Carlos P. Garcia
Overview
 
Carlos Polistico García (November 4, 1896 – June 14, 1971) was a Filipino
Filipino people
The Filipino people or Filipinos are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the islands of the Philippines. There are about 92 million Filipinos in the Philippines, and about 11 million living outside the Philippines ....

 teacher, poet, orator, lawyer, public official, political economist and guerrilla leader. He became the eighth President of the Philippines
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

 known for his "Filipino First" policy, which put the interests of the Filipino people above those of foreigners and of the ruling party.
García was born in Talibon, Bohol
Talibon, Bohol
Talibon is a 1st class municipality in the province of Bohol, Philippines. It lies on the northwestern coast of Bohol, 114.8 kilometers from Tagbilaran City. It has a land area of 177.04 square kilometers...

 to Policronio García and Ambrosia Polestico (who were both natives of Bangued
Bangued, Abra
Bangued is a first class municipality in the province of Abra in the Cordillera Administrative Region of the Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 46,179 in 8,071 households.-History:...

, Abra
Abra province
Abra is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is Bangued, and it borders Ilocos Norte and Apayao on the north, Ilocos Sur and Mountain Province on the south, Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur on the west, and Kalinga, and Apayao on the...

).

García grew up with politics, with his father serving as a municipal mayor for four terms. He acquired his primary education in his native Talibon, then took his secondary education in Cebu Provincial High School.
Encyclopedia
Carlos Polistico García (November 4, 1896 – June 14, 1971) was a Filipino
Filipino people
The Filipino people or Filipinos are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the islands of the Philippines. There are about 92 million Filipinos in the Philippines, and about 11 million living outside the Philippines ....

 teacher, poet, orator, lawyer, public official, political economist and guerrilla leader. He became the eighth President of the Philippines
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

 known for his "Filipino First" policy, which put the interests of the Filipino people above those of foreigners and of the ruling party.

Early life and career

García was born in Talibon, Bohol
Talibon, Bohol
Talibon is a 1st class municipality in the province of Bohol, Philippines. It lies on the northwestern coast of Bohol, 114.8 kilometers from Tagbilaran City. It has a land area of 177.04 square kilometers...

 to Policronio García and Ambrosia Polestico (who were both natives of Bangued
Bangued, Abra
Bangued is a first class municipality in the province of Abra in the Cordillera Administrative Region of the Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 46,179 in 8,071 households.-History:...

, Abra
Abra province
Abra is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is Bangued, and it borders Ilocos Norte and Apayao on the north, Ilocos Sur and Mountain Province on the south, Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur on the west, and Kalinga, and Apayao on the...

).

García grew up with politics, with his father serving as a municipal mayor for four terms. He acquired his primary education in his native Talibon, then took his secondary education in Cebu Provincial High School. Initially, he pursued his college education at Silliman University
Silliman University
Silliman University is a private research university located in Dumaguete, Philippines. Established in 1901 as Silliman Institute by the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, it was the first American private school to be founded in the country. The University is named after Dr...

 in Dumaguete City
Dumaguete City
The City of Dumaguete is a city in the Philippine province of Negros Oriental. It is the capital, principal seaport, and largest city of the province. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 133,470 people. A person from Dumaguete is called a "Dumagueteño"...

, Negros Oriental
Negros Oriental
Negros Oriental is a province of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas region. It occupies the south-eastern half of the island of Negros, with Negros Occidental comprising the north-western half. It also includes Apo Island — a popular dive site for both local and foreign tourists...

, and later studied at the Philippine Law School (now Philippine College of Criminology
Philippine College of Criminology
The Philippine College of Criminology is a college school located in the City of Manila, Metro Manila, Philippines.It was established in 1954 and currently led by Prof. Ma...

) where he earned his law degree in 1923. He was among the top ten in the bar examination.

Rather than practice law right away, he worked as a teacher for two years at Bohol Provincial High School. He became famous for his poetry in Bohol, where he earned the nickname "Prince of Visayan
Visayan languages
The Visayan languages of the Philippines, along with Tagalog and Bikol, are part of the Central Philippine languages...

 Poets" and the "Bard from Bohol".

