slogans

  • Hypermarkets: "Choice and quality for everyone"
  • Hypermarkets: "Está bueno para vos" and "Los precios más bajos, siempre" (Argentina), it means "It's good for you" and "Always the lowest prices" respectively.
  • Hypermarkets: "Bons momentos começam aqui." and "É lá que a gente vai encontrar!" (Brazil), it means "Good moments start here" and "That's where we will find!" respectively. "
  • Hypermarkets: "Carrefour, chévere!" (Colombia), it means "Carrefour, nice!".
  • Hypermarkets: "Life, the way I want it"(Singapore)
  • Hypermarkets: "Untuk hidup yang lebih baik" (Indonesia), it means "For a better life"
  • Hypermarkets: "Pentru o viaţă mai bună" (Romania), it means "For a better life"
  • Supermarkets: "The prices people want, close to home"
  • Hard Discount: "Grocery products at low, low prices"
  • Convenience Stores: "Just what you need, right next door"
  • Cash & Carry: "Proximity and accessibility for catering professionals"
  • Hypermarkets, Cash & Carry: "Καθε μέρα για σένα"(Cyprus) means "Every day, for you"
  • Hypermarkets: "Pozytywnie każdego dnia" (Poland), it means "Positively every day"

French Slogan

  • 1988-2003 : "I am positive with Carrefour"
  • 2003-2007 : "Energy Wise"
  • 2007-2009 : "The quality for all"
  • 2009-2010 : "The positive is back"
  • Since 2010 : "The positive every day"


February 2 , 1998 to July 23, 2004 , Carrefour was a partner in the program Le Bigdil
Let's Make a Deal
Let's Make a Deal is a television game show which originated in the United States and has since been produced in many countries throughout the world. The show is based around deals offered to members of the audience by the host. The traders usually have to weigh the possibility of an offer being...

 presented by Lagaf'
Lagaf'
Lagaf is a famous French humorist, TV presenter, singer and actor.-Biography:...

 , he has the same age as the store ans the group's slogan "Carrefour partrner of the Bigdil" at the end the issue "Was the Bigdil on TF1 with Carrefour".

French operations

The chain's Carrefour Hypermarket division has its head office in Courcouronnes
Courcouronnes
Courcouronnes is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located from the center of Paris, in the "new town" of Évry Ville Nouvelle, created in the 1960s.-Economy:...

, Essonne, France, near Évry.

Brazil

Carrefour in Brazil was founded in 1975 and today it is one of the major super markets of Brazil in competition with EXTRA, WALL-MART, PÃO DE AÇUCAR and others and now sell more than 25 million products per year.

China

In 2007, expansion accelerated outside France, particularly in Asia, with the building of 36 new hypermarkets, including 22 in China – where the Group broke its record for store openings in a one-year period.It was the leading foreign retailer, in terms of sales figures, until 2008 and has since lost its #1 position to RT-mart.

Egypt

Carrefour has seven outlets under franchise in Egypt, which are often situated in shopping malls and frequented by the Egyptian upper class. The location in Alexandria
Alexandria
Alexandria is the second-largest city of Egypt, with a population of 4.1 million, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country; it is also the largest city lying directly on the Mediterranean coast. It is Egypt's largest seaport, serving...

 was severely looted
Looting
Looting —also referred to as sacking, plundering, despoiling, despoliation, and pillaging—is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe, such as during war, natural disaster, or rioting...

 during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011.

Morocco

Carrefour has 3 hypermarkets in Morocco. Carrefour maroc is a partner of Label'vie, a Moroccan supermarket chain.
Carrefour is still expanding its presence in Morocco by opening supermarkets. (Carrefour Market)

India

The new store, Carrefour Wholesale Cash&Carry in Seelampur area of National Capital New Delhi is spread across 5,200 square meter and will house over 10,000 stock-keeping units to cater to professional businesses, institutions, restaurants and local retailers.

Carrefour opened up its 2nd Wholesale Cash&Carry in the Indian Metropolitan of Jaipur
Jaipur
Jaipur , also popularly known as the Pink City, is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan. Founded on 18 November 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amber, the city today has a population of more than 3.1 million....

, which is also the capital of Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

 and a major tourist destination. The store in Jaipur is alost the same size as Delhi.
Since the FDI policy in India does not allow foreign companies to open multi-brand retail stores in the country, global retailers have opted for the cash-and-carry route to establish their presence here. India currently allows 100 per cent foreign direct investment (FDI) in single-brand retail and 100 per cent in the cash-and-carry segment, but 51 per cent in multi-brand retail.

Iran

In February 2009, Carrefour opened its first store in Iran in Western region of Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

. Five other stores are to be opened sincerely in Shiraz
Shiraz
Shiraz may refer to:* Shiraz, Iran, a city in Iran* Shiraz County, an administrative subdivision of Iran* Vosketap, Armenia, formerly called ShirazPeople:* Hovhannes Shiraz, Armenian poet* Ara Shiraz, Armenian sculptor...

 (2011), Isfahan (2012), Eastern region of Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

, Mashhad
Mashhad
Mashhad , is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shia Muslim world. It is also the only major Iranian city with an Arabic name. It is located east of Tehran, at the center of the Razavi Khorasan Province close to the borders of Afghanistan and Turkmenistan. Its...

 and Tabriz
Tabriz
Tabriz is the fourth largest city and one of the historical capitals of Iran and the capital of East Azerbaijan Province. Situated at an altitude of 1,350 meters at the junction of the Quri River and Aji River, it was the second largest city in Iran until the late 1960s, one of its former...

.

Jordan

Carrefour also operates in the United Arab Emirates and Jordan in a joint venture with Majid al Futtaim.

Kuwait

In March 2007, Carrefour opened a store in Kuwait in the Avenues mall
The Avenues (Kuwait)
The Avenues mall is the largest mall and shopping center in Kuwait. It is soon to be one of the largest malls in the Middle East. It is located in the Al-Rai industrial area, along the Fifth Ring Road...

.

Taiwan

In 1989, Carrefour became the first international retailer to establish a presence in Asia when it entered Taiwan through a joint venture with Uni President Enterprises Corporation. It leveraged the experience it gathered in Taiwan to expand into other Asian markets.

Saudi Arabia

Carrefour also has 11 franchise operated hypermarkets in Saudi Arabia, with 5 of them being in the capital Riyadh itself.

Oman

In Oman, Carrefour opened a store in 2003 on the outskirts of the city of Muscat. And in 2008, another branch opened in Qurum. In May 2011 Carrefour opened a store in the Safeer Mall in Sohar.

Pakistan

Carrefour opened up its first store in Lahore, Pakistan in 2009 under the name of HyperStar, and a second store in Karachi in 2011.

United Arab Emirates

Carrefour also operates in the United Arab Emirates and Jordan in a joint venture with Majid al Futtaim.

United Kingdom

Carrefour had several hypermarkets in the UK until the 1980s. They were located in Leyland
Leyland, Lancashire
Leyland is a town in the South Ribble borough of Lancashire, England, approximately six miles south of the city of Preston.Throughout the 20th and 21st century, the community has seen a large growth in industry, population and farming, due to the establishment of Leyland Motors, housing...

, Caerphilly
Caerphilly
Caerphilly is a town in the county borough of Caerphilly, south Wales, located at the southern end of the Rhymney Valley, with a population of approximately 31,000. It is a commuter town of Cardiff and Newport, which are located some 7.5 miles and 12 miles away, respectively...

 (South Wales), Merry Hill in Dudley
Dudley
Dudley is a large town in the West Midlands county of England. At the 2001 census , the Dudley Urban Sub Area had a population of 194,919, making it the 26th largest settlement in England, the second largest town in the United Kingdom behind Reading, and the largest settlement in the UK without...

, Sutton Coldfield (Birmingham
Birmingham
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands of England. It is the most populous British city outside the capital London, with a population of 1,036,900 , and lies at the heart of the West Midlands conurbation, the second most populous urban area in the United Kingdom with a...

), Glasshoughton
Glasshoughton
Glasshoughton is an area of Castleford in West Yorkshire, England, that borders on Pontefract. It is home to the Xscape indoor ski slope and leisure centre, the Junction 32 Outlet Shopping Village, a DIY superstore, a hotel, a pub and a number of fast food restaurants, which were built on the site...

 (near Castleford
Castleford
Castleford is the largest of the "five towns" district in the metropolitan borough of the City of Wakefield, in West Yorkshire, England. It is near Pontefract, and has a population of 37,525 according to the 2001 Census, but has seen a rise in recent years and is now around 45-50,000. To the north...

), Eastleigh
Eastleigh
Eastleigh is a railway town in Hampshire, England, and the main town in the Eastleigh borough which is part of Southampton Urban Area. The town lies between Southampton and Winchester, and is part of the South Hampshire conurbation...

 (near Southampton
Southampton
Southampton is the largest city in the county of Hampshire on the south coast of England, and is situated south-west of London and north-west of Portsmouth. Southampton is a major port and the closest city to the New Forest...

), MetroCentre
MetroCentre
The MetroCentre is a shopping centre in the United Kingdom. Located in Gateshead on a former industrial site, close to the River Tyne. Metrocentre opened in stages with the first phase opening on 28 April 1986 and the official opening was on 14 October 1986...

 in Gateshead
Gateshead
Gateshead is a town in Tyne and Wear, England and is the main settlement in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead. Historically a part of County Durham, it lies on the southern bank of the River Tyne opposite Newcastle upon Tyne and together they form the urban core of Tyneside...

