Cape Colony
Overview
 
The Cape Colony, part of modern South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

, was established by the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
The Dutch East India Company was a chartered company established in 1602, when the States-General of the Netherlands granted it a 21-year monopoly to carry out colonial activities in Asia...

 in 1652, with the founding of Cape Town
Cape Town
Cape Town is the second-most populous city in South Africa, and the provincial capital and primate city of the Western Cape. As the seat of the National Parliament, it is also the legislative capital of the country. It forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality...

. It was subsequently occupied
Battle of Muizenberg
The Battle of Muizenberg was a small but significant military engagement which took place near Muizenberg, South Africa in 1795; it led to the capture of the Cape Colony by Kingdom of Great Britain.- Background :...

 by the British
Kingdom of Great Britain
The former Kingdom of Great Britain, sometimes described as the 'United Kingdom of Great Britain', That the Two Kingdoms of Scotland and England, shall upon the 1st May next ensuing the date hereof, and forever after, be United into One Kingdom by the Name of GREAT BRITAIN. was a sovereign...

 in 1795 when the Netherlands were occupied by revolutionary France
French Revolution
The French Revolution , sometimes distinguished as the 'Great French Revolution' , was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France and Europe. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years...

, so that the French revolutionaries could not take possession of the Cape with its important strategic location. An improving situation in the Netherlands (the Peace of Amiens) allowed the British to hand back the colony to the Batavian Republic
Batavian Republic
The Batavian Republic was the successor of the Republic of the United Netherlands. It was proclaimed on January 19, 1795, and ended on June 5, 1806, with the accession of Louis Bonaparte to the throne of the Kingdom of Holland....

 in 1803, but by 1806 resurgent French control in the Netherlands led to another British occupation to prevent Napoleon
Napoleon I of France
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader during the latter stages of the French Revolution.As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815...

 using the Cape.
Encyclopedia
The Cape Colony, part of modern South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

, was established by the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
The Dutch East India Company was a chartered company established in 1602, when the States-General of the Netherlands granted it a 21-year monopoly to carry out colonial activities in Asia...

 in 1652, with the founding of Cape Town
Cape Town
Cape Town is the second-most populous city in South Africa, and the provincial capital and primate city of the Western Cape. As the seat of the National Parliament, it is also the legislative capital of the country. It forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality...

. It was subsequently occupied
Battle of Muizenberg
The Battle of Muizenberg was a small but significant military engagement which took place near Muizenberg, South Africa in 1795; it led to the capture of the Cape Colony by Kingdom of Great Britain.- Background :...

 by the British
Kingdom of Great Britain
The former Kingdom of Great Britain, sometimes described as the 'United Kingdom of Great Britain', That the Two Kingdoms of Scotland and England, shall upon the 1st May next ensuing the date hereof, and forever after, be United into One Kingdom by the Name of GREAT BRITAIN. was a sovereign...

 in 1795 when the Netherlands were occupied by revolutionary France
French Revolution
The French Revolution , sometimes distinguished as the 'Great French Revolution' , was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France and Europe. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years...

, so that the French revolutionaries could not take possession of the Cape with its important strategic location. An improving situation in the Netherlands (the Peace of Amiens) allowed the British to hand back the colony to the Batavian Republic
Batavian Republic
The Batavian Republic was the successor of the Republic of the United Netherlands. It was proclaimed on January 19, 1795, and ended on June 5, 1806, with the accession of Louis Bonaparte to the throne of the Kingdom of Holland....

 in 1803, but by 1806 resurgent French control in the Netherlands led to another British occupation to prevent Napoleon
Napoleon I of France
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader during the latter stages of the French Revolution.As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815...

 using the Cape. The Cape Colony subsequently remained in the British Empire, becoming self-governing
Responsible government
Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy...

 in 1872, and united with three other colonies to form the Union of South Africa
Union of South Africa
The Union of South Africa is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa. It came into being on 31 May 1910 with the unification of the previously separate colonies of the Cape, Natal, Transvaal and the Orange Free State...

 in 1910, when it was renamed the Cape of Good Hope Province
Cape Province
The Province of the Cape of Good Hope was a province in the Union of South Africa and subsequently the Republic of South Africa...

. South Africa became fully independent in 1931 by the Statute of Westminster
Statute of Westminster 1931
The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Passed on 11 December 1931, the Act established legislative equality for the self-governing dominions of the British Empire with the United Kingdom...



The Cape Colony was coextensive with the later Cape Province
Cape Province
The Province of the Cape of Good Hope was a province in the Union of South Africa and subsequently the Republic of South Africa...

