British Residency of the Persian Gulf
Overview
 
The British residency of the Persian Gulf was an official colonial subdivision (i.e., residency
Resident (title)
A Resident, or in full Resident Minister, is a government official required to take up permanent residence in another country. A representative of his government, he officially has diplomatic functions which are often seen as a form of indirect rule....

) of the British Empire
British Empire
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom. It originated with the overseas colonies and trading posts established by England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. At its height, it was the...

 from 1763 until 1971, whereby the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 maintained varying degrees of political and economic control over several states in the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
The Persian Gulf, in Southwest Asia, is an extension of the Indian Ocean located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula.The Persian Gulf was the focus of the 1980–1988 Iran-Iraq War, in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers...

, including: the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates, abbreviated as the UAE, or shortened to "the Emirates", is a state situated in the southeast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman, and Saudi Arabia, and sharing sea borders with Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and Iran.The UAE is a...

 (originally called the "Trucial Coast States") and at various times Persia, Bahrain
Bahrain
' , officially the Kingdom of Bahrain , is a small island state near the western shores of the Persian Gulf. It is ruled by the Al Khalifa royal family. The population in 2010 stood at 1,214,705, including 235,108 non-nationals. Formerly an emirate, Bahrain was declared a kingdom in 2002.Bahrain is...

, Kuwait
Kuwait
The State of Kuwait is a sovereign Arab state situated in the north-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south at Khafji, and Iraq to the north at Basra. It lies on the north-western shore of the Persian Gulf. The name Kuwait is derived from the...

, Oman
Oman
Oman , officially called the Sultanate of Oman , is an Arab state in southwest Asia on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the southwest. The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea on the...

, and Qatar
Qatar
Qatar , also known as the State of Qatar or locally Dawlat Qaṭar, is a sovereign Arab state, located in the Middle East, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeasterly coast of the much larger Arabian Peninsula. Its sole land border is with Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its...

.
British interest in the Persian Gulf originated in the sixteenth century and steadily increased as British India’s importance rose in the imperial
Empire
The term empire derives from the Latin imperium . Politically, an empire is a geographically extensive group of states and peoples united and ruled either by a monarch or an oligarchy....

 system of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Encyclopedia
The British residency of the Persian Gulf was an official colonial subdivision (i.e., residency
Resident (title)
A Resident, or in full Resident Minister, is a government official required to take up permanent residence in another country. A representative of his government, he officially has diplomatic functions which are often seen as a form of indirect rule....

) of the British Empire
British Empire
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom. It originated with the overseas colonies and trading posts established by England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. At its height, it was the...

 from 1763 until 1971, whereby the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 maintained varying degrees of political and economic control over several states in the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
The Persian Gulf, in Southwest Asia, is an extension of the Indian Ocean located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula.The Persian Gulf was the focus of the 1980–1988 Iran-Iraq War, in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers...

, including: the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates, abbreviated as the UAE, or shortened to "the Emirates", is a state situated in the southeast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman, and Saudi Arabia, and sharing sea borders with Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and Iran.The UAE is a...

 (originally called the "Trucial Coast States") and at various times Persia, Bahrain
Bahrain
' , officially the Kingdom of Bahrain , is a small island state near the western shores of the Persian Gulf. It is ruled by the Al Khalifa royal family. The population in 2010 stood at 1,214,705, including 235,108 non-nationals. Formerly an emirate, Bahrain was declared a kingdom in 2002.Bahrain is...

, Kuwait
Kuwait
The State of Kuwait is a sovereign Arab state situated in the north-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south at Khafji, and Iraq to the north at Basra. It lies on the north-western shore of the Persian Gulf. The name Kuwait is derived from the...

, Oman
Oman
Oman , officially called the Sultanate of Oman , is an Arab state in southwest Asia on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the southwest. The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea on the...