, Telford Shopping Centre
Telford Shopping Centre
Telford Shopping Centre is a indoor super-regional shopping centre in Telford, Shropshire, England. It is located in the geographical and economic centre of the new town, on land which was previously undeveloped. It is the largest shopping area in the ceremonial county of Shropshire, being located...

 (Shropshire
Shropshire
Shropshire is a county in the West Midlands region of England. For Eurostat purposes, the county is a NUTS 3 region and is one of four counties or unitary districts that comprise the "Shropshire and Staffordshire" NUTS 2 region. It borders Wales to the west...

), Boroughbridge
Boroughbridge
Boroughbridge is a small town and civil parish in the Harrogate district of North Yorkshire, England. It is situated northwest of York. Until its bypass was built, it was on the main A1 road from London to Edinburgh...

 (North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan or shire county located in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, and a ceremonial county primarily in that region but partly in North East England. Created in 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972 it covers an area of , making it the largest...

), Swindon
Swindon
Swindon is a large town within the borough of Swindon and ceremonial county of Wiltshire, in South West England. It is midway between Bristol, west and Reading, east. London is east...

 and Cribbs Causeway
Cribbs Causeway
Cribbs Causeway is a road in South Gloucestershire, England, just north of Bristol, which has given its name to a large out-of-town shopping centre, including retail parks and an enclosed shopping centre known as The Mall...

 in Bristol
Bristol
Bristol is a city, unitary authority area and ceremonial county in South West England, with an estimated population of 433,100 for the unitary authority in 2009, and a surrounding Larger Urban Zone with an estimated 1,070,000 residents in 2007...

. All stores were later acquired by the Dee Corporation, but continued to trade as Carrefour for some time before being converted to Gateway Superstores. Some of the old Carrefour stores in the UK are now branches of Asda
Asda
Asda Stores Ltd is a British supermarket chain which retails food, clothing, general merchandise, toys and financial services. It also has a mobile telephone network, , Asda Mobile...

, for example the Merry Hill store which opened on 1 July 1986 but was converted into a Gateway in 1988 and since 1990 has traded as an Asda.

As of July 14, 2011, a range of Carrefour's products are sold in the UK via Ocado
Ocado
Ocado is a British Internet retailer specialising in groceries, headquartered in Hatfield, Hertfordshire, England. The limited company was founded in January 2002 by Jonathan Faiman, Jason Gissing and Tim Steiner, former Goldman Sachs merchant bankers....

.

Previous Operations

In 2006, Carrefour decided to sell all 16 stores in Korea to E-Land and exited their business in Korea. In 2010, Carrefour decided to leave Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. However, in November 2010, Carrefour decided to sell its Thailand operations, but the Malaysian and Singaporean operation, will retain.
Country First store Hypermarkets Supermarkets Hard Discounters Cash & Carry
India 2010 2 - - 1 2 - China 1995 184 - -
Indonesia 1998 84 15 -
Bahrain 2008 1 - -
Japan 2000 7 - -
Jordan 2007 1 3 -
Kuwait 2007 2 - -
Malaysia 1994 22 5 -
Oman 2000 2 - -
Pakistan 2009 2 - -
Iran 2009 2 - -
Qatar 2000 3 - -
Saudi Arabia 2004 11 - -
Singapore 1997 2 - -
Syria 2009 1 - -
Taiwan 1989 64 - -
United Arab Emirates 1995 11 2 -

Africa

Country First store Hypermarkets Supermarkets Hard Discounters
Egypt 2002 4 5
Morocco 2009 3 2
Tunisia 2001 1 2
Algeria 2005 Closed -


Carrefour has left Algeria in 2009, and opened in Morocco.

Europe

Country First store Hypermarkets Supermarkets Hard Discounters Convenience Stores Cash & Carry
Albania 2011 1 - - -
Azerbaijan 2010 3 3 - -
Belgium 2000 56 280 - 257
Bulgaria 2009 5 1 - -
Cyprus 2006 7 8 - -
France 1960 218 1,021 897 3,245 134
Greece 1991 28 210 397 216
Ireland 1972 35 210 398 73 4
Italy 1993 59 485 - 1,015 20
Monaco - - 1 - -
Poland 1997 72 277 - 5
Portugal 1991 - - 365 -
Romania 2001 24 39 - -
Spain 1973 161 87 2,912 3
Slovakia 1998 15 12 6 1,95 2
Slovenia 1998 15 12 6 1,98 2
Turkey 1993 19 99 519 -
United Kingdom 1972 38 10 400 90 4

On October 15, 2009, Carrefour announced plans to sell its Russian business, citing "absence of sufficient organic growth and acquisition opportunities".