He started his political career in 1925, scoring an impressive victory running for congressman representing the third district of Bohol
Bohol
Bohol is an island province of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas region, consisting of Bohol Island and 75 minor surrounding islands. Its capital is Tagbilaran City. With a land area of and a coastline long, Bohol is the tenth largest island of the Philippines...

. He was elected for another term in 1928 and served until 1931. He was elected governor of Bohol in 1933 but served only until 1941 when he successfully ran for the Philippine Senate
Senate of the Philippines
The Senate of the Philippines is the upper chamber of the bicameral legislature of the Philippines, the Congress of the Philippines...

 but his term cut short during World War II. He took the post when Congress convened in 1945 after the Philippines was liberated from the Japanese.

Vice-Presidency

See Also: Presidency of Ramon Magsaysay

García was the running mate of Ramón Magsaysay
Ramon Magsaysay
Ramón del Fierro Magsaysay was the third President of the Republic of the Philippines from December 30, 1953 until his death in a plane crash in 1957. He was elected President under the banner of the Nacionalista Party.-Early life:Ramon F...

 in the presidential election of 1953. He was appointed Secretary of Foreign Affairs by President Ramón Magsaysay
Ramon Magsaysay
Ramón del Fierro Magsaysay was the third President of the Republic of the Philippines from December 30, 1953 until his death in a plane crash in 1957. He was elected President under the banner of the Nacionalista Party.-Early life:Ramon F...

, for four years concurrently serving as vice-president.

As secretary of foreign affairs, he opened formal reparation negotiations in an effort to end the nine-year technical state of war between Japan and the Philippines, leading to an agreement in April 1954. During the Geneva Conference on Korean unification and other Asian problems, García as chairman of the Philippine delegation attacked communist promises in Asia and defended the U.S. policy in the Far East. In a speech on May 7, 1954, the day of the fall of Dien Bien Phu, García repeated the Philippine stand for nationalism and opposition of communism.

García acted as chairman of the eight-nation Southeast Asian Security Conference held in Manila in September 1954, which led to the development of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization was an international organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact, signed in September 1954 in Manila, Philippines. The formal institution of SEATO was established on 19 February...

, known as SEATO.

Accession

At the time of the sudden death of President Ramon Magsaysay
Ramon Magsaysay
Ramón del Fierro Magsaysay was the third President of the Republic of the Philippines from December 30, 1953 until his death in a plane crash in 1957. He was elected President under the banner of the Nacionalista Party.-Early life:Ramon F...

, Vice-President and Foreign Affairs Secretary Carlos P. Garcia was heading the Philippine delegation to the SEATO conference then being held at Canberra
Canberra
Canberra is the capital city of Australia. With a population of over 345,000, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall. The city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory , south-west of Sydney, and north-east of Melbourne...

, Australia. Having been immediately notified of the tragedy, Vice-President Garcia enplaned back for Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

. Upon his arrival he directly repaired to Malacañang Palace
Malacañang Palace
The Malacañan Palace, commonly known simply as Malacañang, is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the Philippines. Located at 1000 J. P. Laurel Street, San Miguel, Manila, the house was built in 1750 in Spanish Colonial style. It has been the residence of every...

 to assume the duties of President. Chief Justice Ricardo Paras
Ricardo Paras
Ricardo Paras was the Chief Justice of the Philippines from April 2, 1951 until February 17, 1961.-Career:...

, of the Supreme Court, was at hand to administer the oath of office. President Garcia's first actuations dealt with the declaration of a period of mourning for the whole nation and the burial ceremonies for the late Chief-Executive Magsaysay.

Outlawing Communism

After much discussion, both official and public, the Congress of the Philippines
Congress of the Philippines
The Congress of the Philippines is the national legislature of the Republic of the Philippines. It is a bicameral body consisting of the Senate , and the House of Representatives although commonly in the Philippines the term congress refers to the latter.The Senate is composed of 24 senators half...

, finally, approved a bill outlawing the Communist Party of the Philippines
Communist Party of the Philippines
The Communist Party of the Philippines is a leading communist party in the Philippines. It remains an underground political organization since its founding on December 26, 1968 and has been operating in clandestine manner since its founding...

. Despite the pressure exerted against the congressional measure, President Carlos P. Garcia signed the said bill into law as Republic Act No. 1700 on June 19, 1957. With this legislative piece, the sustained government campaign for peace and order achieved considerable progress and success.