, and Qatar
Qatar
Qatar , also known as the State of Qatar or locally Dawlat Qaṭar, is a sovereign Arab state, located in the Middle East, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeasterly coast of the much larger Arabian Peninsula. Its sole land border is with Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its...

.

Historical background until 1900

British interest in the Persian Gulf originated in the sixteenth century and steadily increased as British India’s importance rose in the imperial
Empire
The term empire derives from the Latin imperium . Politically, an empire is a geographically extensive group of states and peoples united and ruled either by a monarch or an oligarchy....

 system of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. In the beginning, the agenda was primarily of a commercial character. Realizing the regions significance, the British fleet supported the Persian emperor Shāh Abbās
Abbas I of Persia
Shāh ‘Abbās the Great was Shah of Iran, and generally considered the greatest ruler of the Safavid dynasty. He was the third son of Shah Mohammad....

 in expelling the Portuguese
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 from Hormuz island
Hormuz Island
Hormuz Island , also spelled Hormoz, is an Iranian island in the Persian Gulf. It is located in the Strait of Hormuz and is part of the Hormozgān Province.-Geography:...

 in 1622. In return, the British East India Company
British East India Company
The East India Company was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China...

 (“the Company”) was permitted to establish a trading post in the coastal city of Bandar 'Abbās
Bandar Abbas
Bandar-Abbas or Bandar-e ‘Abbās , also Romanized as Bandar ‘Abbās, Bandar ‘Abbāsī, and Bandar-e ‘Abbās; formerly known as Cambarão and Port Comorão to Portuguese traders, as Gombroon to English traders and as Gamrun or Gumrun to Dutch merchants) is a port city and capital of Hormozgān Province on...

, which became their principal port in the Persian Gulf. Empowered by the charter of Charles II
Charles II of England
Charles II was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.Charles II's father, King Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War...

 in 1661, the Company was responsible for conducting British foreign policy in the Persian Gulf, as well as concluding various treaties, agreements and engagements with Persian Gulf states in its capacity as the Crown’s regional agent.

In 1763, the British East India Company established a residency at Bušehr, on the Persian side of the Persian Gulf: this was followed by another residency in Basar several years later. The arrival in Persia in 1807 of a large French mission under General Gardane galvanized the British, both in London and Calcutta. They responded by sending a mission under Sir Harford Jones, which resulted in establishing the Preliminary Treaty of Friendship and Alliance with the Shah in 1809. Despite being modified during subsequent negotiations, this treaty provided the framework within which Anglo–Persian foreign relations operated for the next half century. Britain appointed Harford Jones as their first resident envoy to the Persian court in 1808. Until the appointment of Charles Alison as Minister in Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

 in 1860, the envoy and his staff were, with rare exceptions, almost exclusively recruited from the East India Company.

In the absence of formal diplomatic relations, the political resident conducted all necessary negotiations with Persian authorities and was described by Sir George Curzon
George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston
George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, KG, GCSI, GCIE, PC , known as The Lord Curzon of Kedleston between 1898 and 1911 and as The Earl Curzon of Kedleston between 1911 and 1921, was a British Conservative statesman who was Viceroy of India and Foreign Secretary...

 as “the uncrowned king of the Persian Gulf.” Whether Persia liked it or not, the political resident had at his disposal naval forces with which to suppress piracy, slave trading, and gun running, and to enforce quarantine regulations; he also could, and did, put landing parties and punitive expeditions ashore on the Persian coast. In 1822, the Bušehr and Basar residencies were combined, with Bušehr serving as headquarters for the new position of “British Resident for the Persian Gulf.” A chief political resident was the chief executive officer
Chief executive officer
A chief executive officer , managing director , Executive Director for non-profit organizations, or chief executive is the highest-ranking corporate officer or administrator in charge of total management of an organization...

 of the political unit, and he was subordinate to the governor of Bombay until 1873 and the viceroy of India until 1947, when India became independent. In 1858, the East India Company’s agency was transferred to the Indian Raj, who assumed authority of British foreign policy with Persian Gulf states: this responsibility went to the Foreign Office on April 1, 1947.

The Trucial States

British activity in the Persian Gulf was primarily a commercial pursuit. Thus, the British Raj was slow to take action in protecting British and Indian shipping against raids from Qawasim pirates. By 1817, the Qawasim were spreading terror along the Indian coast to within 70 miles of Bombay. This threat generated a British military expedition in 1819, which crushed the Qawasim confederation and resulted in ratification of the “General Treaty of Peace” on January 5, 1820. Through extension and modification, this treaty formed the basis of British policy in the Persian Gulf for a century and half. The ruler of Bahrain as well as sheikhs along the northern coast of Oman pledged to maintain peace between their tribes and Britain and accepted clauses prohibiting slavery
Slavery
Slavery is a system under which people are treated as property to be bought and sold, and are forced to work. Slaves can be held against their will from the time of their capture, purchase or birth, and deprived of the right to leave, to refuse to work, or to demand compensation...

 and cruel treatment of prisoners. The treaty further stipulated that the ships of maritime tribes would be freely admitted at British ports. While the treaty obviously served British interests, because it was sensibly magnanimous and aimed at securing all parties’ interests, it effectively ended piracy in the Persian Gulf. Articles 6 and 10 authorized the British Residency in the Persian Gulf to act as maritime police to administer the treaty’s conditions and resolve tribal disputes. Article 7 condemned piracy among Arab tribes and implied a British obligation to maintain peace. The trucial system took explicit form in 1835, when raids by Bani Yas tribesmen, rivals of the Qawasim, led to a British-imposed truce during the summer pearling season. The truce was made year-long in 1838 and renewed annually until 1843 when it was extended for ten years.

The trucial system received formal permanency with the “1853 Treaty of Maritime Peace in Perpetuity.” The British policy of non-involvement in the internal affairs of the Trucial sheikhs was abandoned with passage of the “Exclusive Agreement” in March 1892. This agreement prohibited the Trucial rulers from yielding territorial sovereignty without British consent. Britain, moreover, assumed responsibility for foreign relations and thus, by implication, their protection. This treaty marked Britain’s shift from commercial to strategic priorities and formed the diplomatic pillar of British authority in the Trucial states.

Post World War I

In the years following World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, the Trucial sheikhs found their capacity to act independently being continuously curtailed by the British. This was partially a result of Britain shifting attention away from Iran, where Reza Shah
Reza Shah
Rezā Shāh, also known as Rezā Shāh Pahlavi and Rezā Shāh Kabir , , was the Shah of the Imperial State of Iran from December 15, 1925, until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on September 16, 1941.In 1925, Reza Shah overthrew Ahmad Shah Qajar, the last Shah of the Qajar...

’s nationalist assertion of power undercut their hegemony. It also reflected growing commercial and imperial communications interests, such as air route facilities. For example, according to agreements concluded in February 1922, the Trucial sheikhs pledged themselves not to allow the exploitation of oil resources in their territories except by “persons appointed by the British government.”Even more restrictive was the ultimatum issued by the political resident in 1937 requiring Trucial states to do business exclusively with Petroleum Concessions Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of the London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

-based Iraq Petroleum Company
Iraq Petroleum Company
The Iraq Petroleum Company , until 1929 called Turkish Petroleum Company , was an oil company jointly owned by some of the world's largest oil companies, which had virtual monopoly on all oil exploration and production in Iraq from 1925 to 1961...

, which was itself partly owned by the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC). Instead of reflecting higher demand for oil (England then had adequate supply), this ultimatum was designed to block other parties out of the economic and political affairs of the Trucial States.

In 1946, the Persian Gulf residency left its location in Bušehr and relocated to a new base in Bahrain. However, while Reza Shah succeeded in removing Britain from Iranian territory, his efforts to curtail their role in the Iranian oil industry backfired, and led to an extension of the concession operated by the British government-owned Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. From their new base in Bahrain, the British resident directed other political agents in Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and Oman until those regions became independent.

