Bulgarus was a twelfth century Italian
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

A jurist or jurisconsult is a professional who studies, develops, applies, or otherwise deals with the law. The term is widely used in American English, but in the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth countries it has only historical and specialist usage...

, born at Bologna
Bologna is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna, in the Po Valley of Northern Italy. The city lies between the Po River and the Apennine Mountains, more specifically, between the Reno River and the Savena River. Bologna is a lively and cosmopolitan Italian college city, with spectacular history,...

. He is sometimes erroneously called Bulgarinus, which was properly the name of a jurist of the 15th century.

Bulgarus was the most celebrated of the famous Four Doctors of the law school of the University of Bologna
University of Bologna
The Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna is the oldest continually operating university in the world, the word 'universitas' being first used by this institution at its foundation. The true date of its founding is uncertain, but believed by most accounts to have been 1088...

, probably because his school promoted roman emperors as the maximun authority such as Justinian I , Bulgarus was regarded as the Chrysostom of the Glossators, being frequently designated by the title of the Golden Mouth (os aureum). He died in 1166 at a very advanced age. Popular tradition represents all the Four Doctors (Bulgarus, Martinus Gosia
Martinus Gosia
Martinus Gosia was one of the glossators and a 12th century Italian jurist, counted among the Four Doctors of Bologna, the others being Bulgarus, Hugo de Porta Ravennate and Jacobus de Boragine....

, Hugo de Porta Ravennate and Jacobus de Boragine) as pupils of Irnerius
Irnerius , sometimes referred to as lucerna juris , was an Italian jurist, and founder of the School of Glossators and thus of the tradition of Medieval Roman Law....

, but while there is no insuperable difficulty in point of time in accepting this tradition as far as regards Bulgarus, Friedrich Karl von Savigny considers the general tradition inadmissible as regards the others. Martinus Gosia and Bulgarus were the chiefs of two opposite schools at Bologna, corresponding in many respects to the Proculians
Marcus Antistius Labeo
Marcus Antistius Labeo was a prominent jurist of ancient Rome.He was the son of Quintus Antistius Labeo, a jurist who caused himself to be slain after the defeat of his party at Philippi...

 and Sabinians of Imperial Rome, Martinus being at the head of a school which accommodated the law to what his opponents styled the equity of the purse (aequitas bursalis), whilst Bulgarus adhered more closely to the letter of the law, martinus school was also more flexible in terms of interpretation of the law, whilist bulgarus school was orthodox and more based on the "Corpus Iuris Civilis". The school of Bulgarus ultimately prevailed, and it numbered amongst its adherents Joannes Bassianus
Joannes Bassianus
Joannes Bassianus was an Italian jurist of the 12th century.Little is known of his origin, but he is said by his jurist contemporary Carolus de Tocco to have been a native of Cremona. He was a professor in the law school of Bologna, the pupil of Bulgarus, and the master of Azo...

, Azo
Azo (Jurist)
Azo of Bologna or Azzo or Azolenus was an influential Italian jurist and a member of the school of the so-called glossators. Born circa 1150 in Bologna, Azo studied under Joannes Bassianus and became professor of civil law at Bologna...

 and Accursius, each of whom in his turn exercised a commanding influence over the course of legal studies at Bologna.

At the diet of Roncaglia
-Places:*Roncaglia , within the present municipal boundaries of Piacenza in Emilia-Romagna, and known for two Imperial Diets convened by Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor*Roncaglia, a frazione of Casale Monferrato, Piedmont-People:...

 in 1158, Bulgarus took the leading part amongst the Four Doctors, and was one of the most trusted advisers of the emperor Frederick I
Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick I Barbarossa was a German Holy Roman Emperor. He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March, crowned King of Italy in Pavia in 1155, and finally crowned Roman Emperor by Pope Adrian IV, on 18 June 1155, and two years later in 1157 the term...

. His most celebrated work is his commentary De Regulis Juris, which was at one time printed amongst the writings of Placentinus
Placentinus was an Italian jurist and glossator. Originally from Piacenza, he taught at the University of Bologna. From there he founded the law school of the University of Montpellier, in 1160....

, but has been properly reassigned to its true author by Cujacius
Jacques Cujas
Jacques Cujas was a French legal expert. He was prominent among the legal humanists or mos gallicus school, which sought to abandon the work of the medieval Commentators and concentrate on ascertaining the correct text and social context of the original works of Roman law.He was born at...

, upon the internal evidence contained in the additions annexed to it, which are undoubtedly from the pen of Placentinus. This commentary, which is the earliest extant work of its kind emanating from the school of the Glossators, is, according to Savigny, a model specimen of the excellence of the method introduced by Irnerius
Irnerius , sometimes referred to as lucerna juris , was an Italian jurist, and founder of the School of Glossators and thus of the tradition of Medieval Roman Law....

, and a striking example of the brilliant results which had been obtained in a short space of time by a constant and exclusive study of the sources of law.
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