, stretching from the Atlantic coast
Atlantic Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions. With a total area of about , it covers approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and about 26% of its water surface area...

 inland and eastward along the southern coast, constituting about half of modern South Africa: the final eastern boundary, after several wars against the Xhosa, stood at the Fish River
Great Fish River
The Great Fish River is a river running through the South African province of the Eastern Cape, it originates east of Graaff-Reinet and runs through Cradock, just south of this the Tarka River joins it...

. In the north, the Orange River
Orange River
The Orange River , Gariep River, Groote River or Senqu River is the longest river in South Africa. It rises in the Drakensberg mountains in Lesotho, flowing westwards through South Africa to the Atlantic Ocean...

, also known as the Gariep River, served for a long time as the boundary, although some land between the river and the southern boundary of Botswana
Botswana
Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana , is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa. The citizens are referred to as "Batswana" . Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name after becoming independent within the Commonwealth on 30 September 1966...

 was later added to it.

History

Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
The Dutch East India Company was a chartered company established in 1602, when the States-General of the Netherlands granted it a 21-year monopoly to carry out colonial activities in Asia...

 (VOC) traders, under the command of Jan van Riebeeck
Jan van Riebeeck
Johan Anthoniszoon "Jan" van Riebeeck was a Dutch colonial administrator and founder of Cape Town.-Biography:...

, were the first people to establish a European colony in South Africa. The Cape settlement was built by them in 1652 as a re-supply point and way-station for Dutch East India Company vessels on their way back and forth between the Netherlands and Batavia
Jakarta
Jakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Officially known as the Special Capital Territory of Jakarta, it is located on the northwest coast of Java, has an area of , and a population of 9,580,000. Jakarta is the country's economic, cultural and political centre...

 (Jakarta) in the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
The Dutch East Indies was a Dutch colony that became modern Indonesia following World War II. It was formed from the nationalised colonies of the Dutch East India Company, which came under the administration of the Netherlands government in 1800....

. The support station gradually became a settler community, the forebears of the Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Afrikaners are an ethnic group in Southern Africa descended from almost equal numbers of Dutch, French and German settlers whose native tongue is Afrikaans: a Germanic language which derives primarily from 17th century Dutch, and a variety of other languages.-Related ethno-linguistic groups:The...

s, a European ethnic group in South Africa.

The local Khoikhoi
Khoikhoi
The Khoikhoi or Khoi, in standardised Khoekhoe/Nama orthography spelled Khoekhoe, are a historical division of the Khoisan ethnic group, the native people of southwestern Africa, closely related to the Bushmen . They had lived in southern Africa since the 5th century AD...

 had neither a strong political organisation nor an economic base beyond their herds. They bartered livestock freely to Dutch ships. As Company employees established farms to supply the Cape station, they began to displace the Khoikhoi. Conflicts led to the consolidation of European landholdings and a breakdown of Khoikhoi society. Military success led to even greater Dutch East India Company control of the Khoikhoi by the 1670s. The Khoikhoi became the chief source of colonial wage labour.

After the first settlers spread out around the Company station, nomadic European livestock farmers, or Trekboeren, moved more widely afield, leaving the richer, but limited, farming lands of the coast for the drier interior tableland. There they contested still wider groups of Khoikhoi cattle herders for the best grazing lands. By 1700, the traditional Khoikhoi lifestyle of pastoralism
Pastoralism
Pastoralism or pastoral farming is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock. It is animal husbandry: the care, tending and use of animals such as camels, goats, cattle, yaks, llamas, and sheep. It may have a mobile aspect, moving the herds in search of fresh pasture and...

 had disappeared.

The Cape society in this period was thus a diverse one. The emergence of Afrikaans, a new vernacular language of the colonials that is however intelligible with Dutch, shows that the Dutch East India Company immigrants themselves were also subject to acculturation processes. By the time of British rule after 1795, the sociopolitical foundations were firmly laid.

In 1795, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 occupied the Seven Provinces
Dutch Republic
The Dutch Republic — officially known as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands , the Republic of the United Netherlands, or the Republic of the Seven United Provinces — was a republic in Europe existing from 1581 to 1795, preceding the Batavian Republic and ultimately...

 of the Netherlands, the mother country of the Dutch East India Company. This prompted Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
The former Kingdom of Great Britain, sometimes described as the 'United Kingdom of Great Britain', That the Two Kingdoms of Scotland and England, shall upon the 1st May next ensuing the date hereof, and forever after, be United into One Kingdom by the Name of GREAT BRITAIN. was a sovereign...

 to occupy the territory in 1795 as a way to better control the seas in order stop any potential French attempt to get to India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. The British assumed control of the territory following the minor Battle of Muizenberg
Battle of Muizenberg
The Battle of Muizenberg was a small but significant military engagement which took place near Muizenberg, South Africa in 1795; it led to the capture of the Cape Colony by Kingdom of Great Britain.- Background :...