Americas

  • Carrefour has a presence in 4 countries in the Americas: Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, and the Dominican Republic. Carrefour is active in 3 types of retail distribution: hypermarkets, supermarkets and hard discounters, and entered the Cash & Carry
    Cash and carry (wholesale)
    Cash and carry wholesale represents a type of operation within the wholesale sector. Its main features are summarized best by the following definitions:...

     market in Brazil, after the purchase of Atacadão. Carrefour was also active in Mexico between 1995 and 2005, when the 29 hypermarkets opened at the moment were sold to Chedraui
    Chedraui
    Chedraui is a publicly traded Mexican grocery store and department store chain. It is traded on the Mexican Stock Exchange under the symbol CHEDRAUI.-History:...

    .

Country First store Hypermarkets Supermarkets Hard Discounters Convenience Stores Cash & Carry
Argentina 1982 59 103 395 - -
Brazil 1975 150 38 300 5 34
Colombia 1998 70 - - 12 3
Dominican Republic 2000 5 10 - 20 85

Store brands

Hypermarkets:
Carrefour, Atacadão
Atacadão
Atacadão is a Brazilian wholesale hypermarket. It was established by Alcides Parizotto and age of property of the family Lima and to the executives Farid Curi and Herberto Uli Schmeil, when it was bought in 2007 for the Carrefour for R$ 2,2 billion Reals. In 2010, the chain opened its first store...

, Hyperstar.

Supermarkets:
Carrefour Bairro, Carrefour Express, Carrefour Market (Formerly Champion
Champion (supermarket)
Champion is a supermarket chain that operates in France and is owned by the international retailer Carrefour. The second largest supermarket chain in France, its annual turnover is €12.2bn. There are over 1,000 stores and 60,000 employees. There are also Champion supermarkets in Belgium, Spain,...

 as of 2008), Champion Mapinomovaoe
Champion (supermarket)
Champion is a supermarket chain that operates in France and is owned by the international retailer Carrefour. The second largest supermarket chain in France, its annual turnover is €12.2bn. There are over 1,000 stores and 60,000 employees. There are also Champion supermarkets in Belgium, Spain,...

, Globi
Globi
Globi is a Swiss cartoon character often referred to as Switzerland's Mickey Mouse. He is pictured as an anthropomorphic blue parrot with a yellow beak wearing a black beret and a pair of red and black checked trousers. He was created by the Swiss cartoonist Robert Lips, as an advertising character...

, GB
GB Supermarkets
GB Supermarkets is a Belgian corporation and chain of supermarkets, which now belongs to Carrefour SA. It was founded in 1958 with the opening of a Super GB. It also runs smaller convenience store sized locations called GB Express...

, GS
GS
-Places:* South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands ** .gs, an Internet country code top-level domain-Science:* g-force , multiples of the acceleration due to gravity* Guanosine synthetase-Technologies:* Glideslope* Ground Speed...

, Carrefour mini, Gima.

Hard discount stores:
Dia
Dia (supermarket chain)
Día is the trading name of Distribuidora Internacional de Alimentación, S.A., a Spanish international hard-discount supermarket chain which since 2000 is part of the Carrefour Group but since 13 May 2011 has begun a legal process of separation as a listed company on the Madrid stockmarket...

, Ed
Ed (supermarket)
Ed is a French brand of discount stores founded in 1978. It franchises its name to small-format hard discounts stores in France. It is part of the Carrefour Group.-Key dates:* 1978 : First store opens in Paris.* 1987-1988 : Opening of 100th store...

, Minipreço.

Convenience stores:
Carrefour City, 5 minutes, 8 à Huit, Marche Plus
Marché Plus
Marché Plus is a French supermarket chain. It franchises its name to small-format grocery stores in France. It is a part of the Carrefour Group. The head office is in Levallois Perret.-External links:* * Galinier, Pascal. . Le Monde. 30 August 1998....

, Proxi (supermarket), Sherpa, Dìperdì, Smile Market, Ok!
OK!
OK! is a British weekly magazine specializing in celebrity news. Originally launched as a monthly, its first issue was published in April 1993. In September 2004, OK! publishers Northern and Shell launched in Australia as a monthly title – the magazine went weekly in October 2006...

, Express
Express
-Communication:* Express , a series of Russian communications satellites* Express mail, a postal delivery service* Express , a free daily in Washington, D.C., U.S.* Daily Express, a British newspaper...

, Shopi (supermarket).

Cash & Carry:
Carrefour Contact, Promocash, Docks Market, Gross IPer.

