Carlos Manuel Arana Osorio
Carlos Manuel Arana Osorio (17 July 1918 – 6 December 2003) was President of Guatemala
President of Guatemala
The title of President of Guatemala has been the usual title of the leader of Guatemala since 1839, when that title was assumed by Mariano Rivera Paz...

 from 1 July 1970 to 1 July 1974.

Carlos Arana was born in Barberena
Barberena is a municipality in Santa Rosa department of Guatemala. Filled with local vendors and stores selling American goods, Barberena is a small town typical of the Guatemalan countryside....

, in the department of Santa Rosa.
A colonel in the Army
Military of Guatemala
The Military of Guatemala consists of National Army of Guatemala , the Guatemalan Navy and the Guatemalan Air Force ....

, he was elected in an electoral process generally considered "non-transparent" on a platform promising a crackdown on law-and-order issues; his vice president was Eduardo Cáceres
Eduardo Cáceres
Eduardo Rafael Cáceres Lehnhoff served as Vice President of Guatemala from 1 July 1970 to 1 July 1974 in the cabinet of Carlos Arana.Died 31 January 1980 in the Burning of the Spanish Embassy in Guatemala-City-References:...

. The December following his election he declared a state of emergency
State of emergency
A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend some normal functions of the executive, legislative and judicial powers, alert citizens to change their normal behaviours, or order government agencies to implement emergency preparedness plans. It can also be used as a rationale...

 and conducted an effective anti-guerrilla campaign; however, this same campaign also entailed the harassment and persecution of his political opponents, student leaders, and trade unionists.

Carlos Arana was the first of the string of Institutional Democratic Party
Institutional Democratic Party
The Institutional Democratic Party was a Guatemalan pro-government political party active during the 1970s.The PID was formed in 1963 by Enrique Peralta Azurdia after he had seized power in a coup. A centre-right party, it was modelled on the Mexican Institutional Revolutionary Party. From the...

 military rulers who would dominate Guatemalan politics in the 1970s and 1980s (his predecessor, Julio César Méndez
Julio César Méndez Montenegro
Julio César Méndez Montenegro was the Revolutionary Party President of Guatemala from 1 July 1966 to 1 July 1970. The only civilian to occupy Guatemala's presidency during the long period of military rule between 1954 and 1986, Méndez was not allowed to act independently of the military and was...

, while dominated by the army, was nominally a civilian).
He also served as the ambassador to Nicaragua
Nicaragua is the largest country in the Central American American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. The country is situated between 11 and 14 degrees north of the Equator in the Northern Hemisphere, which places it entirely within the tropics. The Pacific Ocean...


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