. The VOC transferred its territories and claims to the Batavian Republic
Batavian Republic
The Batavian Republic was the successor of the Republic of the United Netherlands. It was proclaimed on January 19, 1795, and ended on June 5, 1806, with the accession of Louis Bonaparte to the throne of the Kingdom of Holland....

 (the Revolutionary period Dutch state) in 1798, and ceased to exist in 1799. Improving relations between Britain and Napoleonic France
First French Empire
The First French Empire , also known as the Greater French Empire or Napoleonic Empire, was the empire of Napoleon I of France...

, and its vassal state the Batavian Republic, led the British to hand the Cape Colony over to the Batavian Republic in 1803 (under the terms of the Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
The Treaty of Amiens temporarily ended hostilities between the French Republic and the United Kingdom during the French Revolutionary Wars. It was signed in the city of Amiens on 25 March 1802 , by Joseph Bonaparte and the Marquess Cornwallis as a "Definitive Treaty of Peace"...

).
In 1806, the Cape, now nominally controlled by the Batavian Republic, was occupied again by the British after their victory in the Battle of Blaauwberg
Battle of Blaauwberg
The Battle of Blaauwberg, also known as the Battle of Cape Town, fought near Cape Town on 8 January 1806, was a small but significant military engagement. It established British rule in South Africa, which was to have many ramifications during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries...

. The temporary peace between Britain and Napoleonic France had crumbled into open hostilities, whilst Napoleon had been strengthening his influence on the Batavian Republic (which Napoleon would subsequently abolish later the same year). The British, who set up a colony on 8 January 1806, hoped to keep Napoleon
Napoleon I of France
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader during the latter stages of the French Revolution.As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815...

 out of the Cape, and to control the Far East
Far East
The Far East is an English term mostly describing East Asia and Southeast Asia, with South Asia sometimes also included for economic and cultural reasons.The term came into use in European geopolitical discourse in the 19th century,...

 trade routes. In 1814 the Dutch government formally ceded sovereignty over the Cape to the British, under the terms of the Convention of London
Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814
The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 was a treaty signed between Great Britain and the Netherlands in London on August 13, 1814...

.

The British started to settle the eastern border of the colony with the arrival in Port Elizabeth of the 1820 Settlers
1820 Settlers
The 1820 Settlers were several groups or parties of white British colonists settled by the British government and the Cape authorities in the South African Eastern Cape in 1820....

. In 1854, the Cape Colony received representative government, and in 1872 under Prime Minister JC Molteno
John Charles Molteno
Sir John Charles Molteno KCMG was a soldier, businessman, champion of responsible government and the first Prime Minister of the Cape Colony.-Early life:...

, responsible government
Responsible government
Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy...

. The discovery of diamonds around Kimberley
Kimberley, Northern Cape
Kimberley is a city in South Africa, and the capital of the Northern Cape. It is located near the confluence of the Vaal and Orange Rivers. The town has considerable historical significance due its diamond mining past and siege during the Second Boer War...

 in 1870 led to a rapid expansion of British influence into the hinterland under colonialists such as Cecil Rhodes. The ill-fated Jameson Raid
Jameson Raid
The Jameson Raid was a botched raid on Paul Kruger's Transvaal Republic carried out by a British colonial statesman Leander Starr Jameson and his Rhodesian and Bechuanaland policemen over the New Year weekend of 1895–96...

 curbed this expansion somewhat until British victory following the Second Boer War
Second Boer War
The Second Boer War was fought from 11 October 1899 until 31 May 1902 between the British Empire and the Afrikaans-speaking Dutch settlers of two independent Boer republics, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State...

 at the turn of the century. The politics of the colony consequently came to be increasingly dominated by tensions between the British colonists and the Afrikaners, a division that replaced the earlier tensions between the eastern and western halves of the Cape.

The Cape Colony remained nominally under British rule until the formation of the Union of South Africa
Union of South Africa
The Union of South Africa is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa. It came into being on 31 May 1910 with the unification of the previously separate colonies of the Cape, Natal, Transvaal and the Orange Free State...

 in 1910, when it became the Cape of Good Hope Province, better known as the Cape Province
Cape Province
The Province of the Cape of Good Hope was a province in the Union of South Africa and subsequently the Republic of South Africa...

