Brazilian Space Agency
Overview
 
The Brazilian Space Agency is the civilian authority in Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

 responsible for the country's burgeoning space program
Space exploration
Space exploration is the use of space technology to explore outer space. Physical exploration of space is conducted both by human spaceflights and by robotic spacecraft....

. It operates a spaceport
Spaceport
A spaceport or cosmodrome is a site for launching spacecraft, by analogy with seaport for ships or airport for aircraft. The word spaceport, and even more so cosmodrome, has traditionally been used for sites capable of launching spacecraft into orbit around Earth or on interplanetary trajectories...

 at Alcântara and a rocket launch site at Barreira do Inferno. The agency has given Brazil a leading role in space in Latin America and has made Brazil a valuable and dependable partner for cooperation in the International Space Station
International Space Station
The International Space Station is a habitable, artificial satellite in low Earth orbit. The ISS follows the Salyut, Almaz, Cosmos, Skylab, and Mir space stations, as the 11th space station launched, not including the Genesis I and II prototypes...

.

The Brazilian Space Agency is the heir to Brazil's space program
Brazilian space program
The Brazilian space program refers to the rocketry and space exploration programs conducted by Brazil from 1961 until the creation of the Brazilian Space Agency in 1994. It had significant capabilities in launch vehicles, launch sites, and satellite manufacturing. It was based at the National...

.
Encyclopedia
The Brazilian Space Agency is the civilian authority in Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

 responsible for the country's burgeoning space program
Space exploration
Space exploration is the use of space technology to explore outer space. Physical exploration of space is conducted both by human spaceflights and by robotic spacecraft....

. It operates a spaceport
Spaceport
A spaceport or cosmodrome is a site for launching spacecraft, by analogy with seaport for ships or airport for aircraft. The word spaceport, and even more so cosmodrome, has traditionally been used for sites capable of launching spacecraft into orbit around Earth or on interplanetary trajectories...

 at Alcântara and a rocket launch site at Barreira do Inferno. The agency has given Brazil a leading role in space in Latin America and has made Brazil a valuable and dependable partner for cooperation in the International Space Station
International Space Station
The International Space Station is a habitable, artificial satellite in low Earth orbit. The ISS follows the Salyut, Almaz, Cosmos, Skylab, and Mir space stations, as the 11th space station launched, not including the Genesis I and II prototypes...

.

The Brazilian Space Agency is the heir to Brazil's space program
Brazilian space program
The Brazilian space program refers to the rocketry and space exploration programs conducted by Brazil from 1961 until the creation of the Brazilian Space Agency in 1994. It had significant capabilities in launch vehicles, launch sites, and satellite manufacturing. It was based at the National...

. Previously, the program had been under the control of the Brazilian military
Military of Brazil
The Brazilian Armed Forces is the unified military organization comprising the Brazilian Army , the Brazilian Navy and the Brazilian Air Force....

; the program was transferred into civilian control on 10 February 1994.

It suffered a major setback in 2003, when a rocket explosion
Brazilian rocket explosion
VLS-1 V03 was a Brazilian Space Agency VLS-1 rocket, which was intended to have launched two satellites into orbit. On August 22, 2003, at 13:30 an explosion destroyed the rocket as it stood on its launch pad at the Alcântara Launching Center in the state of Maranhão in northern Brazil...

 killed 21 technicians. Brazil successfully launched its first rocket into space on 23 October 2004 from the Alcântara Launch Center; it was a VSB-30
VSB-30
VSB-30 - "Veículo de Sondagem Booster – 30" is the designation of a Brazilian sounding rocket, which replaced the Skylark rocket at Esrange....

 launched on a sub-orbital mission. Several other successful launches have followed.