Criticism and controversies

On May 1, 2007, more than 30 employees of the now closed Carrefour Ratu Plaza, Jakarta
Jakarta
Jakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Officially known as the Special Capital Territory of Jakarta, it is located on the northwest coast of Java, has an area of , and a population of 9,580,000. Jakarta is the country's economic, cultural and political centre...

, Indonesia, were taken to the Central Pertamina Hospital (Rumah Sakit Pusat Pertamina), after being poisoned by CO2. The hypermarket was located on the mall's basement, which offered insufficient ventilation.

On June 26, 2007 the company was convicted in a French court for false advertising. The suit alleged that Carrefour regularly stocked insufficient quantities of advertised products for sale. In addition, the company was convicted of selling products below cost and accepting kickbacks from wholesalers. Carrefour was ordered to pay a fine of €2 million and to prominently and legibly display a notice in all of its French stores disclosing the false advertising.

In Carrefour Mangga Dua Square, Jakarta
Jakarta
Jakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Officially known as the Special Capital Territory of Jakarta, it is located on the northwest coast of Java, has an area of , and a population of 9,580,000. Jakarta is the country's economic, cultural and political centre...

, Indonesia, a 5-metre high metal rack fell on top of a 3-year old boy, killing him almost instantly due to internal bleeding. Afterwards, the victim's family claimed that Carrefour has refused to meet with them to settle the case. However, Carrefour Corporate Affairs Officer denied this allegation

Carrefour has also received criticism for engaging in sweatshop
Sweatshop
Sweatshop is a negatively connoted term for any working environment considered to be unacceptably difficult or dangerous. Sweatshop workers often work long hours for very low pay, regardless of laws mandating overtime pay or a minimum wage. Child labour laws may be violated. Sweatshops may have...

 practices.

On May 7, 2009, the French government asked a tribunal to fine Carrefour some €220,000 for more than 2,500 violations. Meat products lacked proper tracking information (more than 25% of inventory at some locations), and some products had incorrect labels – such as meat products that "shrank" in weight by 15% after receiving labels. The chain sold products that had long since passed their expiration dates, including, in one case, packs of baby formula that had expired six months earlier. Some 1,625 frozen and refrigerated products were found that had been stored in warehouses at ambient temperature.

Boycott of supplies in China

In April 2008, after the 2008 Olympic torch relay
2008 Summer Olympics torch relay
The 2008 Summer Olympics torch relay was run from March 24 until August 8, 2008, prior to the 2008 Summer Olympics, with the theme of "one world, one dream". Plans for the relay were announced on April 26, 2007, in Beijing, China...

 was disrupted by Tibetan independence advocates in London and especially Paris, where some protesters attempted to wrest control of the torch from torch bearers, Chinese activists have promoted boycotting Carrefour because of its French roots. The boycott of Carrefour in particular was further fueled by unsubstantiated rumours that a major shareholder, Moët Hennessy – Louis Vuitton
LVMH
LVMH Moët Hennessy • Louis Vuitton S.A., better known as LVMH, is a French multinational luxury goods conglomerate headquartered in Paris, Île-de-France, France. The company was formed after the 1987 merger of fashion house Louis Vuitton with Moët Hennessy, a company formed after the 1971 merger...

, had donated to the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
The Dalai Lama is a high lama in the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" branch of Tibetan Buddhism. The name is a combination of the Mongolian word далай meaning "Ocean" and the Tibetan word bla-ma meaning "teacher"...

. In its response, Carrefour China stated that it does support the Beijing Olympics; and that they will never do anything to harm the feelings of Chinese people. Protests occurred in and around a number of Carrefour outlets throughout China, and anti-Carrefour advocates campaigned for a one-day boycott of Carrefour on May Day, a public holiday in China.

As a result of the boycott, Chinese search engines Baidu.com.cn and sina.com blocked access to Carrefour's website in China for a short time. Users searching Carrefour in China, were sent an error page indicating "The search result may contain illegal content, so we can not display the result." in Chinese.

Former countries

  • Chile ― In 2004, Carrefour sold its 8 hypermarkets in Chile to D&S
    Distribución y Servicio
    Distribución y Servicio is a Chilean company that operates several businesses, including Líder hypermarkets and Ekono supermarkets. Since 2009 the main controller is Wal-mart and the founder family Ibañez.-External links:***...