.

Governors of the Cape Colony (1652–1910)

The title of the founder of the Cape Colony, Jan van Riebeeck, was "Commander of the Cape" (initially called "opperhoof"), a position which he held from 1652 to 1662. He was succeeded by a long line of both Dutch
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

 and British
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 colonial
Colony
In politics and history, a colony is a territory under the immediate political control of a state. For colonies in antiquity, city-states would often found their own colonies. Some colonies were historically countries, while others were territories without definite statehood from their inception....

 administrators
Administrator of the Government
An Administrator in the constitutional practice of some countries in the Commonwealth is a person who fulfils a role similar to that of a Governor or a Governor-General...

, depending on who was in power at the time:

Commanders of Dutch East India Company colony (1652–1691)

  • Jan van Riebeeck
    Jan van Riebeeck
    Johan Anthoniszoon "Jan" van Riebeeck was a Dutch colonial administrator and founder of Cape Town.-Biography:...

     (April 7, 1652 – May 6, 1662)
  • Zacharias Wagenaer
    Zacharias Wagenaer
    Zacharias Wagner was a clerk, an illustrator, a merchant, member of the Court of Justice, opperhoofd of Deshima and the only German governor of the Cape colony...

     (May 6, 1662 – September 27, 1666)
  • Cornelis van Quaelberg (September 27, 1666 – June 18, 1668)
  • Jacob Borghorst (June 18, 1668 – March 25, 1670)
  • Pieter Hackius (March 25, 1670 – November 30, 1671)
  • Albert van Breugel (acting) (April, 1672 – October 2, 1672)
  • Isbrand Goske (October 2, 1672 – March 14, 1676)
  • Johan Bax dit van Herenthals (March 14, 1676 – June 29, 1678)
  • Hendrik Crudop (acting) (June 29, 1678 – October 12, 1679)
  • Simon van der Stel
    Simon van der Stel
    Simon van der Stel was the last Commander and first Governor of the Cape Colony, the Dutch settlement at the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa.-Background:...

     (December 10, 1679 – June 1, 1691)

Governors of Dutch East India Company colony (1691–1795)

  • Simon van der Stel
    Simon van der Stel
    Simon van der Stel was the last Commander and first Governor of the Cape Colony, the Dutch settlement at the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa.-Background:...

     (June 1, 1691 – November 2, 1699)
  • Willem Adriaan van der Stel
    Willem Adriaan van der Stel
    Willem Adriaan van der Stel was appointed as extraordinary Council of the Dutch Indies, and Governor of the Cape Colony, a way station for the Dutch East India Company , from January 23, 1699 to 1707...

     (November 2, 1699 – June 3, 1707)
  • Johannes Cornelis d’Ableing (acting) (June 3, 1707 – February 1, 1708)
  • Louis van Assenburg (February 1, 1708 – December 27, 1711)
  • Willem Helot (acting) (December 27, 1711 – March 28, 1714)
  • Maurits Pasques de Chavonnes (March 28, 1714 – September 8, 1724)
  • Jan de la Fontaine (acting) (September 8, 1724 – February 25, 1727)
  • Pieter Gijsbert Noodt (February 25, 1727 – April 23, 1729),
  • Jan de la Fontaine (acting) (April 23, 1729 – March 8, 1737)
  • Jan de la Fontaine (March 8, 1737 – August 31, 1737)
  • Adriaan van Kervel (August 31, 1737 – September 19, 1737) (died after three weeks in office)
  • Daniël van den Henghel (acting) (September 19, 1737 – April 14, 1739)
  • Hendrik Swellengrebel (April 14, 1739 – February 27, 1751)
  • Ryk Tulbagh
    Ryk Tulbagh
    Ryk or "Rijk Tulbagh was Governor of the Cape Colony from 27 February 1751 to 11 August 1771....

     (February 27, 1751 – August 11, 1771)
  • Joachim van Plettenberg (acting) (August 11, 1771 – May 18, 1774)
  • Joachim van Plettenberg (May 18, 1774 – February 14, 1785)
  • Cornelis Jacob van de Graaff (February 14, 1785 – June 24, 1791)
  • Johannes Izaac Rhenius (acting) (June 24, 1791 – July 3, 1792)
  • Sebastiaan Cornelis Nederburgh and Simon Hendrik Frijkenius (Commissioners-General) (July 3, 1792 – September 2, 1793)
  • Abraham Josias Sluysken (September 2, 1793 – September 16, 1795)

British occupation (1st, 1797–1803)

  • George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney
    George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney
    George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney, KB was an Irish-born British statesman, colonial administrator and diplomat. He is often remembered for his observation following Britain's success in the Seven Years War and subsequent territorial expansion at the Treaty of Paris that Britain now controlled...