On March 30, 2006, AEB astronaut Marcos Pontes
Marcos Pontes
Marco Pontes is a Brazilian Air Force pilot. He became the first Brazilian and the first Lusophone to go into space when he launched to the International Space Station aboard Soyuz TMA-8 on March 30, 2006...

 became the first Brazilian and the first native Portuguese-speaking person to go into space, where he stayed on the International Space Station
International Space Station
The International Space Station is a habitable, artificial satellite in low Earth orbit. The ISS follows the Salyut, Almaz, Cosmos, Skylab, and Mir space stations, as the 11th space station launched, not including the Genesis I and II prototypes...

 for a week. During his trip, Pontes carried out eight experiments selected by the Brazilian Space Agency. He landed in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan , officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental country in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Ranked as the ninth largest country in the world, it is also the world's largest landlocked country; its territory of is greater than Western Europe...

 on April 8, 2006, with the crew of Expedition 12
Expedition 12
Expedition 12 was the 12th expedition to the International Space Station, launched from Kazakhstan using the Russian Soyuz TMA-7 spacecraft...

.

The Brazilian Space Agency has pursued a policy of joint technological development with more advanced space programs. Initially it relied heavily on the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, but after meeting difficulties from them on technological transfers, Brazil has branched out, working with other nations, including China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

, India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 and Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

.

Launch sites

Alcântara Launch Center

2°20′S 44°24′W

The Alcântara Launch Center is the main launch site and operational center of the Brazilian Space Agency. It is located in the peninsula of Alcântara, in the state of Maranhão
Maranhão
Maranhão is a northeastern state of Brazil. To the north lies the Atlantic Ocean. Maranhão is neighbored by the states of Piauí, Tocantins and Pará. The people of Maranhão have a distinctive accent...

. This region presents some excellent requirements, such as low population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

, excellent security conditions and easiness of aerial and maritime access. The most important factor is its closeness to the Equator
Equator
An equator is the intersection of a sphere's surface with the plane perpendicular to the sphere's axis of rotation and containing the sphere's center of mass....

 - Alcântara is the closest launching base to the Equator. This gives the launch site a significant advantage in launching geosynchronous satellite
Geosynchronous satellite
A geosynchronous Satellite is a satellite whose orbit on the Earth repeats regularly over points on the Earth over time. If such a satellite's orbit lies over the equator, the orbit is circular and its angular velocity is the same as the earth's, then it is called a geostationary satellite...

s.

Barreira do Inferno Launch Center

5°55′30"S 35°9′47"W

The Barreira do Inferno Launch Center is a rocket launch base of the Brazilian Space Agency. It is located in the city of Parnamirim
Parnamirim
Parnamirim is a city in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. It is located at around . Augusto Severo International Airport, the airport serving the city of Natal, is located there....

, in the state of Rio Grande do Norte
Rio Grande do Norte
Rio Grande do Norte is one of the states of Brazil, located in the northeastern region of the country, occupying the northeasternmost tip of the South American continent. Because of its geographic position, Rio Grande do Norte has a strategic importance. The capital and largest city is Natal...

. It is primarily used to launch sounding rocket
Sounding rocket
A sounding rocket, sometimes called a research rocket, is an instrument-carrying rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments during its sub-orbital flight. The origin of the term comes from nautical vocabulary, where to sound is to throw a weighted line from a ship into...

s and to support the Alcântara Launch Center.

Launch vehicles

Sounding rockets

The Brazilian Space Agency has operated a series of sounding rockets.
  • Sonda I
  • Sonda II
  • Sonda III
  • Sonda IV
  • VSB-30
    VSB-30
    VSB-30 - "Veículo de Sondagem Booster – 30" is the designation of a Brazilian sounding rocket, which replaced the Skylark rocket at Esrange....

  • VS-30
    VS-30
    The VS-30 is an Argentine-Brazilian sounding rocket, derived from the Sonda 3 sounding rocket's first stage. It consists of a single, solid-fuelled stage, and has been launched from Alcântara, Maranhão, and Parnamirim, Rio Grande do Norte, in Brazil, and Andøya in Norway.It has been launched both...

  • VS-40
    VS-40
    The VS-40 is a Brazilian sounding rocket using solid fuel, stabilized aerodynamically, distributed between the first stage S-40TM engine and the second stage S-44 engine.-Flights:...


VLS

The VLS - Satellite Launch Vehicle is the Brazilian Space Agency's main satellite launch vehicle. It is a four-stage rocket
Multistage rocket
A multistage rocket is a rocket that usestwo or more stages, each of which contains its own engines and propellant. A tandem or serial stage is mounted on top of another stage; a parallel stage is attached alongside another stage. The result is effectively two or more rockets stacked on top of or...

 composed of a core and four strap-on motors. The vehicle's first stage has four solid fuel motors derived from the Sonda sounding rocket
Sounding rocket
A sounding rocket, sometimes called a research rocket, is an instrument-carrying rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments during its sub-orbital flight. The origin of the term comes from nautical vocabulary, where to sound is to throw a weighted line from a ship into...

s. It is intended to deploy 100 to 380 kg satellite
Satellite
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object which has been placed into orbit by human endeavour. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon....

s into 200 to 1200 km orbit
Orbit
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved path of an object around a point in space, for example the orbit of a planet around the center of a star system, such as the Solar System...

, or to deploy 75 to 275 kg payloads into 200 to 1000 km polar orbit
Polar orbit
A polar orbit is an orbit in which a satellite passes above or nearly above both poles of the body being orbited on each revolution. It therefore has an inclination of 90 degrees to the equator...

. The first 3 prototypes for the vehicle failed to launch, with the 3rd exploding on the launch pad in 2003 resulting in the deaths of 21 AEB personnel. A new version of the launcher is under design with Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

n assistance.

VLM

The VLM-1 "Veiculo Lançador de Microsatelites" (Microsatelite Launch Vehicle) is also being developed based on the VLS rocket engines.

Southern Cross program

The Brazilian Space Agency is currently developing a new family of launch vehicles
Launch vehicle
In spaceflight, a launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from the Earth's surface into outer space. A launch system includes the launch vehicle, the launch pad and other infrastructure....

 in cooperation with the Russian Federal Space Agency
Russian Federal Space Agency
The Russian Federal Space Agency , commonly called Roscosmos and abbreviated as FKA and RKA , is the government agency responsible for the Russian space science program and general aerospace research. It was previously the Russian Aviation and Space Agency .Headquarters of Roscosmos are located...

. The five rockets of the Southern Cross family will be based on Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

's Angara vehicle and liquid-propellant engines
Liquid rocket propellants
The highest specific impulse chemical rockets use liquid propellants. This type of propellant has a long history going back to the first rockets and is still in use, for example in the Space Shuttle and Ariane 5.-Early development:...

.

The program was named "Southern Cross" in reference to the Crux
Crux
Crux is the smallest of the 88 modern constellations, but is one of the most distinctive. Its name is Latin for cross, and it is dominated by a cross-shaped asterism that is commonly known as the Southern Cross.-Visibility:...

 constellation, present on the flag of Brazil
Flag of Brazil
The national flag of Brazil is a blue disc depicting a starry sky spanned by a curved band inscribed with the national motto, within a yellow rhombus, on a green field. Brazil officially adopted this design for its national flag on November 19, 1889, replacing the flag of the second Empire of Brazil...

 and composed of five stars. Hence the names of the future launch vehicles:
  • Alpha
    Alpha Crucis
    Acrux is the brightest star in the constellation Crux, the Southern Cross, and, at a combined visual magnitude 0.77, is the twelfth brightest star in the night sky...

     (light-weight rocket)
  • Beta
    Beta Crucis
    Mimosa or Becrux is the second brightest star in the constellation Crux and is one of the brightest stars in the night sky....

     (light-weight rocket)
  • Gamma
    Gamma Crucis
    Gamma Crucis , often called Gacrux, is a red giant star approximately 88 light-years away in the constellation of Crux. Among Portuguese-speaking peoples it is also named "Rubídea" , in reference to its color. The star is the third-brightest star in Crux and one of the brightest stars in the...

     (light-weight rocket)
  • Delta (medium-weight rocket)
  • Epsilon (heavy-weight rocket)


The first stage of the Gamma, Delta and Epsilon rockets will be powered by a unit based on the RD-191 engine
RD-191
The RD-191 is a high performance single-combustion chamber rocket engine, developed in Russia. It is derived from the RD-170 originally used in the Energia launcher....

. The second stage, which will be the same for all the Southern Cross rockets, will be driven by an engine based on the Molniya rocket
Molniya (rocket)
Molniya 8K78 was a modification of the well-known R-7 Semyorka rocket and had four stages.This derivative of the original three stage Vostok rocket was especially designed to bring high flying satellites into orbit or to launch probes to other planets. The first launch of this rocket was on...

. The third stage will be a solid-propellant booster based on an upgraded version of the VLS-1
VLS-1
The VLS - Satellite Launch Vehicle - is the Brazilian Space Agency's main satellite launch vehicle project. The project's goal is to develop a launch vehicle capable of launching small general-purpose satellites into orbit...

.

The Gamma launcher is part of the light-weight class, but using the near-equatorial position of the Alcântara Launch Center, it can place almost 1 ton of payload into a GSO
Geosynchronous orbit
A geosynchronous orbit is an orbit around the Earth with an orbital period that matches the Earth's sidereal rotation period...

.

The Delta launcher is a medium-weight rocket and differs from the Gamma by having four solid-propellant boosters
Solid rocket booster
Solid rocket boosters or Solid Rocket Motors, SRM, are used to provide thrust in spacecraft launches from the launchpad up to burnout of the SRBs. Many launch vehicles include SRBs, including the Ariane 5, Atlas V , and the NASA Space Shuttle...

 attached to the first stage. Its payload deliverable to a GSO is 1.7 tons.

The Epsilon launcher is a heavy-weight rocket with three identical units attached to the first stage. It can place a four-ton spacecraft in orbit, if it is launched from Alcântara.

The Brazilian government is planning to allocate $1 billion dollars
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

 for the project in the next six years. It has already set aside $650 million dollars for the construction of five launch pads able to handle up to 12 launches per year. The program is scheduled to be completed by 2022.

Engines

A number of different engines were developed for usage on the several launch vehicles:
  • S-10-1 solid rocket engine. Used on Sonda 1.
  • S-10-2 solid rocket engine. Used on Sonda 1.
  • S-20 Avibras solid rocket engine. Used on Sonda 2 and Sonda 3.
  • S-23 Avibrassolid rocket engine. Used on Sonda 3M1.
  • S-30 IAE solid rocket engine. Used on Sonda 3, Sonda 3M1, Sonda 4, VS-30, VS-30/Orion and VSB-30.
  • S-31 IAE solid rocket engine. Used on VSB-30.
  • S-40TM IAE solid rocket engine. Used on VLS-R1, VS-40, VLS-1 and VLM.
  • S-43TM IAE solid rocket engine.Used on VLS-R1, VLS-1 and VLM.
  • S-43 IAE solid rocket engine. Used on Sonda 4, VLS-R1 and VLS-1.
  • S-44 IAE solid rocket engine. Used on VLS-R1, VS-40, VLS-1 and VLM.

Satellites

The Brazilian Space Agency has several active imagery intelligence satellite
Satellite
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object which has been placed into orbit by human endeavour. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon....

s in orbit, including reconnaissance and earth observation satellite
Earth observation satellite
Earth observation satellites are satellites specifically designed to observe Earth from orbit, similar to reconnaissance satellites but intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc....

s.
Satellite Origin Type Operational Status
SCD1
Satélite de Coleta de Dados
The first Data-Collecting Satellite was launched on February 9, 1993. It is the first satellite developed entirely in Brazil and it remains in operation in orbit to this date...