Duties of the Residency

On April 1, 1947, the British political residency came under the authority of the Foreign Office, ‘graded’ as an ambassador in the Persian Gulf. The political resident accomplished his obligations by utilizing a network of representatives known as political agents, operating in Bahrain, Qatar, Dubai and Abu Dhabi. Additionally, political officers were retained for the remaining Trucial states, acting under the British Agency at Dubai. Foreign relations in Muscat were conducted by a Consul-General, who was also, administratively, answerable to the resident in Bahrain. Through his political agents the resident preserved close connections with Persian Gulf rulers – simultaneously protecting their political and economic interests and the British government's on the basis of established treaties and agreements. According to Rupert Hay, the sheikhs enjoyed control over internal affairs, with Britain “ordinarily only exercises control in matters involving negotiations or the possibility of complications with foreign powers, such as civil aviation
Civil aviation
Civil aviation is one of two major categories of flying, representing all non-military aviation, both private and commercial. Most of the countries in the world are members of the International Civil Aviation Organization and work together to establish common standards and recommended practices...

, posts and telegraphs.” However, Hay added that “constant advice and encouragement are… offered to various rulers regarding improvement of their administrations and development of their resources, mostly in an informal manner.’

The resident also administered British extraterritorial jurisdiction
Extraterritorial jurisdiction
Extraterritorial jurisdiction is the legal ability of a government to exercise authority beyond its normal boundaries.Any authority can, of course, claim ETJ over any external territory they wish...

, which had been exercised in certain Persian Gulf territories since 1925. Extraterritorial jurisdiction was ceded to Britain in the 19th century by virtue of informal agreements with various rulers. In Muscat it was based on formal agreements that were renewed periodically. Extraterritorial jurisdiction was originally applied to all resident classes in Persian Gulf states, but was later limited to British subjects, Commonwealth nationals and non-Muslim foreigners. Britain relinquished extraterritorial jurisdiction in Kuwait on May 4, 1961, transferring jurisdiction over all classes of foreigners to Kuwaiti courts. British extraterritorial jurisdiction in the Persian Gulf was implemented in accordance with the British Foreign Jurisdiction Acts of 1890-1913, which empowered the Crown to establish courts and legislate for the categories of persons subject to jurisdiction by means of Orders in Council.

Regarding the resident’s role in concluding concession agreements between rulers and foreign oil companies, Hay says: ‘The oil companies naturally bulk largely in the political resident’s portfolio. He has to closely watch all negotiations for new agreements or the amendment of existing agreements and ensure that nothing is decided which will seriously affect the position or the rulers of the British government…’ The same author also refers to what he terms political agreements, to which, he says, oil companies’ are all bound… with the British government… in addition to their concession agreements with the rulers…’ ‘One of the main objects of these’, he continues, ‘is to ensure that their relations with the rulers in all matters of importance are conducted through, or with, the knowledge of British political officers.’

Chronology: 1763-1971

  • 1763: British Residency established at Bušehr in Persia by the British East India Company
    British East India Company
    The East India Company was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China...

    .
  • 1798: Sultan of Muscat signed a treaty giving the British East India Company exclusive trading rights, in return for an annual British stipend.
  • 1809: Preliminary Treaty of Friendship and Alliance is concluded between Britain and the shah. While modified in subsequent negotiations (Definitive Treaty of Friendship and Alliance, 1812; Treaty of Tehran, 1814), remained the framework of Anglo–Persian relations over the next half century.
  • 8 Jan 1820 - 15 Mar 1820: General Maritime Treaty with Britain and sheikhs in the "Trucial Coast States" and Bahrain
    Bahrain
    ' , officially the Kingdom of Bahrain , is a small island state near the western shores of the Persian Gulf. It is ruled by the Al Khalifa royal family. The population in 2010 stood at 1,214,705, including 235,108 non-nationals. Formerly an emirate, Bahrain was declared a kingdom in 2002.Bahrain is...

    , abolishing slave trade and forbidding piracy
    Piracy
    Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence at sea. The term can include acts committed on land, in the air, or in other major bodies of water or on a shore. It does not normally include crimes committed against persons traveling on the same vessel as the perpetrator...

     and warfare between the states (This last point was never fully implemented).
  • 1822: Persian Gulf residency established by Britain.
  • 1822 - 1873: Subordinated to the Governor of Bombay.
  • 1835: Treaty with the Trucial States, installing a truce of six months a year, during the pearling season.
  • 1843: Treaty renews the treaty of 1835 for ten years.
  • 1853: Treaty with Trucial States, renewing the treaty of 1835 for an unlimited time period.
  • 1856 - 1857: Anglo-Persian War
    Anglo-Persian War
    The Anglo-Persian War lasted between November 1, 1856 and April 4, 1857, and was fought between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Persia . In the war, the British opposed an attempt by Persia to reacquire the city of Herat...

     and proclamation of jihad
    Jihad
    Jihad , an Islamic term, is a religious duty of Muslims. In Arabic, the word jihād translates as a noun meaning "struggle". Jihad appears 41 times in the Quran and frequently in the idiomatic expression "striving in the way of God ". A person engaged in jihad is called a mujahid; the plural is...

    by Nasereddin Shah.
  • 1858: Act of 1858 is passed, transferring powers of the East India Company to the British government of India.
  • 1861: Protectorate
    Protectorate
    In history, the term protectorate has two different meanings. In its earliest inception, which has been adopted by modern international law, it is an autonomous territory that is protected diplomatically or militarily against third parties by a stronger state or entity...

     treaty with Bahrain (completed by treaties of 2 Dec 1880 and 1892).
  • 1873 - 1947: Subordinate to British India (from 1946 resident in Bahrain).
  • 1873: Trucial states start being administered by the British.
  • 8 Mar 1892 – 1 Dec 1971: Informal protectorate with Oman
    Oman
    Oman , officially called the Sultanate of Oman , is an Arab state in southwest Asia on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the southwest. The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea on the...

     and formal protectorate with the Trucial States. This new agreement includes the sheikhs giving the British effective control over foreign policy: British offer military protection in return.
  • 1899: Protectorate treaty with Kuwait (completed 3 Nov 1914).


----
  • 1906: Constitutional Revolution in Persia.
  • 3 Nov 1916: Protectorate treaty with Qatar
    Qatar
    Qatar , also known as the State of Qatar or locally Dawlat Qaṭar, is a sovereign Arab state, located in the Middle East, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeasterly coast of the much larger Arabian Peninsula. Its sole land border is with Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its...

    .
  • 1920: Treaty of Seeb is signed recognizing the independence of the imamate of Oman.
  • 1939: British residency established in the Trucial States at Dubai
    Dubai
    Dubai is a city and emirate in the United Arab Emirates . The emirate is located south of the Persian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsula and has the largest population with the second-largest land territory by area of all the emirates, after Abu Dhabi...

    .
  • 1946: Headquarters of the Persian Gulf residency is moved from Bushire to Bahrain.
  • 1962: Great Britain declares Muscat and Oman an independent nation.
  • Jan 1968: Britain announces its decision to withdraw from the Persian Gulf, including the Trucial States, by 1971.
  • 16 Dec 1971: Termination of British protectorate and military presence in the Persian Gulf.