     (1797–1798)
  • Francis Dundas
    Francis Dundas
    General Francis Dundas General Francis Dundas General Francis Dundas (c.1759, Sanson, Berwickshire – 15 January 1824, Dumbarton, Scotland was a British general and acting governor of the Cape Colony between 1798 and 1803....

     (1st time) (acting) (1798–1799)
  • Sir George Yonge (1799–1801)
  • Francis Dundas
    Francis Dundas
    General Francis Dundas General Francis Dundas General Francis Dundas (c.1759, Sanson, Berwickshire – 15 January 1824, Dumbarton, Scotland was a British general and acting governor of the Cape Colony between 1798 and 1803....

     (2nd time) (acting) (1801–1803)

Batavian Republic (Dutch colony) (1803–1806)

  • Jacob Abraham Uitenhage de Mist
    Jacob Abraham de Mist
    Jacob Abraham Uitenhage de Mist was a Dutch statesman. He was Head of State of the National Assembly of the Batavian Republic from 17 April 1797 - 1 May 1797 and Commissioner-General of the Cape Colony during the interregnum from 21 February 1803 - 25 September 1804 in accordance with the...

     (1803–1804)
  • Jan Willem Janssens
    Jan Willem Janssens
    Jonkheer Jan Willem Janssens GCMWO was a Dutch nobleman, soldier and statesman who served both as the governor-general of the Cape Colony and Dutch East Indies.-Early life:...

     (1803–1806)

British occupation (2nd, 1806–1814)

  • Sir David Baird
    Sir David Baird, 1st Baronet
    General Sir David Baird, 1st Baronet GCB was a British military leader.-Military career:He was born at Newbyth House in Haddingtonshire, Scotland, the son of an Edinburgh merchant family, and entered the British Army in 1772. He was sent to India in 1779 with the 73rd Highlanders, in which he...

     (acting) (1806–1807)
  • Henry George Grey (1st time) (acting) (1807)
  • Du Pre Alexander, 2nd Earl of Caledon
    Du Pre Alexander, 2nd Earl of Caledon
    Du Pré Alexander, 2nd Earl of Caledon KP , styled The Honourable from 1790 to 1800 and then Viscount Alexander to 1802, was an Irish peer, landlord and colonial administrator, and was the second child and only son of James Alexander, 1st Earl of Caledon.-Education and Inheritance:He was educated...

     (1807–1811)
  • Henry George Grey (2nd time) (acting) (1811)
  • Sir John Francis Cradock
    John Cradock, 1st Baron Howden
    General John Francis Cradock, 1st Baron Howden GCB was a British peer, politician and soldier.-Life:He was son of John Cradock, Church of Ireland Archbishop of Dublin....

     (1811–1814)
  • Robert Meade (acting for Cradock) (1813–1814)

British colony (1814–1910)

  • Charles Somerset
    Lord Charles Somerset
    General Lord Charles Henry Somerset PC was a British soldier, politician and colonial administrator. He was governor of the Cape Colony, South Africa, from 1814 to 1826.-Background:...

     (1814–1826)
  • Sir Rufane Shaw Donkin
    Rufane Shaw Donkin
    Sir Rufane Shaw Donkin GCH KCB , was a British army officer of the Napoleonic era and later Member of Parliament.-Family:Rufane Donkin came of a military family and was the eldest child...

     (acting for Somerset) (1820–1821)
  • Richard Bourke
    Richard Bourke
    General Sir Richard Bourke, KCB was Governor of the Colony of New South Wales, Australia between 1831 and 1837.-Early life and career:...

     (acting) (1826–1828)
  • Sir Galbraith Lowry Cole
    Lowry Cole
    Sir Galbraith Lowry Cole, GCB , styled The Honourable from birth, was an Irish British Army general and politician.-Army Service:...

     (1828–1833)
  • Thomas Francis Wade
    Thomas Francis Wade
    Sir Thomas Francis Wade, GCMG, KCB , was a British diplomat and Sinologist who produced a syllabary in 1859 that was later amended, extended and converted into the Wade-Giles romanization for Mandarin Chinese by Herbert Giles in 1892...

     (acting for D'Urban from 10 Jan 1834) (1833–1834)
  • Benjamin d'Urban
    Benjamin d'Urban
    Lieutenant-General Sir Benjamin d'Urban, GCB, KCH, KCTS was a British general and colonial administrator, who is best known for his frontier policy when he was the Governor in the Cape Colony .-Early career:...

     (1834–1838)
  • Sir George Thomas Napier
    George Thomas Napier
    Lieutenant-General Sir George Thomas Napier KCB entered the British army in 1800, and served with distinction under Sir John Moore and the Duke Wellington in the Peninsula--and lost his right arm at the storming of Ciudad Rodrigo, where, as a Major in the 52nd Foot, he led the Light Division's...

     (1838–1844)
  • Sir Peregrine Maitland
    Peregrine Maitland
    Sir Peregrine Maitland, KCB, GCB was a British soldier and colonial administrator who played first-class cricket from 1798 to 1808....

     (1844–1847)
  • Sir Henry Pottinger (1847)
  • Sir Harry Smith (1847–1852)
  • George Cathcart
    George Cathcart
    General The Honourable Sir George Cathcart GCB was a British general and diplomat.-Military career:He was born in Renfrewshire, son of William Cathcart, 1st Earl Cathcart. After receiving his education at Eton and in Edinburgh, he was commissioned into the Life Guards in 1810...

     (1852–1854)
  • Charles Henry Darling
    Charles Henry Darling
    Sir Charles Henry Darling KCB was a British colonial governor.He was born at Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, the son of Major-General Henry Darling and nephew of General Sir Ralph Darling....

     (acting) (1854)
  • Sir George Grey
    George Grey
    George Grey may refer to:*Sir George Grey, 2nd Baronet , British politician*George Grey, 2nd Earl of Kent *Sir George Grey , Governor of Cape Colony, South Australia and New Zealand...

     (1854–1861)
  • Robert Henry Wynyard
    Robert Wynyard
    Sir Robert Henry Wynyard was a New Zealand colonial administrator, serving at various times as Lieutenant Governor of New Ulster Province, Administrator of the Government, and was the first Superintendent of Auckland Province.-Lieutenant Governor of New Ulster:From 26 April 1851 to 7 March 1853,...

     (1st time) (acting for Grey) (1859–1860)
  • Robert Henry Wynyard
    Robert Wynyard
    Sir Robert Henry Wynyard was a New Zealand colonial administrator, serving at various times as Lieutenant Governor of New Ulster Province, Administrator of the Government, and was the first Superintendent of Auckland Province.-Lieutenant Governor of New Ulster:From 26 April 1851 to 7 March 1853,...

     (2nd time) (acting) (1861–1862)
  • Sir Philip Edmond Wodehouse (1862–1870)
  • Charles Craufurd Hay (acting) (1870)
  • Sir Henry Barkly
    Henry Barkly
    Sir Henry Barkly, GCMG, KCB, FRS, FRGS was a British politician, colonial governor and patron of the sciences.-Early life and education:...

     (1870–1877)
  • Henry Bartle Frere
    Henry Bartle Frere
    Sir Henry Bartle Edward Frere, 1st Baronet, GCB, GCSI, was a British colonial administrator.-Early life:Frere was born at Clydach House, Clydach, Monmouthshire, the son of Edward Frere, manager of Clydach Ironworks...

     (1877–1880)
  • Henry Hugh Clifford
    Henry Hugh Clifford
    Major General Sir Henry Hugh Clifford VC KCMG CB was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.-Early life:Clifford was the third son of Hugh Charles Clifford, 7th...

     (acting) (1880)
  • Sir George Cumine Strahan
    George Strahan
    Major Sir George Cumine Strahan KCMG was a British military officer and colonial administrator, best known as the Governor of Tasmania from 1881 to 1886.-Early life and military career:...

     (acting) (1880–1881)
  • Hercules Robinson
    Hercules Robinson, 1st Baron Rosmead
    Hercules George Robert Robinson, 1st Baron Rosmead, GCMG, PC was a British colonial administrator who became the 5th Governor of Hong Kong...

     (1st time) (1881–1889)
  • Sir Leicester Smyth
    Leicester Smyth
    Lieutenant General Sir Leicester Smyth KCB KCMG was Governor of Gibraltar.-Military career:...

     (1st time) (acting for Robinson) (1881)
  • Sir Leicester Smyth
    Leicester Smyth
    Lieutenant General Sir Leicester Smyth KCB KCMG was Governor of Gibraltar.-Military career:...

     (2nd time) (acting for Robinson) (1883–1884)
  • Sir Henry D'Oyley Torrens
    Henry Torrens
    Lieutenant General Sir Henry D'Oyley Torrens KCB KCMG was a British army officer and colonial governor. He was born in Meerut, India, the son of Henry Whitelocke Torrens and Eliza Mary Roberts and died in London....