    ;
  • Czech Republic – In September 2005, Carrefour sold to Tesco (the biggest UK retailer) 11 stores in the Czech Republic. Tesco
    Tesco
    Tesco plc is a global grocery and general merchandise retailer headquartered in Cheshunt, United Kingdom. It is the third-largest retailer in the world measured by revenues and the second-largest measured by profits...

     paid €57.4 million as well as its stores in Taiwan. Carrefour had opened its first store in 1998 in the Czech Republic. The stores use the Tesco name and brand now;
  • Hong Kong – On September 18, 2000, Carrefour closed its stores in Hong Kong after complaints from manufacturers about selling products (especially electronics) at prices far below those of its competitors. A company spokesman said at that time that the closures were due to "difficulties in finding sites suitable for developing its hypermarket concept and quickly acquiring a significant market share". Carrefour had entered the Hong Kong market in December 1996 with a store in Heng Fa Chuen and had later added stores in Tsuen Wan
    Tsuen Wan
    Tsuen Wan is a bay in the Kowloon area of Hong Kong, opposite to Tsing Yi Island across Rambler Channel. The market town of Tsuen Wan emerged for the surrounding villages and fleets of fishing boats in the area. The town is around the present-day Tsuen Wan Station of the MTR...

    , Tuen Mun
    Tuen Mun
    Tuen Mun is a town near the mouth of Tuen Mun River and Castle Peak Bay in the New Territories, Hong Kong. It was one of the earliest settlements in Hong Kong which can be dated back to the Neolithic period. In the more recent past, it was home to many Tanka fishermen who gathered at the Castle...

     and Yuen Long
    Yuen Long
    Yuen Long , formerly Un Long, is an area and town located in the northwest of Hong Kong, on the Yuen Long Plain. To its west lie Hung Shui Kiu and Ha Tsuen, to the south Shap Pat Heung and Tai Tong, to the east Au Tau and Kam Tin, and to the north Nam Sang Wai.-Name:The Cantonese name Yuen Long 元朗...

    . Plans to open additional stores in Ma On Shan
    Ma On Shan (area)
    Ma On Shan is a new town along the eastern coast of Tolo Harbour in the New Territories of Hong Kong. Although it was initially an extension of Sha Tin New Town, it has been designed to have its own town centre and is now classified as a separate new town in government reports...

     and Tseung Kwan O
    Tseung Kwan O
    Tseung Kwan O is a bay in Sai Kung District, New Territories, Hong Kong. In the northern tip of the bay lies the Tseung Kwan O Village....

     had been cancelled.
  • Japan – In 2005, Carrefour sold its 8 hypermarkets to AEON Group
    AEON Group
    is a group of retail and financial services companies based in Chiba, Japan, which is centered on Æon Co., Ltd. It has sister companies in Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Malaysia, and also trades under the JUSCO name. It claims to be Japan's largest retail group in terms of sales...

    ;
  • Mexico – In March 2005, Carrefour sold its 29 hypermarkets in Mexico to Chedraui
    Chedraui
    Chedraui is a publicly traded Mexican grocery store and department store chain. It is traded on the Mexican Stock Exchange under the symbol CHEDRAUI.-History:...

    . Carrefour had opened its first store in 1995 in Mexico, However, there were rumors he returned Mexico trough Comercial Mexicana
    Comercial Mexicana
    Comercial Mexicana is a Mexican hypermarket group, which features stores similar to those owned by Carrefour in France or Wal-Mart in the United States...

     stores;
  • Portugal – Carrefour entered Portugal by buying its first stores in 1991 – two Euromaché hypermarkets, in Telheiras (a Lisbon
    Lisbon
    Lisbon is the capital city and largest city of Portugal with a population of 545,245 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Lisbon extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of 3 million on an area of , making it the 9th most populous urban...

     neighbourhood) and Vila Nova de Gaia (suburbs of Porto
    Porto
    Porto , also known as Oporto in English, is the second largest city in Portugal and one of the major urban areas in the Iberian Peninsula. Its administrative limits include a population of 237,559 inhabitants distributed within 15 civil parishes...

    ); This chain was known to have very good quality products, mainly from French origin, when in July 2007 Carrefour sold all of its 12 hypermarkets and 9 fuel stations to Sonae
    Sonae
    Sonae is a conglomerate, and is the largest private employer in Portugal. The company is primarily engaged in the operation of retail stores through its subsidiary Modelo Continente....

     for €662 million. Also included were 11 licenses for opening new commercial spaces. Nowadays only the 365 hard-discount supermarkets (Minipreço) are supported by Carrefour in this country, not included in the takeover.
  • Russia – Carrefour entered Russian market in Summer of 2009. In October 2009, only a month after it opened its second hypermarket in the country, Carrefour announced it was exiting Russia.
  • South Korea – In 2006, Carrefour sold its 32 hypermarkets to E-Land
    E-Land
    E.Land Group is a South Korean conglomerate headquartered in Chanjeon-dong Mapo-gu Seoul, Korea. It started as a 6 sqm small clothing shop on a fashion street in front of Ewha University in Sinchon in 1980. E.Land Group become a USD 7 billion group of companies, creating the phrase "Myth of 6 sqm "...

    . The stores have been re-branded as Homever
    Homever
    Homever is a brand name of a hypermarket of E.Land Retail Limited, which is part of the E.Land Group.E.Land Group, the largest operators specializing in fashion and retail business, production and retail corporations in Korea acquired Korean operations of Carrefour in September 2006 to expand the...

    .
  • Switzerland – In August 2007 Carrefour sold its 12 hypermarkets in Switzerland to Swiss retailer Coop
    Coop (Switzerland)
    Coop is a Swiss cooperative which operates the largest in supermarket chain in Switzerland. In 2001, Coop merged with 11 cooperative federations which had been its main suppliers for over 100 years....

     for $390 million;
  • Thailand - Carrefour's business in Thailand was sold to Big C Supercenter Public Company Limited, the owner of Big C hypermarket stores in Thailand. The transaction is completed in March 2011, with the Suwintawong branch being the first changed brand store from Carrefour to Big C. Carrefour entered the Thai market in 1996.
  • United Kingdom – Carrefour had several hypermarkets in the UK until the end of the 1980s. The first of these was opened in the early 1970s in Caerphilly
    Caerphilly
    Caerphilly is a town in the county borough of Caerphilly, south Wales, located at the southern end of the Rhymney Valley, with a population of approximately 31,000. It is a commuter town of Cardiff and Newport, which are located some 7.5 miles and 12 miles away, respectively...

    , South Wales
    South Wales
    South Wales is an area of Wales bordered by England and the Bristol Channel to the east and south, and Mid Wales and West Wales to the north and west. The most densely populated region in the south-west of the United Kingdom, it is home to around 2.1 million people and includes the capital city of...

    . Subsequent outlets were opened at Merry Hill
    Merry Hill
    Merry Hill may refer to:*Merry Hill, Wolverhampton, a suburb of Wolverhampton, West Midlands*Merry Hill Shopping Centre, near Brierley Hill, West Midlands*Merry Hill, North Carolina, a town of Bertie County...

    , Dudley
    Dudley
    Dudley is a large town in the West Midlands county of England. At the 2001 census , the Dudley Urban Sub Area had a population of 194,919, making it the 26th largest settlement in England, the second largest town in the United Kingdom behind Reading, and the largest settlement in the UK without...

    ; Sutton Coldfield
    Sutton Coldfield
    Sutton Coldfield is a suburb of Birmingham, in the West Midlands of England. Sutton is located about from central Birmingham but has borders with Erdington and Kingstanding. Sutton is in the northeast of Birmingham, with a population of 105,000 recorded in the 2001 census...

    , Birmingham; Glasshoughton
    Glasshoughton
    Glasshoughton is an area of Castleford in West Yorkshire, England, that borders on Pontefract. It is home to the Xscape indoor ski slope and leisure centre, the Junction 32 Outlet Shopping Village, a DIY superstore, a hotel, a pub and a number of fast food restaurants, which were built on the site...

     (near Castleford
    Castleford
    Castleford is the largest of the "five towns" district in the metropolitan borough of the City of Wakefield, in West Yorkshire, England. It is near Pontefract, and has a population of 37,525 according to the 2001 Census, but has seen a rise in recent years and is now around 45-50,000. To the north...

    ); Eastleigh
    Eastleigh
    Eastleigh is a railway town in Hampshire, England, and the main town in the Eastleigh borough which is part of Southampton Urban Area. The town lies between Southampton and Winchester, and is part of the South Hampshire conurbation...

    , Hampshire; MetroCentre (Gateshead
    Gateshead
    Gateshead is a town in Tyne and Wear, England and is the main settlement in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead. Historically a part of County Durham, it lies on the southern bank of the River Tyne opposite Newcastle upon Tyne and together they form the urban core of Tyneside...

    ); Telford Shopping Centre
    Telford Shopping Centre
    Telford Shopping Centre is a indoor super-regional shopping centre in Telford, Shropshire, England. It is located in the geographical and economic centre of the new town, on land which was previously undeveloped. It is the largest shopping area in the ceremonial county of Shropshire, being located...

    , Shropshire; Boroughbridge
    Boroughbridge
    Boroughbridge is a small town and civil parish in the Harrogate district of North Yorkshire, England. It is situated northwest of York. Until its bypass was built, it was on the main A1 road from London to Edinburgh...

    , North Yorkshire; Swindon
    Swindon
    Swindon is a large town within the borough of Swindon and ceremonial county of Wiltshire, in South West England. It is midway between Bristol, west and Reading, east. London is east...

     and Cribbs Causeway
    Cribbs Causeway
    Cribbs Causeway is a road in South Gloucestershire, England, just north of Bristol, which has given its name to a large out-of-town shopping centre, including retail parks and an enclosed shopping centre known as The Mall...

     in Bristol
    Bristol
    Bristol is a city, unitary authority area and ceremonial county in South West England, with an estimated population of 433,100 for the unitary authority in 2009, and a surrounding Larger Urban Zone with an estimated 1,070,000 residents in 2007...