Political Agents

Agents:
  • 1763 - 1812 : ....
  • c.1798 : Mirza Mahdi Ali Khan
  • c.1810 : Hankey Smith
  • 1812 - 1822 : William Bruce (acting to 1813)


Chief political residents of the Persian Gulf :
  • 1822 - 1823 : John Macleod
  • 1823 - 1827 : Ephraim Gerrish Stannus
  • 1827 - 1831 : David Wilson
  • 1831 - 1835 : David Alexander Blane
  • 1835 - 1838 : James Morrison
  • 1838 - 1852 : Samuel Hennell
  • 1852 - 1856 : Arnold Burrowes Kemball
  • 1856 - 1862 : James Felix Jones
  • 1862 : Herbert Frederick Disbrowe (acting)
  • 1862 - 1872: Lewis Pelly
    Lewis Pelly
    Sir Lewis Pelly, KCSI, , was Conservative Member of Parliament for Hackney North from 1885 to 1892 and an East India Company officer.-Early years:...

  • 1872 - 1891: Edward Charles Ross
  • 1891 - 1893 : Adelbert Cecil Talbot
  • 1893 : Stuart Hill Godfrey (acting)
  • 1893 : James Hayes Sadler
    James Hayes Sadler
    Colonel Sir James Hayes Sadler, KCMG, CB was a British diplomat and civil servant.In 1854 Sadler was commissioned into the Artillery Battalion of the Royal Sussex Militia...

     (1st time)(acting)
  • 1893: James Adair Crawford
    James Adair Crawford
    James Adair Crawford was a civil servant of the British Empire, in 1893 he served as the Chief political resident of the Persian Gulf...

     (acting)
  • 1893 - 1894 : James Hayes Sadler (2nd time)(acting)
  • 1894 - 1897 : Frederick Alexander Wilson
  • 1897 - 1900 : Malcolm John Meade
  • 1900 - 1904 : Charles Arnold Kemball (acting)
  • 1904 - 1920: Percy Zachariah Cox
    Percy Zachariah Cox
    Major-General Sir Percy Zachariah Cox, GCMG, GCIE, KCSI was a British Indian Army officer and colonial administrator in the Middle East. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, he was one of the major figures in the creation of Iraq...

- Acting for Cox -
  • 1913 - 1914 : John Gordon Lorimer
  • 1914 : Richard Lockinton Birdwood
  • 1914 : Stuart George Knox (1st time)
  • 1915 : Stuart George Knox (2nd time)
  • 1915 - 1917 : Arthur Prescott Trevor (1st time)
  • 1917 - 1919 : John Hugo Bill
  • 1919 : Cecil Hamilton Gabriel
  • 1919 - 1920: Arthur Prescott Trevor (2nd time)
    • 1920: Arnold Talbot Wilson (acting)
    • 1920 - 1924 : Arthur Prescott Trevor
    • 1924 - 1927 : Francis Bellville Prideaux
    • 1927 - 1928 : Lionel Berkeley Holt Haworth
    • 1928 - 1929 : Frderick William Johnston
    • 1929 : Cyril Charles Johnson Barrett (acting)
    • 1929 - 1932: Hugh Vincent Biscoe
    • 1932 - 1939: Trenchard Craven William Fowle
    • 1939 - 1946: Charles Geoffrey Prior
    • 1946 - 1953: William Rupert Hay(from 1952, Sir William)
    • 22 Oct 1953 - 1958: Bernard Alexander Brocas Burrows
      Bernard Alexander Brocas Burrows
      Sir Bernard Alexander Brocas Burrows was a British diplomat.Burrows studied at Eton College and Trinity College in Oxford. In 1934, after two years spent learning languages in France, Austria and Italy, he entered the Diplomatic Service...

      (from 1955, Sir Bernard)
    • 1958 - 1961 Sir George Humphrey Middleton
      George Humphrey Middleton
      Sir George Humphrey Middleton was a British diplomat. He served as the United Kingdom's ambassador to Lebanon , Argentina and Egypt . He was also Chief Political Resident in the Persian Gulf Residency and Chargé d'affaires in Iran during the Abadan Crisis.-References:GeneralSpecific...

    • 1961 - 1966 Sir William Henry Tucker Luce
    • 1966 - 1970 Sir Robert Stewart Crawford
    • 1970 - 15 Aug 1971: Sir Geoffrey Arthur
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