Republic Act No. 1700 was superseded by Presidential Decree No. 885, entitled "Outlawing Subversive Organization, Penalizing Membership Therein and For Other Purposes." In turn, Presidential Decree 885 was amended by Presidential Decree No. 1736, and later superseded by Presidential Decree No. 1835, entitled, "Codifying The Various Laws on Anti-Subversion and Increasing the Penalties for Membership in Subversive Organization." This, in turn, was amended by Presidential Decree No. 1975. On May 5, 1987, Executive Order No. 167 repealed Presidential Decrees Nos. 1835 and 1975 as being unduly restrictive of the constitutional right to form associations.

On September 22, 1992, Republic Act No. 1700, as amended, was repealed by Republic Act No. 7636.

Filipino First Policy

President García exercised the Filipino First Policy, for which he was known. This policy heavily favored Filipino businessmen over foreign investors. He was also responsible for changes in retail trade which greatly affected the Chinese businessmen in the country. In a speech during a joint session of the Senate and the House of Representatives on September 18, 1946, President Garcia said the following:

Austerity Program

In the face of the trying conditions of the country, President Garcia initiated what has been called "The Austerity Program". García's administration was characterized by its austerity program and its insistence on a comprehensive nationalist policy. On March 3, 1960, he affirmed the need for complete economic freedom and added that the government no longer would tolerate the dominance of foreign interests (especially American) in the national economy. He promised to shake off "the yoke of alien domination in business, trade, commerce and industry." García was also credited with his role in reviving Filipino cultural arts. The main points of the Austerity Program were:
  1. The government would tighten up its controls to prevent abuses in the over shipment of exports under license and in under-pricing as well.
  2. There would be a more rigid enforcement of the existing regulations on barter shipments.
  3. Government imports themselves were to be restricted to essential items.
  4. The government also would reduce rice imports to a minimum.
  5. An overhauling of the local transportation system would be attempted so as to reduce the importation of gasoline and spare parts.
  6. The tax system would be revised so as to attain more equitable distribution of the payment-burden and achieve more effective collection from those with ability to pay.
  7. There would be an intensification of food production.


The program was hailed by the people at large and confidence was expressed that the measures proposed would help solve the standing problems of the Republic.

Bohlen–Serrano Agreement

During his administration, he acted on the Bohlen–Serrano Agreement which shortened the lease of the US Bases from 99 years to 25 years and made it renewable after every five years.

1961 Presidential Election

At the end of his second term, he ran for re–election in the Presidential elections in November 1961, but was defeated by Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Pangan Macapagal was the ninth President of the Philippines, serving from 1961 to 1965, and the sixth Vice President, serving from 1957 to 1961. He also served as a member of the House of Representatives, and headed the Constitutional Convention of 1970...

,Vice-President under him, but belonged to the opposing Liberal Party – in the Philippines the President and the Vice-President are elected separately.

Post-presidency and death

After his failed re–election bid, García retired to Tagbilaran
Tagbilaran City
Tagbilaran City is a 2nd class component city in the island province of Bohol, Philippines and serves as its capital. Tagbilaran lies on the southwestern part of the province, and has a total land area of 32.7 km², with about 13 km of coastline...

 to live as a private citizen. On June 1, 1971, García was elected delegate of the 1971 Constitutional Convention. The convention delegates elected him as the President of the Convention. However, just days after his election, on June 14, 1971, García died from a fatal heart attack. He was succeeded as president of the Convention by his former Vice-President, Diosdado Macapagal.

García became the first president to have his remains lie in-state at the Manila Cathedral
Manila Cathedral
Minor Basilica of the Immaculate Conception is also known as Minor Basilica of Our Lady of Immaculate Conception or Basilica Minore dela Inmaculada Concepcion or Basilica Minore dela Nuestra Señora de Inmaculada Concepcion A Roman Catholic church having a higher status of "Minor Basilica" with...

 and the first president to be buried at the Libingan ng mga Bayani
Libingan ng mga Bayani
is a national cemetery within Fort Bonifacio in Taguig City, Metro Manila in the Philippines. It was established as a fitting resting place for Filipino military personnel from privates to generals, as well as heroes and martyrs...

.
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK