Carandiru Massacre
The Carandiru massacre took place on Friday, October 2, 1992 in Carandiru Penitentiary
Carandiru Penitentiary
Carandiru Penitentiary was a notorious prison located in São Paulo, Brazil. The prison was designed and built by Samuel das Neves in 1920, when it was considered a model-prison to meet the new demands of the 1890 criminal code. It was operational from 1956 to 2002 and, at its peak, was South...

 in São Paulo
São Paulo
São Paulo is the largest city in Brazil, the largest city in the southern hemisphere and South America, and the world's seventh largest city by population. The metropolis is anchor to the São Paulo metropolitan area, ranked as the second-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas and among...

, Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

, and is considered a major human rights
Human rights
Human rights are "commonly understood as inalienable fundamental rights to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being." Human rights are thus conceived as universal and egalitarian . These rights may exist as natural rights or as legal rights, in both national...

 violation in the history of Brazil
History of Brazil
The history of Brazil begins with the arrival of the first indigenous peoples, thousands of years ago by crossing the Bering land bridge into Alaska and then moving south....



The massacre
A massacre is an event with a heavy death toll.Massacre may also refer to:-Entertainment:*Massacre , a DC Comics villain*Massacre , a 1932 drama film starring Richard Barthelmess*Massacre, a 1956 Western starring Dane Clark...

 was triggered by a prisoner revolt within the prison. The police made little if any effort to negotiate with the prisoners before the Military Police of São Paulo State stormed the facility, as the prison riot
Prison riot
A prison riot is an act of concerted defiance or disorder by a group of prisoners against the prison administrators, prison officers, or other groups of prisoners in attempt to force change or express a grievance....

 became more difficult for prison guards to control. The resulting casualties were 111 prisoners killed: 102 from gunshots fired by the military police and nine from stab wounds apparently inflicted by other prisoners before the arrival of the police. None of the sixty eight police officers was killed. Survivors claimed that the police also fired at inmates who had already surrendered or were trying to hide in their cells.


The commanding officer of the operation, Colonel Ubiratan Guimarães
Ubiratan Guimarães
Ubiratan Guimarães, known as Colonel Ubiratan was a colonel in the São Paulo Military Police and Brazilian politician. He was the commanding officer responsible for the Carandiru massacre...

, was initially sentenced to 632 years in prison for his mishandling of the rebellion and subsequent massacre. On 16 February 2006 a Brazilian court voided Guimarães' conviction because of mistrial claims; the court accepted his argument that he was only following orders. Several human rights groups labeled the situation as a "step backward" and a contribution to the culture of impunity regarding police violence in Brazil. Guimarães, who was also a member of the São Paulo state legislature, was assassinated in September 2006.

The massacre led to consternation amongst other Brazilian inmates, some of whom formed a criminal organization called the Primeiro Comando da Capital
Primeiro Comando da Capital
Primeiro Comando da Capital, or PCC , is an anti-establishment Brazilian prison gang and criminal organization founded in 1993 by inmates of Taubaté prison in São Paulo...

 (First Command of the Capital) in 1993. This group is believed to be responsible for the death of José Ismael Pedrosa, director of the prison at the time.

The prison was demolished on December 9, 2002.

In popular culture

  • These events are documented in the book "Estação Carandiru" by Dr. Dráuzio Varella
    Drauzio Varella
    Drauzio Varella, MD, is a Brazilian physician, educator, scientist and noted medical science popularizer in the press and TV, as well as best-selling author...

     and inspired the 2003 movie Carandiru
    Carandiru (film)
    Carandiru is a 2003 Brazilian and Argentine film directed by Hector Babenco. It is based on the book Estação Carandiru by Dr. Drauzio Varella, a physician and AIDS specialist, who is portrayed in the film by Luiz Carlos Vasconcelos....

  • These events also were spoken about in the song "Manifest" on the Chaos A.D. album by Brazilian thrash metal
    Thrash metal
    Thrash metal is a subgenre of heavy metal that is characterized usually by its fast tempo and aggression. Songs of the genre typically use fast percussive and low-register guitar riffs, overlaid with shredding-style lead work...

     band Sepultura
    Sepultura is a Brazilian heavy metal band from Belo Horizonte, formed in 1984. The band was a major force in the death metal, thrash metal and ultimately groove metal realms during the late 1980s and early 1990s, with their later experiments melding nu metal, hardcore punk and industrial.Sepultura...

  • It inspired the song "Haiti" by Caetano Veloso
    Caetano Veloso
    Caetano Emanuel Viana Teles Veloso , better known as Caetano Veloso, is a Brazilian composer, singer, guitarist, writer, and political activist. Veloso first became known for his participation in the Brazilian musical movement Tropicalismo which encompassed theatre, poetry and music in the 1960s,...

     with Gilberto Gil
    Gilberto Gil
    Gilberto Passos Gil Moreira , better known as Gilberto Gil or , is a Brazilian singer, guitarist, and songwriter, known for both his musical innovation and political commitment...

    , protesting racial discrimination and social inequality, on their 1993 album "Tropicália 2."
  • It is also mentioned by the group Racionais in their songs "Diario de um Detento" and "Vida Loca III", and also in the song "19 Rebellions" by the British group Asian Dub Foundation
    Asian Dub Foundation
    Asian Dub Foundation are a British electronica band that plays a mix of rapcore, dub, dancehall and ragga, also using rock instruments, acknowledging a punk influence...


External links

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