 
Earth observation
Earth observation satellite
Earth observation satellites are satellites specifically designed to observe Earth from orbit, similar to reconnaissance satellites but intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc....

 
1993 Active
SCD2
Satélite de Coleta de Dados
The first Data-Collecting Satellite was launched on February 9, 1993. It is the first satellite developed entirely in Brazil and it remains in operation in orbit to this date...

 
Earth observation 1998 Active
CBERS-1  / Earth observation 1999-2003 Retired
CBERS-2  / Earth observation 2003- Active
CBERS-2B  / Reconnaissance
Spy satellite
A spy satellite is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications....

 
2007- Active

Human spaceflight

Marcos Pontes
Marcos Pontes
Marco Pontes is a Brazilian Air Force pilot. He became the first Brazilian and the first Lusophone to go into space when he launched to the International Space Station aboard Soyuz TMA-8 on March 30, 2006...

, a lieutenant colonel
Lieutenant colonel
Lieutenant colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies and most marine forces and some air forces of the world, typically ranking above a major and below a colonel. The rank of lieutenant colonel is often shortened to simply "colonel" in conversation and in unofficial correspondence...

 in the Brazilian Air Force
Brazilian Air Force
The Brazilian Air Force is the air branch of the Brazilian Armed Forces and one of the three national uniformed services. The FAB was formed when the Army and Navy air branch were merged into a single military force initially called "National Air Forces"...

, is an astronaut
Astronaut
An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft....

 of the Brazilian Space Agency. Pontes is the first professional Brazilian astronaut to go into space, having launched with the Expedition 13
Expedition 13
Expedition 13 was the 13th expedition to the International Space Station , and launched at 02:30 UTC on 30 March 2006. The expedition used the Soyuz TMA-8 spacecraft, which stayed at the station for the duration of the expedition for emergency evacuation....

 crew from the Baikonur Cosmodrome
Baikonur Cosmodrome
The Baikonur Cosmodrome , also called Tyuratam, is the world's first and largest operational space launch facility. It is located in the desert steppe of Kazakhstan, about east of the Aral Sea, north of the Syr Darya river, near Tyuratam railway station, at 90 meters above sea level...

 in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan , officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental country in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Ranked as the ninth largest country in the world, it is also the world's largest landlocked country; its territory of is greater than Western Europe...

 on March 29, 2006 aboard a Soyuz-TMA
Soyuz-TMA
The Soyuz-TMA is a recent revision of the Soyuz spacecraft, superseded in 2010 by the Soyuz TMA-M..It is used by the Russian Federal Space Agency for human spaceflight...

 spacecraft. Pontes docked with the International Space Station
International Space Station
The International Space Station is a habitable, artificial satellite in low Earth orbit. The ISS follows the Salyut, Almaz, Cosmos, Skylab, and Mir space stations, as the 11th space station launched, not including the Genesis I and II prototypes...

 (ISS) on March 31, 2006, where he lived and worked for 9 days. Pontes returned to Earth with the Expedition 12
Expedition 12
Expedition 12 was the 12th expedition to the International Space Station, launched from Kazakhstan using the Russian Soyuz TMA-7 spacecraft...

 crew, landing in Kazakhstan on April 8, 2006. Currently, Pontes continues with his technical duties for the International Space Station program in the development and fabrication of the Brazilian parts for the ISS. He is on stand-by for training for future Brazilian space flights.
Name Position Time in space Launch date Mission Mission insignia Status
Marcos Pontes
Marcos Pontes
Marco Pontes is a Brazilian Air Force pilot. He became the first Brazilian and the first Lusophone to go into space when he launched to the International Space Station aboard Soyuz TMA-8 on March 30, 2006...

 
Mission Specialist
Mission Specialist
A Mission Specialist is a position held by certain NASA astronauts during Space Shuttle missions. A Mission Specialist is assigned to a limited field of the mission, such as for medical experiments or technical quests....

 
9d 21h 17m March 30, 2006 Soyuz TMA-8
Soyuz TMA-8
-Back-up crew:-Docking with ISS:*Docked to ISS: April 1, 2006, 04:19 UTC *Undocked from ISS: September 28, 2006, 21:53 UTC -Mission highlights:29th manned flight to ISS...


Soyuz TMA-7
Soyuz TMA-7
Soyuz TMA-7 was a transport mission for portions of the International Space Station Expedition 12 crew launched October 1, 2005. The flight delivered ISS Commander William McArthur and ISS Flight Engineer Valery Tokarev to the station to replace Expedition 11 crew members...

 
Active, on stand-by

International Space Station

The Brazilian Space Agency is a bilateral partner of NASA
NASA
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation's civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research...

 in the International Space Station
International Space Station
The International Space Station is a habitable, artificial satellite in low Earth orbit. The ISS follows the Salyut, Almaz, Cosmos, Skylab, and Mir space stations, as the 11th space station launched, not including the Genesis I and II prototypes...

. The agreement for the design, development, operation and use of Brazilian developed flight equipment and payloads for the Space Station was signed in 1997. It includes the development of six items, among which are a Window Observational Research Facility
Window Observational Research Facility
The Window Observational Research Facility provides a facility by which remotely operated payloads and crew members can perform Earth and space science research, including hand held photography, at the U.S...

 and a Technology Experiment Facility. In return, NASA will provide Brazil with access to its ISS facilities on-orbit, as well as a flight opportunity for one Brazilian astronaut during the course of the ISS program.

Ukraine

On October 21, 2003, the Brazilian Space Agency and the State Space Agency of Ukraine established a cooperation agreement creating a joint venture
Joint venture
A joint venture is a business agreement in which parties agree to develop, for a finite time, a new entity and new assets by contributing equity. They exercise control over the enterprise and consequently share revenues, expenses and assets...

 space enterprise called Alcântara Cyclone Space. The new company will focus on launching satellite
Satellite
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object which has been placed into orbit by human endeavour. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon....

s from the Alcântara Launch Center using the Tsyklon-4
Tsyklon-4
The Tsyklon-4 or Cyclone-4, also known as Tsiklon-4, is a Ukrainian carrier rocket which is being developed for commercial satellite launches. Derived from the Tsyklon-3, it has a new third stage, a larger payload fairing, and a modernised flight control system compared to its predecessor...

 rocket. The company will invest $160 million dollars
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

 in infrastructure for the new launch pad
Launch pad
A launch pad is the area and facilities where rockets or spacecraft lift off. A spaceport can contain one or many launch pads. A typical launch pad consists of the service and umbilical structures. The service structure provides an access platform to inspect the launch vehicle prior to launch....

 that will be constructed at the Alcântara Launch Center.

In March 2009, the Brazilian Government increased its financial capital
Financial capital
Financial capital can refer to money used by entrepreneurs and businesses to buy what they need to make their products or provide their services or to that sector of the economy based on its operation, i.e. retail, corporate, investment banking, etc....

 by US$
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

 50 million.

See also

  • National Institute for Space Research
    National Institute for Space Research
    The National Institute for Space Research is a research unit of the Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology, whose main goals are fostering scientific research and technological applications and qualifying personnel in the fields of space and atmospheric sciences, space engineering, and space...

     (INPE)
  • Brazilian General Command for Aerospace Technology (CTA)
    Brazilian General Command for Aerospace Technology (CTA)
    The Brazilian General-Command for Aerospace Technology is the national military research center for aviation and space flight of Brazil. It is subordinated to the Brazilian Air Force....

  • Aeronautics Technological Institute (ITA)
    Aeronautics Technological Institute
    The Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica or Aeronautical Institute of Technology is an institution of higher education and advanced research with emphasis in aerospace science and technology maintained by the Brazilian Federal Government with the support of the Brazilian Air Force. It is located...


External links

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