     (acting for Robinson) (1886)
  • Henry Augustus Smyth
    Henry Augustus Smyth
    Sir Henry Augustus Smyth , FSA, FRGS, Governor of Malta, general and colonel commandant Royal Artillery, born at St James's Street, London, on 25 November 1825, was third son in the family of three sons and six daughters of Admiral William Henry Smyth by his wife Annarella, only daughter of Thomas...

     (acting) (1889)
  • Henry Brougham Loch
    Henry Loch, 1st Baron Loch
    Henry Brougham Loch, 1st Baron Loch GCB, GCMG was a Scottish soldier and colonial administrator.-Military service:He was the son of James Loch, Member of Parliament, of Drylaw, Midlothian...

     (1889–1895)
  • Sir William Gordon Cameron
    William Gordon Cameron
    General Sir William Gordon Cameron GCB was a British soldier and colonial administrator.-Military career:...

     (1st time) (acting for Loch) (1891–1892)
  • Sir William Gordon Cameron
    William Gordon Cameron
    General Sir William Gordon Cameron GCB was a British soldier and colonial administrator.-Military career:...

     (2nd time) (acting for Loch) (1894)
  • Hercules Robinson
    Hercules Robinson, 1st Baron Rosmead
    Hercules George Robert Robinson, 1st Baron Rosmead, GCMG, PC was a British colonial administrator who became the 5th Governor of Hong Kong...

     (2nd time) (1895–1897)
  • Sir William Howley Goodenough (acting) (1897)
  • Alfred Milner
    Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner
    Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner KG, GCB, GCMG, PC was a British statesman and colonial administrator who played an influential leadership role in the formulation of foreign and domestic policy between the mid-1890s and early 1920s...

     (1897–1901)
  • Sir William Francis Butler
    William Francis Butler
    Lieutenant-General Sir William Francis Butler GCB PC was an Irish 19th-century British Army officer, writer, and adventurer.-Military career:...

     (acting for Milner) (1898–1899)
  • Sir Walter Hely-Hutchinson
    Walter Hely-Hutchinson
    Sir Walter Francis Hely-Hutchinson GCMG was an Anglo-Irish diplomat and colonial administrator.-Biography:He was the son of Richard Hely-Hutchinson, 4th Earl of Donoughmore, He attended the University of Cambridge....

     (1901–1910)
  • Sir Henry Jenner Scobell
    Henry Jenner Scobell
    Major-General Sir Henry Jenner "Harry" Scobell KCVO CB was a British military leader who served as the last officer in command of Cape Colony before the formation of the Union of South Africa....

     (acting for Hely-Hutchinson) (1909)


The post of High Commissioner for Southern Africa was also held from 27 January 1847 to 31 May 1910 by the Governor of the Cape Colony. The post of Governor of the Cape Colony became extinct on 31 May 1910, when it joined the Union of South Africa
Union of South Africa
The Union of South Africa is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa. It came into being on 31 May 1910 with the unification of the previously separate colonies of the Cape, Natal, Transvaal and the Orange Free State...

.

Prime Ministers of the Cape Colony (1872–1910)




No.NamePartyAssumed officeLeft office
1 Sir John Charles Molteno
John Charles Molteno
Sir John Charles Molteno KCMG was a soldier, businessman, champion of responsible government and the first Prime Minister of the Cape Colony.-Early life:...

Independent
Independent (politician)
In politics, an independent or non-party politician is an individual not affiliated to any political party. Independents may hold a centrist viewpoint between those of major political parties, a viewpoint more extreme than any major party, or they may have a viewpoint based on issues that they do...

1 December 18725 February 1878
2 Sir John Gordon SpriggIndependent
Independent (politician)
In politics, an independent or non-party politician is an individual not affiliated to any political party. Independents may hold a centrist viewpoint between those of major political parties, a viewpoint more extreme than any major party, or they may have a viewpoint based on issues that they do...

6 February 18788 May 1881
3 Thomas Charles Scanlen
Thomas Charles Scanlen
Thomas Charles Scanlen was a politician, British administrator and Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 1881 to 1884.Scanlen was born 9 July 1834 on Longford Farm in the district of Albany in the Cape Colony...

Independent
Independent (politician)
In politics, an independent or non-party politician is an individual not affiliated to any political party. Independents may hold a centrist viewpoint between those of major political parties, a viewpoint more extreme than any major party, or they may have a viewpoint based on issues that they do...