    . All stores were later acquired by the Dee Corporation, but continued to trade as Carrefour for some time before being converted to Gateway Superstores. Today many of the old Carrefour stores in the UK are branches of Asda
    Asda
    Asda Stores Ltd is a British supermarket chain which retails food, clothing, general merchandise, toys and financial services. It also has a mobile telephone network, , Asda Mobile...

    , notably the branch at the Merry Hill
    Merry Hill Shopping Centre
    Westfield Merry Hill is a shopping centre in Brierley Hill near Dudley, West Midlands, England. It was developed between 1985 and 1990, with several expansion and renovation projects taking place since. The original developers and owners were Richardson Developments but the Centre has had a number...

     store in the West Midlands
    West Midlands (county)
    The West Midlands is a metropolitan county in western central England with a 2009 estimated population of 2,638,700. It came into existence as a metropolitan county in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972, formed from parts of Staffordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire. The...

    ; it had opened in July 1986 as one of the complex's first tenants, only to become a Gateway when Carrefour pulled out of Britain in 1988; it became an Asda in 1990 when Gateway withdrew from Merry Hill. In 2011, they returned to the UK market via a supply deal with Ocado
    Ocado
    Ocado is a British Internet retailer specialising in groceries, headquartered in Hatfield, Hertfordshire, England. The limited company was founded in January 2002 by Jonathan Faiman, Jason Gissing and Tim Steiner, former Goldman Sachs merchant bankers....

    .
  • United States – Carrefour opened hypermarkets in Philadelphia and Voorhees Township, New Jersey
    Voorhees Township, New Jersey
    -Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 28,126 people, 10,489 households, and 7,069 families residing in the township. The population density was 2,424.0 people per square mile . There were 11,084 housing units at an average density of 955.2 per square mile...

    , in 1988 and 1992 respectively. Both stores closed in 1994. Some associates wore roller skates
    Roller skates
    Roller skates are devices worn on the feet to enable the wearer to roll along on wheels. A first basic type of roller skate consists of a boot with four wheels with ball bearings, arranged in the same configuration as the wheels of a typical car.-History:...

     to facilitate moving about the large building. The Voorhees location now houses a Kohl's
    Kohl's
    Kohl's Corporation is an American department store chain headquartered in the Milwaukee suburb of Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin, operating , 1,089 stores in 49 states. In 1998, it entered the S&P 500 list, and is also listed in the Fortune 500...

     department store, a Raymour & Flanigan
    Raymour & Flanigan
    Raymour & Flanigan is an American furniture retail chain, based in the Northeastern United States.-Overview:Raymour’s Furniture Company, the predecessor of Raymour & Flanigan Furniture, was established by brothers, Bernard Goldberg and Arnold Goldberg in 1946. Raymour & Flanigan Furniture is one...

     furniture store, and a Marshalls
    Marshalls
    Marshalls, Inc., is a chain of American department stores owned by TJX Companies. Marshalls has over 750 conventional stores, as well as larger stores named Marshalls Mega Store, covering 42 states and Puerto Rico. Marshalls expanded into Canada in March 2011...

     discount clothing store. The Philadelphia location (within the Franklin Mills Mall complex
    Franklin Mills
    Franklin Mills is an enclosed shopping mall located in northeast Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, bordering Bensalem in Bucks County and outside Center City...

    ) houses a few stores, including a Walmart, which will close and move to the main Franklin Mills complex later in 2011, and Dick's Sporting Goods
    Dick's Sporting Goods
    Dick's Sporting Goods, Inc. , or Dick's, is a Fortune 500 American corporation in the sporting goods and retail industries.The company's headquarters are on the grounds of Pittsburgh International Airport in Findlay Township near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Dick's has 451 stores in 42 states as of...

    .

See also

  • Companies of France
  • European Retail Round Table
    European Retail Round Table
    The European Retail Round Table is a European organisation which represents companies from the European retail sector. Together the members employ about 2.3 million people and have a turnover of €400 billion.The organisation is based in Brussels, Belgium....

  • List of French companies
  • Carrefour Marinopoulos
    Carrefour Marinopoulos
    Carrefour Marinopoulos is a Greek retailer. It was formed in 1999 as a 50-50 joint venture between the Greek Marinopoulos Group and the French Carrefour Group. It is the biggest retail chain in Greece in terms of both turnover and number of stores. As of 2008, the company operates over 300 stores...



External links

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