9 May 188112 May 1884
4 Thomas Upington
Thomas Upington
Thomas Upington , born in Cork, Ireland, was a British administrator in South Africa. He was premier of Cape Colony between 1884 and 1886. The town of Upington in South Africa is named after him....

Independent
Independent (politician)
In politics, an independent or non-party politician is an individual not affiliated to any political party. Independents may hold a centrist viewpoint between those of major political parties, a viewpoint more extreme than any major party, or they may have a viewpoint based on issues that they do...

13 May 188424 November 1886
Sir John Gordon Sprigg (2nd time)Independent
Independent (politician)
In politics, an independent or non-party politician is an individual not affiliated to any political party. Independents may hold a centrist viewpoint between those of major political parties, a viewpoint more extreme than any major party, or they may have a viewpoint based on issues that they do...

25 November 188616 July 1890
5 Cecil John RhodesIndependent
Independent (politician)
In politics, an independent or non-party politician is an individual not affiliated to any political party. Independents may hold a centrist viewpoint between those of major political parties, a viewpoint more extreme than any major party, or they may have a viewpoint based on issues that they do...

17 July 189012 January 1896
Sir John Gordon Sprigg (3rd time)Independent
Independent (politician)
In politics, an independent or non-party politician is an individual not affiliated to any political party. Independents may hold a centrist viewpoint between those of major political parties, a viewpoint more extreme than any major party, or they may have a viewpoint based on issues that they do...

13 January 189613 October 1898
6 William Philip Schreiner
William Philip Schreiner
William Philip Schreiner was a barrister, politician, statesman and Prime Minister of the Cape Colony during the Second Boer War.-Career:...

Independent
Independent (politician)
In politics, an independent or non-party politician is an individual not affiliated to any political party. Independents may hold a centrist viewpoint between those of major political parties, a viewpoint more extreme than any major party, or they may have a viewpoint based on issues that they do...

13 October 189817 June 1900
Sir John Gordon Sprigg (4th time)Progressive Party18 June 190021 February 1904
7 Leander Starr Jameson
Leander Starr Jameson
Sir Leander Starr Jameson, 1st Baronet, KCMG, CB, , also known as "Doctor Jim", "The Doctor" or "Lanner", was a British colonial statesman who was best known for his involvement in the Jameson Raid....

Progressive Party22 February 19042 February 1908
8 John Xavier Merriman
John X. Merriman
John Xavier Merriman was the last prime minister of the Cape Colony before the formation of the Union of South Africa in 1910.-Early life:...

South African Party3 February 190831 May 1910


The post of prime minister of the Cape Colony also became extinct on 31 May 1910, when it joined the Union of South Africa.

Sources

  • Beck, Roger B. (2000). The History of South Africa. Westport, CT: Greenwood. ISBN 031330730X.
  • Davenport, T. R. H., and Christopher Saunders (2000). South Africa: A Modern History, 5th ed. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0312233760.
  • Elbourne, Elizabeth (2002). Blood Ground: Colonialism, Missions, and the Contest for Christianity in the Cape Colony and Britain, 1799–1853. McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0-7735-2229-8.
  • Le Cordeur, Basil Alexander (1981). The War of the Axe, 1847: Correspondence between the governor of the Cape Colony, Sir Henry Pottinger, and the commander of the British forces at the Cape, Sire George Berkeley, and others. Brenthurst Press. ISBN 0-909079-14-5.
  • Mabin, Alan (1983). Recession and its aftermath: The Cape Colony in the eighteen eighties. University of the Witwatersrand, African Studies Institute.
  • Ross, Robert, and David Anderson (1999). Status and Respectability in the Cape Colony, 1750–1870 : A Tragedy of Manners. Cambridge University Press
    Cambridge University Press
    Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house, and the second largest university press in the world...

    . ISBN 0-521-62122-4.
  • Theal, George McCall (1970). History of the Boers in South Africa; Or, the Wanderings and Wars of the Emigrant Farmers from Their Leaving the Cape Colony to the Acknowledgment of Their Independence by Great Britain. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-8371-1661-9.
  • Van Der Merwe, P.J., Roger B. Beck (1995). The Migrant Farmer in the History of the Cape Colony. Ohio University Press
    Ohio University Press
    Ohio University Press is part of Ohio University. It publishes under its own name and the imprint Swallow Press....

    . ISBN 0-8214-1090-3.
  • Worden, Nigel, Elizabeth van Heyningen, and Vivian Bickford-Smith (1998). Cape Town: The Making of a City. Cape Town: David Philip. ISBN 0864864353.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK