Bravo Two Zero
Overview
 
This article is about the actual events. For the book, see Bravo Two Zero (1993 book)
Bravo Two Zero (1993 book)
Bravo Two Zero is a 1993 book written under the pseudonym 'Andy McNab'. The book recounts the story of an SAS patrol behind enemy lines in Iraq, in 1991, which was led by the author.-Controversy:...

. For the film, see Bravo Two Zero (film)
Bravo Two Zero (film)
Bravo Two Zero is a 1999 two hour television miniseries , based on the book of the same name by Andy McNab. The film covers real life events - from the perspective of Andy McNab, patrol commander of Bravo Two Zero, a British SAS patrol , tasked to find Iraqi Scud missile launchers during the Gulf...

.


Bravo Two Zero was the call sign of an eight-man British Army
British Army
The British Army is the land warfare branch of Her Majesty's Armed Forces in the United Kingdom. It came into being with the unification of the Kingdom of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The new British Army incorporated Regiments that had already existed in England...

 SAS
Special Air Service
Special Air Service or SAS is a corps of the British Army constituted on 31 May 1950. They are part of the United Kingdom Special Forces and have served as a model for the special forces of many other countries all over the world...

 patrol, deployed into Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

 during the First Gulf War
Gulf War
The Persian Gulf War , commonly referred to as simply the Gulf War, was a war waged by a U.N.-authorized coalition force from 34 nations led by the United States, against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.The war is also known under other names, such as the First Gulf...

 in January 1991. According to one patrol member's account, the patrol were given the task of "gathering intelligence;... finding a good LUP (lying up position) and setting up an OP
Observation post
An observation post, temporary or fixed, is a position from which soldiers can watch enemy movements, to warn of approaching soldiers , or to direct artillery fire...

" on the Iraqi Main Supply Route
Main Supply Route
A Main Supply Route is the route or routes designated within an area of operations upon which the bulk of traffic flows in support of military operations....

 (MSR) between Baghdad
Baghdad
Baghdad is the capital of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Governorate. The population of Baghdad in 2011 is approximately 7,216,040...

 and North-Western Iraq, while according to another, the task was to find and destroy Iraqi Scud missile launchers along a 250 km (155.3 mi) stretch of the MSR.

The patrol was the subject of several books, firstly patrol commander Andy McNab
Andy McNab
Sergeant ‘Andy McNab’ DCM MM is the pseudonym of an English novelist and former SAS operative and soldier.McNab came into public prominence in 1993, when he published his account of the failed Special Air Service patrol, Bravo Two Zero for which he was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal in...

's Bravo Two Zero
Bravo Two Zero (1993 book)
Bravo Two Zero is a 1993 book written under the pseudonym 'Andy McNab'. The book recounts the story of an SAS patrol behind enemy lines in Iraq, in 1991, which was led by the author.-Controversy:...

(1993) followed by Chris Ryan
Chris Ryan
Sergeant ‘Chris Ryan’ MM is the pseudonym of a former British Special Forces operative and soldier turned novelist...

's The One That Got Away
The One That Got Away (1995 book)
The One That Got Away is a 1995 book written under the pseudonym 'Chris Ryan' concerning the SAS patrol Bravo Two Zero, which was dropped behind enemy lines in Iraq in 1991...

(1995).
Encyclopedia
This article is about the actual events. For the book, see Bravo Two Zero (1993 book)
Bravo Two Zero (1993 book)
Bravo Two Zero is a 1993 book written under the pseudonym 'Andy McNab'. The book recounts the story of an SAS patrol behind enemy lines in Iraq, in 1991, which was led by the author.-Controversy:...

. For the film, see Bravo Two Zero (film)
Bravo Two Zero (film)
Bravo Two Zero is a 1999 two hour television miniseries , based on the book of the same name by Andy McNab. The film covers real life events - from the perspective of Andy McNab, patrol commander of Bravo Two Zero, a British SAS patrol , tasked to find Iraqi Scud missile launchers during the Gulf...

.


Bravo Two Zero was the call sign of an eight-man British Army
British Army
The British Army is the land warfare branch of Her Majesty's Armed Forces in the United Kingdom. It came into being with the unification of the Kingdom of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The new British Army incorporated Regiments that had already existed in England...

 SAS
Special Air Service
Special Air Service or SAS is a corps of the British Army constituted on 31 May 1950. They are part of the United Kingdom Special Forces and have served as a model for the special forces of many other countries all over the world...

 patrol, deployed into Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

 during the First Gulf War
Gulf War
The Persian Gulf War , commonly referred to as simply the Gulf War, was a war waged by a U.N.-authorized coalition force from 34 nations led by the United States, against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.The war is also known under other names, such as the First Gulf...

 in January 1991. According to one patrol member's account, the patrol were given the task of "gathering intelligence;... finding a good LUP (lying up position) and setting up an OP
Observation post
An observation post, temporary or fixed, is a position from which soldiers can watch enemy movements, to warn of approaching soldiers , or to direct artillery fire...

" on the Iraqi Main Supply Route
Main Supply Route
A Main Supply Route is the route or routes designated within an area of operations upon which the bulk of traffic flows in support of military operations....

 (MSR) between Baghdad
Baghdad
Baghdad is the capital of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Governorate. The population of Baghdad in 2011 is approximately 7,216,040...

 and North-Western Iraq, while according to another, the task was to find and destroy Iraqi Scud missile launchers along a 250 km (155.3 mi) stretch of the MSR.

The patrol was the subject of several books, firstly patrol commander Andy McNab
Andy McNab
Sergeant ‘Andy McNab’ DCM MM is the pseudonym of an English novelist and former SAS operative and soldier.McNab came into public prominence in 1993, when he published his account of the failed Special Air Service patrol, Bravo Two Zero for which he was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal in...

's Bravo Two Zero
Bravo Two Zero (1993 book)
Bravo Two Zero is a 1993 book written under the pseudonym 'Andy McNab'. The book recounts the story of an SAS patrol behind enemy lines in Iraq, in 1991, which was led by the author.-Controversy:...

(1993) followed by Chris Ryan
Chris Ryan
Sergeant ‘Chris Ryan’ MM is the pseudonym of a former British Special Forces operative and soldier turned novelist...

's The One That Got Away
The One That Got Away (1995 book)
The One That Got Away is a 1995 book written under the pseudonym 'Chris Ryan' concerning the SAS patrol Bravo Two Zero, which was dropped behind enemy lines in Iraq in 1991...

(1995). Accounts in both these books, as well as the account by the SAS's RSM
Regimental Sergeant Major
Regimental Sergeant Major is an appointment held by warrant officers class 1 in the British Army, the British Royal Marines and in the armies of many Commonwealth nations, including Australia and New Zealand; and by chief warrant officers in the Canadian Forces...

 at the time of the patrol, Peter Ratcliffe
Peter Ratcliffe
Major Peter Ratcliffe DCM is an author and former member of the Special Air Service .Peter Ratcliffe came originally from Salford, Greater Manchester. As a boy, he joined the 1st Battalion, The Parachute Regiment before and eventually going on to pass the SAS selection course...

 (Eye of the Storm, 2000), did not always correspond, leading to accusations of lying from the media, the investigative book The Real Bravo Two Zero (2002) by Michael Asher
Michael Asher (explorer)
Michael Asher is an author, historian, deep ecologist, and notable desert explorer who has covered more than 30,000 miles on foot and camel. He spent three years living with a traditional nomadic tribe in the Sudan.-Biography:...

 which followed the patrol route and interviewed witnesses, and the subsequent book, Soldier Five
Soldier Five
Soldier Five - The Real Truth About the Bravo Two Zero Mission is the third book about the Bravo Two Zero mission during the Gulf War to have been written by a member of the eight-man patrol involved....

by patrol member "Kiwi Mike" in 2004.

For McNab's conduct during the patrol, he was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal
Distinguished Conduct Medal
The Distinguished Conduct Medal was an extremely high level award for bravery. It was a second level military decoration awarded to other ranks of the British Army and formerly also to non-commissioned personnel of other Commonwealth countries.The medal was instituted in 1854, during the Crimean...

, whilst Ryan, and two other patrol members (Steven Lane and Robert Consiglio) were awarded the Military Medal
Military Medal
The Military Medal was a military decoration awarded to personnel of the British Army and other services, and formerly also to personnel of other Commonwealth countries, below commissioned rank, for bravery in battle on land....

.

Patrol members

Sergeant 'Andy McNab
Andy McNab
Sergeant ‘Andy McNab’ DCM MM is the pseudonym of an English novelist and former SAS operative and soldier.McNab came into public prominence in 1993, when he published his account of the failed Special Air Service patrol, Bravo Two Zero for which he was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal in...

' (pseudonym), DCM
Distinguished Conduct Medal
The Distinguished Conduct Medal was an extremely high level award for bravery. It was a second level military decoration awarded to other ranks of the British Army and formerly also to non-commissioned personnel of other Commonwealth countries.The medal was instituted in 1854, during the Crimean...

, MM
Military Medal
The Military Medal was a military decoration awarded to personnel of the British Army and other services, and formerly also to personnel of other Commonwealth countries, below commissioned rank, for bravery in battle on land....

, patrol commander: former Royal Green Jackets
Royal Green Jackets
The Royal Green Jackets was an infantry regiment of the British Army, one of two "large regiments" within the Light Division .-History:...

. Captured by the enemy, later released. Author of Bravo Two Zero
Bravo Two Zero (1993 book)
Bravo Two Zero is a 1993 book written under the pseudonym 'Andy McNab'. The book recounts the story of an SAS patrol behind enemy lines in Iraq, in 1991, which was led by the author.-Controversy:...

(1993).
Sergeant Vincent (Vince) David Phillips, patrol 2IC
Second-in-command
The Second-in-Command is the deputy commander of any British Army or Royal Marines unit, from battalion or regiment downwards. He or she is thus the equivalent of an Executive Officer in the United States Army...

: former Royal Army Ordnance Corps
Royal Army Ordnance Corps
The Royal Army Ordnance Corps was a corps of the British Army. It dealt only with the supply and maintenance of weaponry, munitions and other military equipment until 1965, when it took over most other supply functions, as well as the provision of staff clerks, from the Royal Army Service...

. Died of hypothermia
Hypothermia
Hypothermia is a condition in which core temperature drops below the required temperature for normal metabolism and body functions which is defined as . Body temperature is usually maintained near a constant level of through biologic homeostasis or thermoregulation...

 during action, 25 January 1991.
Corporal 'Chris "Geordie" Ryan'
Chris Ryan
Sergeant ‘Chris Ryan’ MM is the pseudonym of a former British Special Forces operative and soldier turned novelist...

, (Pseudonym), MM
Military Medal
The Military Medal was a military decoration awarded to personnel of the British Army and other services, and formerly also to personnel of other Commonwealth countries, below commissioned rank, for bravery in battle on land....

:former 23(R) SAS. The only member of the patrol to escape capture. Author of The One That Got Away
The One That Got Away (1995 book)
The One That Got Away is a 1995 book written under the pseudonym 'Chris Ryan' concerning the SAS patrol Bravo Two Zero, which was dropped behind enemy lines in Iraq in 1991...

(1995).
Lance Corporal Ian Robert "Dinger" Pring: former Parachute Regiment. Captured by the enemy, later released.
Trooper
Trooper (rank)
Trooper from the French "troupier" is the equivalent rank to private in a regiment with a cavalry tradition in the British Army and many other Commonwealth armies, including those of Australia, Canada, South Africa and New Zealand. Today, most cavalry units operate in the armoured role, equipped...

 Robert (Bob) Gaspare Consiglio, MM
Military Medal
The Military Medal was a military decoration awarded to personnel of the British Army and other services, and formerly also to personnel of other Commonwealth countries, below commissioned rank, for bravery in battle on land....

 (posthumous): former Royal Marine or Parachute Regiment. Killed in action, 27 January 1991.
Trooper
Trooper (rank)
Trooper from the French "troupier" is the equivalent rank to private in a regiment with a cavalry tradition in the British Army and many other Commonwealth armies, including those of Australia, Canada, South Africa and New Zealand. Today, most cavalry units operate in the armoured role, equipped...

 Steven John "Legs" Lane, MM
Military Medal
The Military Medal was a military decoration awarded to personnel of the British Army and other services, and formerly also to personnel of other Commonwealth countries, below commissioned rank, for bravery in battle on land....

 (posthumous): former Lance Corporal
Lance Corporal
Lance corporal is a military rank, used by many armed forces worldwide, and also by some police forces and other uniformed organizations. It is below the rank of corporal, and is typically the lowest non-commissioned officer, usually equivalent to the NATO Rank Grade OR-3.- Etymology :The presumed...

 of 9 Parachute Squadron
9 Parachute Squadron RE
9 Parachute Squadron RE , is an airborne detachment of the Royal Engineers, part of the British Army. Like other units comprising the Royal Engineers, soldiers in the squadron are called sappers.-Early history:...

, Royal Engineers
Royal Engineers
The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers , and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army....

 and former Parachute Regiment. Died of hypothermia
Hypothermia
Hypothermia is a condition in which core temperature drops below the required temperature for normal metabolism and body functions which is defined as . Body temperature is usually maintained near a constant level of through biologic homeostasis or thermoregulation...

 during action, 27 January 1991.
Trooper
Trooper (rank)
Trooper from the French "troupier" is the equivalent rank to private in a regiment with a cavalry tradition in the British Army and many other Commonwealth armies, including those of Australia, Canada, South Africa and New Zealand. Today, most cavalry units operate in the armoured role, equipped...

 Malcolm (Mal) Graham MacGown, BDSc: former Australian 1st Commando Regiment
1st Commando Regiment
1st Commando Regiment is a reserve commando regiment of the Australian Army with a contingent of full-time cadre staff. It is part of the Australian Special Operations Command .-Organisation:...

. Captured by the enemy, later released. Referred to as 'Stan' in the books.
Trooper
Trooper (rank)
Trooper from the French "troupier" is the equivalent rank to private in a regiment with a cavalry tradition in the British Army and many other Commonwealth armies, including those of Australia, Canada, South Africa and New Zealand. Today, most cavalry units operate in the armoured role, equipped...

 'Mike "Kiwi" Coburn' (pseudonym): former NZSAS. Captured by the enemy, later released. Author of Soldier Five
Soldier Five
Soldier Five - The Real Truth About the Bravo Two Zero Mission is the third book about the Bravo Two Zero mission during the Gulf War to have been written by a member of the eight-man patrol involved....

(2004). Referred to as 'Mark the Kiwi' in the books.

Background

In January 1991, during the prelude to the Coalition ground invasion of Iraq, B Squadron 22 SAS
Special Air Service
Special Air Service or SAS is a corps of the British Army constituted on 31 May 1950. They are part of the United Kingdom Special Forces and have served as a model for the special forces of many other countries all over the world...

 were stationed at a forward operating base
Forward Operating Base
A forward operating base is any secured forward military position, commonly a military base, that is used to support tactical operations. A FOB may or may not contain an airfield, hospital, or other facilities. The base may be used for an extended period of time. FOBs are traditionally supported...

 in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

. The Squadron provided a number of long-range, similarly tasked teams deep into Iraq including three eight man patrols; Bravo One Zero, Bravo Two Zero and Bravo Three Zero. Asher lists one of the three patrols as Bravo One Niner, though it is not clear whether this is one of the same three listed by Ryan. This article refers to the Bravo Two Zero patrol.

Insertion

On the night of 22/23 January, the patrol
Patrolling
Patrolling is a military tactic. Small groups or individual units are deployed from a larger formation to achieve a specific objective and then return. The tactic of patrolling may be applied to ground troops, armoured units, naval units, and combat aircraft...

 were transported into Iraqi airspace by an RAF
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Formed on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world...

 Chinook helicopter, along with Bravo One Zero and their Land Rover 110 vehicles. Unlike Bravo One Zero, the patrol had decided not to take vehicles. According to McNab's account, the patrol walked 20 km (12.4 mi) during the first night to the proposed location of the observation post. However, both Ryan's and Coburn's accounts put the distance at 2 km (1.2 mi). Eye-witness accounts of Bedouin tribesmen
Bedouin
The Bedouin are a part of a predominantly desert-dwelling Arab ethnic group traditionally divided into tribes or clans, known in Arabic as ..-Etymology:...

, and Asher's re-creation support the Ryan/Coburn estimate of 2 km (1.2 mi). Whilst Ryan states the patrol was intentionally dropped only 2 km (1.2 mi) from the observation post because of heavy pack weights, Coburn's account suggests that the patrol was dropped closer than intended to the observation post, due to a navigational error made by the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Formed on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world...

. This could account for the differences in the patrol members' estimates.

According to both Ryan and McNab, the weight of their equipment required the patrol to 'shuttle' the equipment to the observation post. Four members would walk approximately 300 m, then drop their Bergen
Backpack
A backpack is, in its simplest form, a cloth sack carried on one's back and secured with two straps that go over the shoulders, but there can be exceptions...

s and wait. The next four would move up and drop their Bergens, then the first four would return for their jerry cans of water and bring them back to the group, followed by the second four doing the same. In this manner, each member of the patrol covered three times the distance from the drop off to the observation post.

Soon after the patrol landed on Iraqi soil, Lane discovered that they had communication problems and could not receive messages on the patrol's radio. McNab later claimed that the patrol had been issued with incorrect radio frequencies; however a 2002 BBC
BBC
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters is at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff...

 report discovered that there was no error with the frequencies because the patrol's transmissions had been noted in the SAS daily record log. Ratcliffe
Peter Ratcliffe
Major Peter Ratcliffe DCM is an author and former member of the Special Air Service .Peter Ratcliffe came originally from Salford, Greater Manchester. As a boy, he joined the 1st Battalion, The Parachute Regiment before and eventually going on to pass the SAS selection course...

 lays the blame for the faulty radios on McNab as, being the patrol commander, it was his job to make sure the patrol's equipment was working.

Compromise

In the late afternoon of 24 January, the patrol was stumbled upon by a herd of sheep and a young shepherd. Believing themselves compromised, the patrol decided to withdraw, leaving behind excess equipment. As they were preparing to leave they heard what they thought to be a tank approaching their position. The patrol took up defensive positions, prepared their LAW rockets
M72 LAW
The M72 LAW is a portable one-shot 66 mm unguided anti-tank weapon, designed in the United States by Paul V. Choate, Charles B. Weeks, and Frank A. Spinale et al...

, and waited for it to come into sight. However, the vehicle turned out to be a bulldozer
Bulldozer
A bulldozer is a crawler equipped with a substantial metal plate used to push large quantities of soil, sand, rubble, etc., during construction work and typically equipped at the rear with a claw-like device to loosen densely-compacted materials.Bulldozers can be found on a wide range of sites,...

, which reversed rapidly after seeing the patrol. Realising that they had now definitely been compromised the patrol withdrew from their position. Shortly afterwards, as they were exfiltrating (according to McNab's account), a firefight with Iraqi Armoured Personnel Carriers and other forces developed.

In 2001, Asher
Michael Asher (explorer)
Michael Asher is an author, historian, deep ecologist, and notable desert explorer who has covered more than 30,000 miles on foot and camel. He spent three years living with a traditional nomadic tribe in the Sudan.-Biography:...

 interviewed the Bedouin
Bedouin
The Bedouin are a part of a predominantly desert-dwelling Arab ethnic group traditionally divided into tribes or clans, known in Arabic as ..-Etymology:...

 family that discovered the patrol. The family stated the patrol had been spotted by the driver of the bulldozer, not the young shepherd. According to the family, they were not sure who the men were and followed them a short distance, eventually firing several warning shots, whereupon the patrol returned fire and moved away. Asher's investigation into the events, the terrain and position of the Iraqi Army did not support McNab's version of events, and excludes an attack by Iraqi soldiers and Armoured Personnel carriers. Coburn's version, Soldier Five
Soldier Five
Soldier Five - The Real Truth About the Bravo Two Zero Mission is the third book about the Bravo Two Zero mission during the Gulf War to have been written by a member of the eight-man patrol involved....

, partially supports McNab's version of events (specifically the presence of one armoured personnel carrier
Armoured personnel carrier
An armoured personnel carrier is an armoured fighting vehicle designed to transport infantry to the battlefield.APCs are usually armed with only a machine gun although variants carry recoilless rifles, anti-tank guided missiles , or mortars...

) and describes being fired upon by a 12.7 mm DShK
DShK
The DShK 1938 is a Soviet heavy machine gun firing the 12.7x108mm cartridge. The weapon was also used as a heavy infantry machine gun, in which case it was frequently deployed with a two-wheeled mounting and a single-sheet armour-plate shield...

 heavy machine gun and numerous Iraqi soldiers. In Ryan's version, "[MacGown] also saw an armoured car carrying a .50 caliber machine gun pull up. Somehow, I never saw that.'" Ryan later estimated that he fired 70 rounds during the incident.

Emergency pickup

The British standard operating procedures (SOP) state that in the case of an emergency or no radio contact the patrol should return to their original infiltration point, where a helicopter would land briefly every 24 hours. This plan was complicated by the incorrect location of the initial landing site; the patrol reached the designated emergency pickup point, but the helicopter never appeared. Ratcliffe
Peter Ratcliffe
Major Peter Ratcliffe DCM is an author and former member of the Special Air Service .Peter Ratcliffe came originally from Salford, Greater Manchester. As a boy, he joined the 1st Battalion, The Parachute Regiment before and eventually going on to pass the SAS selection course...

 later revealed that this was due to an illness suffered by the pilot, while en route, necessitating his abandoning his mission on this occasion.

Because of a malfunctioning emergency radio, that allowed them only to send messages and not receive them, the patrol did not realise that while trying to reach overhead allied jets, they had in fact been heard by a US jet pilot. The jet pilots were aware of the patrol's problems but were unable to raise them. Many sortie
Sortie
Sortie is a term for deployment or dispatch of one military unit, be it an aircraft, ship, or troops from a strongpoint. The sortie, whether by one or more aircraft or vessels, usually has a specific mission....

s were flown to the team's last known position and their expected exfiltration route in an attempt to locate them and to hinder attempts by Iraqi troops trying to capture them.

Exfiltration route

Standard operating procedures mandate that before an infiltration of any team behind enemy lines, an exfiltration route should be planned so that members of the patrol know where to go if they get separated or something goes wrong. The plans of the patrol indicated a southern exfiltration route towards Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

. According to the SAS daily record log kept during that time, a TACBE transmission from the patrol was received on 24 January. The log read "Bravo Two Zero made TACBE contact again, it was reasonable to assume that they were moving south," though in fact the patrol headed north-west towards the Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

n border. Coburn's account suggests that during the planning phase of the mission, Syria had been the agreed destination should an escape plan need to be implemented. He also suggests that this was on the advice of the Officer Commanding B Squadron at that time.

According to Ratcliffe, the change in plan nullified all efforts over the following days by allied forces to locate and rescue the team. McNab has also been criticised for refusing advice from superiors to include vehicles in the mission (to be left at an emergency pickup point) which would have facilitated an easier exfiltration. Another SAS team used Land Rover
Land Rover
Land Rover is a British car manufacturer with its headquarters in Gaydon, Warwickshire, United Kingdom which specialises in four-wheel-drive vehicles. It is owned by the Indian company Tata Motors, forming part of their Jaguar Land Rover group...

s in this role when they also had to abandon a similar mission. However, it is also suggested that the patrol jointly agreed not to take vehicles because they felt they were too few in number and the vehicles too small (only short-wheelbase Land Rovers were available) to be of use and were ill-suited to a mission that was intended to be conducted from a fixed observation post.

Separation

During the night of 24/25 January, whilst McNab was trying to contact a passing Coalition aircraft using a TACBE communicator, the patrol inadvertently became separated into two groups. Whilst the others waited for a response on the TACBE, Phillips, Ryan and MacGown continued to move through the darkness. Neither of the two resultant groups followed the standard emergency rendezvous (ERV) procedure they had been trained to follow—and had previously followed the night before. Instead, both groups independently continued north towards the Syrian border.

After the separation, Phillips, Ryan and MacGown were equipped with two M16
M16 rifle
The M16 is the United States military designation for the AR-15 rifle adapted for both semi-automatic and full-automatic fire. Colt purchased the rights to the AR-15 from ArmaLite, and currently uses that designation only for semi-automatic versions of the rifle. The M16 fires the 5.56×45mm NATO...

/M203
M203 grenade launcher
The M203 is a single shot 40 mm grenade launcher designed to attach to a rifle. It uses the same rounds as the older M79 break-action grenade launcher, which utilize the High-Low Propulsion System to keep recoil forces low. Though versatile, and compatible with many rifle models, the M203 was...

 assault rifles and a Browning Hi-Power
Browning Hi-Power
The Browning Hi-Power is a single-action, 9 mm semi-automatic handgun. It is based on a design by American firearms inventor John Browning, and completed by Dieudonné Saive at Fabrique Nationale of Herstal, Belgium. Browning died in 1926, several years before the design was finalized...

 pistol between them, as well as at least one TACBE, and the night sight around Ryan's neck. McNab, Pring, Lane, Consiglio, and Coburn were equipped with their original weapons (three Minimi
FN Minimi
The Minimi is a Belgian 5.56mm light machine gun developed by Fabrique Nationale in Herstal by Ernest Vervier. First introduced in 1974, it has entered service with the armed forces of over thirty countries...

s and two M16
M16 rifle
The M16 is the United States military designation for the AR-15 rifle adapted for both semi-automatic and full-automatic fire. Colt purchased the rights to the AR-15 from ArmaLite, and currently uses that designation only for semi-automatic versions of the rifle. The M16 fires the 5.56×45mm NATO...

/M203
M203 grenade launcher
The M203 is a single shot 40 mm grenade launcher designed to attach to a rifle. It uses the same rounds as the older M79 break-action grenade launcher, which utilize the High-Low Propulsion System to keep recoil forces low. Though versatile, and compatible with many rifle models, the M203 was...

s between them) as well as MacGown's Minimi
FN Minimi
The Minimi is a Belgian 5.56mm light machine gun developed by Fabrique Nationale in Herstal by Ernest Vervier. First introduced in 1974, it has entered service with the armed forces of over thirty countries...

 (which MacNab was carrying, but soon discarded). The larger group carried at least one TACBE, and the Magellan GPS.

According to Ryan, he was also carrying a 66 mm LAW rocket which he had struggled to free from his Bergen during the initial contact. According to McNab however, the only item removed by Ryan from his Bergan was a silver hipflask, and it was McNab who was the only one carrying a 66 after this contact. This can be backed up by McNab's book Bravo Two Zero in which he stated he left the 66 in the bergen and was the only one to do so. Despite conflicting accounts, it is possible that Ryan may have in fact eventually ended up with McNab's LAW rocket, an item that Ryan later claimed to have used against an Iraqi 'Land-Rover type' vehicle, though this event is discounted by Ratcliffe who states that, at the Regimental debrief, "[Ryan] made no mention at all of encountering enemy troops on his trek."

Death of Phillips

In the evening of 25 January, Ryan, MacGown and Phillips left the tank berm they had stayed in during the day and headed north. Phillips was already suffering from hypothermia
Hypothermia
Hypothermia is a condition in which core temperature drops below the required temperature for normal metabolism and body functions which is defined as . Body temperature is usually maintained near a constant level of through biologic homeostasis or thermoregulation...

, and could not hold his M16
M16 rifle
The M16 is the United States military designation for the AR-15 rifle adapted for both semi-automatic and full-automatic fire. Colt purchased the rights to the AR-15 from ArmaLite, and currently uses that designation only for semi-automatic versions of the rifle. The M16 fires the 5.56×45mm NATO...

/M203
M203 grenade launcher
The M203 is a single shot 40 mm grenade launcher designed to attach to a rifle. It uses the same rounds as the older M79 break-action grenade launcher, which utilize the High-Low Propulsion System to keep recoil forces low. Though versatile, and compatible with many rifle models, the M203 was...

, which was handed to MacGown. As they continued, Phillips' condition worsened to the point where he mistook his black gloves for the colour of his own hands, and began yelling out loud. Eventually, Phillips lost contact with the other two somewhere around 2000 hrs, and would have died a short time later. According to Ryan and MacGown, they both searched for Phillips for about twenty minutes before deciding to continue without him, while according to General Sir Peter de la Billière
Peter de la Billière
General Sir Peter Edgar de la Cour de la Billière, KCB, KBE, DSO, MC & Bar is a former British Army officer who was Director SAS during the Iranian Embassy Siege and Commander-in-Chief of the British forces in the 1990 Gulf War...

, only Ryan searched while MacGown waited. Ryan also indicated that he didn't know Phillips was necessarily dead when he wrote: "I hoped to God that [Phillips] was doing the same. That he would find his way down ..." and later "there were still five to account for," though MacGown admitted he knew Phillips was dead at the time. Sergeant Vince Phillips, a nineteen year veteran of the British Armed Forces
British Armed Forces
The British Armed Forces are the armed forces of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.Also known as Her Majesty's Armed Forces and sometimes legally the Armed Forces of the Crown, the British Armed Forces encompasses three professional uniformed services, the Royal Navy, the...

, and eight year veteran of the Special Air Service
Special Air Service
Special Air Service or SAS is a corps of the British Army constituted on 31 May 1950. They are part of the United Kingdom Special Forces and have served as a model for the special forces of many other countries all over the world...

, was 36 when he died of hypothermia
Hypothermia
Hypothermia is a condition in which core temperature drops below the required temperature for normal metabolism and body functions which is defined as . Body temperature is usually maintained near a constant level of through biologic homeostasis or thermoregulation...

 in the evening of 25 January 1991 in North Western Iraq.

Capture of MacGown

At about midday on 26 January, Ryan and MacGown were stumbled upon by an ‘old’ (according to MacGown) goatherd
Goatherd
A goatherd or goatherder is a person who herds goats as a vocational activity. Similar to a fisherman who catches fish for a living, the drover here herds goats. Goatherds are popular in countries where goat populations are significant; for instance, in Africa and South Asia...

 tending a flock of goats. After discussions involving killing the man, MacGown decided to go with him to locate a vehicle, while Ryan decided it was not safe to do so and remained where he was under the agreement that MacGown would return by 1830 hrs. MacGown took with him Phillips' M16
M16 rifle
The M16 is the United States military designation for the AR-15 rifle adapted for both semi-automatic and full-automatic fire. Colt purchased the rights to the AR-15 from ArmaLite, and currently uses that designation only for semi-automatic versions of the rifle. The M16 fires the 5.56×45mm NATO...

/M203
M203 grenade launcher
The M203 is a single shot 40 mm grenade launcher designed to attach to a rifle. It uses the same rounds as the older M79 break-action grenade launcher, which utilize the High-Low Propulsion System to keep recoil forces low. Though versatile, and compatible with many rifle models, the M203 was...

, but left his belt kit, in order to not “cut such an aggressive figure.” MacGown walked with the goatherd for about four hours, before encountering a group of men, with a Toyota Landcruiser vehicle. According to Ryan, MacGown shot and killed an unarmed Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

 as he ran towards the vehicle, followed by two more armed with AK-47
AK-47
The AK-47 is a selective-fire, gas-operated 7.62×39mm assault rifle, first developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov. It is officially known as Avtomat Kalashnikova . It is also known as a Kalashnikov, an "AK", or in Russian slang, Kalash.Design work on the AK-47 began in the last year...

s. Without his belt kit, he had run out of ammunition, and was captured as he attempted to take the vehicle. According to McNab's account, the old goatherd left MacGown with directions to a hut, where he found two vehicles. After killing a uniformed Iraqi soldier attempting to reach one of the vehicles, "six or seven" more came from the hut, three of whom were killed before MacGown's M16
M16 rifle
The M16 is the United States military designation for the AR-15 rifle adapted for both semi-automatic and full-automatic fire. Colt purchased the rights to the AR-15 from ArmaLite, and currently uses that designation only for semi-automatic versions of the rifle. The M16 fires the 5.56×45mm NATO...

/M203
M203 grenade launcher
The M203 is a single shot 40 mm grenade launcher designed to attach to a rifle. It uses the same rounds as the older M79 break-action grenade launcher, which utilize the High-Low Propulsion System to keep recoil forces low. Though versatile, and compatible with many rifle models, the M203 was...

 jammed, and he was captured as he sat in one of the vehicles. According to an interview given by MacGown in 2002, he came across the first soldier near a vehicle: "I brought up my trump card which was "mohaba" and he said nothing, and I carried on talking and he then made a dash for the vehicle. I shot him in the head. A single shot." As more soldiers came out of the hut, MacGown aimed his rifle and fired but heard a click, indicating he was out of ammunition. It was apparent that Phillips had never reloaded the weapon after the initial contact on 24 January. For reasons unknown to MacGown, the soldiers did not return fire, but instead took him captive.

Hijack of Vehicle by McNab's Group

During the evening of 26 January, McNab's group of five commandeered a taxi by having Consiglio pretend to be wounded in McNab's arms whilst lying on the side of a road. When the car approached, Pring, Lane, and Coburn came up from behind cover and surrounded the vehicle. According to McNab's account, the group evicted all occupants from the taxi and drove until they reached a check point, where Lane shot and killed one soldier, while the others in the group killed two more. According to Ryan's second-hand account (presumably taken from the Regimental debriefing), the group were driven to the checkpoint by one of the Iraqi occupants of the taxi. They exited the vehicle with plans to rendezvous on the other side of the checkpoint, but the driver alerted the Police, and the group were forced to continue on foot. Asher's investigation supported Ryan's version of events with no reported armed contact and no reported Iraqi casualties.

Capture of McNab's Group

In the early morning of 27 January, McNab's group of five came into contact with local civilians and Police. Consiglio was shot and killed by armed civilians at approximately 0200 hrs. Lane died of hypothermia
Hypothermia
Hypothermia is a condition in which core temperature drops below the required temperature for normal metabolism and body functions which is defined as . Body temperature is usually maintained near a constant level of through biologic homeostasis or thermoregulation...

 later that same morning after swimming the Euphrates
Euphrates
The Euphrates is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia. Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia...

 with Pring, who along with McNab and Coburn was subsequently captured. During an exchange of gun fire prior to capture, Coburn was shot in both the arm and ankle.

According to McNab, the four captured patrol members (McNab, Pring, MacGown and the wounded Coburn) were moved numerous times, enduring torture and interrogation at each successive location. According to MacGown however, "incidents such as teeth extraction and burning with a heated spoon did not happen. It is inconceivable that any such incidents could have occurred without them being discussed or being physically obvious." News footage of MacGown and Pring taken at the time of their release on 5 March, showed no evidence of any facial injuries and the members were described as 'in good shape' by a Red Cross representative.

They were last held at Abu Ghraib Prison
Abu Ghraib prison
The Baghdad Central Prison, formerly known as Abu Ghraib prison is in Abu Ghraib, an Iraqi city 32 km west of Baghdad. It was built by British contractors in the 1950s....

 before their release.

Ryan's Escape to Syria

Ryan made SAS history with the "longest escape and evasion by a SAS trooper or any other soldier," to make it to Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

, covering 100 miles (160.9 km) more than SAS trooper Jack Sillito had in the Sahara Desert in 1942.

Equipment

Each member of the patrol wore a two-shade Desert DPM uniform, with a World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 era sand-coloured desert smock. While the other members had regular issue army boots, Ryan (the only member to avoid eventual capture) wore a pair of £100, "brown Raichle
Mammut sports group
Mammut Sports Group AG is a Swiss producer of mountaineering and trekking equipment with headquarters in Seon, Switzerland. The company was founded in 1862 by Kaspar Tanner in Dintikon. Today, Mammut belongs to Conzzeta AG...

 Gore-Tex
Gore-Tex
Gore-Tex is a waterproof/breathable fabric, and a registered trademark of W. L. Gore and Associates. It was co-invented by Wilbert L. Gore, Rowena Taylor, and Gore's son, Robert W. Gore. Robert Gore was granted on April 27, 1976, for a porous form of polytetrafluoroethylene with a...

-lined walking boots."

Each member carried a belt kit
Personal Load Carrying Equipment
Personal Load Carrying Equipment is the current tactical webbing system of the British Army. It consists of a belt, yoke and a number of pouches. Associated with PLCE webbing is a series of other similar load carrying equipment and rucksacks .The purpose of PLCE is to hold everything a soldier...

, 'Bergen' rucksack, one sandbag of food, one sandbag containing two NBC suit
NBC suit
An NBC suit is a type of military personal protective equipment designed to provide protection against direct contact with and contamination by radioactive, biological or chemical substances, and provides protection from contamination with radioactive materials and some types of radiation,...

s, extra ammunition bandoliers and a 5 imp gal (22.7 l) jerry can of water. "The belt kit contained ammunition, water, food and trauma-care equipment." The rucksack contained 25 kilos of sandbag
Sandbag
A sandbag is a sack made of hessian/burlap, polypropylene or other materials that is filled with sand or soil and used for such purposes as flood control, military fortification, shielding glass windows in war zones and ballast....

s and observation post
Observation post
An observation post, temporary or fixed, is a position from which soldiers can watch enemy movements, to warn of approaching soldiers , or to direct artillery fire...

 equipment, seven days worth of rations, spare batteries for the radio, demolition equipment (including PE4 plastic explosive, detonators, and both Claymore
M18A1 Claymore Antipersonnel Mine
The M18A1 Claymore is a directional anti-personnel mine used by the U.S. military. It was named after the large Scottish sword by its inventor, Norman A. MacLeod...

 and Elsie anti-personnel mines
Land mine
A land mine is usually a weight-triggered explosive device which is intended to damage a target—either human or inanimate—by means of a blast and/or fragment impact....

), and intravenous drips
Intravenous therapy
Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the infusion of liquid substances directly into a vein. The word intravenous simply means "within a vein". Therapies administered intravenously are often called specialty pharmaceuticals...

 and fluids for emergencies.

The patrol also had a PRC 319
Clansman
Clansman is the name of a combat net radio system used by the British Army from 1976 to 2010.Clansman was developed by the Signals Research and Development Establishment in the 1960s, to satisfy a General Staff Requirement laid down in 1965...

 HF patrol radio carried by Lane, four TACBE communication devices (carried by McNab, Ryan, and two others) to communicate with allied aircraft, a Magellan GPS carried by Coburn and a night sight (referred to as a 'kite-site') carried by MacGown. The total weight of each member's kit was estimated at 95 kg (209.4 lb) by McNab and 120 kg (264.6 lb) by Ryan.

McNab, Phillips, Ryan, and Lane carried M16
M16 rifle
The M16 is the United States military designation for the AR-15 rifle adapted for both semi-automatic and full-automatic fire. Colt purchased the rights to the AR-15 from ArmaLite, and currently uses that designation only for semi-automatic versions of the rifle. The M16 fires the 5.56×45mm NATO...

/M203
M203 grenade launcher
The M203 is a single shot 40 mm grenade launcher designed to attach to a rifle. It uses the same rounds as the older M79 break-action grenade launcher, which utilize the High-Low Propulsion System to keep recoil forces low. Though versatile, and compatible with many rifle models, the M203 was...

 assault rifles, while Pring, Consiglio, MacGown, and Coburn carried FN
Fabrique Nationale de Herstal
Fabrique Nationale d'Herstal — self identified as FN Herstal and often referred to as Fabrique Nationale or simply FN — is a firearms manufacturer located in Herstal, Belgium....

 Minimi
FN Minimi
The Minimi is a Belgian 5.56mm light machine gun developed by Fabrique Nationale in Herstal by Ernest Vervier. First introduced in 1974, it has entered service with the armed forces of over thirty countries...

 light support machine guns. Each member carried a 66 mm LAW rocket on his back. Due to a missing shipment within the squadron, Phillips was the only member who carried a backup weapon, a Browning Hi-Power
Browning Hi-Power
The Browning Hi-Power is a single-action, 9 mm semi-automatic handgun. It is based on a design by American firearms inventor John Browning, and completed by Dieudonné Saive at Fabrique Nationale of Herstal, Belgium. Browning died in 1926, several years before the design was finalized...

 pistol.

Literary accounts

  • The first public literary mention of the patrol was in the autobiography of Lieutenant-General Peter de la Billière
    Peter de la Billière
    General Sir Peter Edgar de la Cour de la Billière, KCB, KBE, DSO, MC & Bar is a former British Army officer who was Director SAS during the Iranian Embassy Siege and Commander-in-Chief of the British forces in the 1990 Gulf War...

    , the commander of the British Forces during the Gulf War. Storm Command (ISBN 0002551381) only mentioned the patrol in passing, but broke the ground for further books to be written on the subject. The book was released in 1992.

  • The patrol commander authored an account of the patrol in a book titled Bravo Two Zero
    Bravo Two Zero (1993 book)
    Bravo Two Zero is a 1993 book written under the pseudonym 'Andy McNab'. The book recounts the story of an SAS patrol behind enemy lines in Iraq, in 1991, which was led by the author.-Controversy:...

    (ISBN 0-440-21880-2) under the pseudonym 'Andy McNab
    Andy McNab
    Sergeant ‘Andy McNab’ DCM MM is the pseudonym of an English novelist and former SAS operative and soldier.McNab came into public prominence in 1993, when he published his account of the failed Special Air Service patrol, Bravo Two Zero for which he was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal in...

    '. McNab used pseudonyms and nicknames for the patrol members who survived, but controversially used the full names of those who died. The book was released in 1993.

  • A second member of the patrol authored The One That Got Away
    The One That Got Away (1995 book)
    The One That Got Away is a 1995 book written under the pseudonym 'Chris Ryan' concerning the SAS patrol Bravo Two Zero, which was dropped behind enemy lines in Iraq in 1991...

    (ISBN 0-09-946015-7) under the pseudonym 'Chris Ryan
    Chris Ryan
    Sergeant ‘Chris Ryan’ MM is the pseudonym of a former British Special Forces operative and soldier turned novelist...

    '. It criticized McNab's leadership of the patrol and was particularly hostile in tone to the conduct of Phillips. In a later TV appearance Ryan (and perhaps in partial retraction) may have alluded to Phillips' memory saying he had once seen 'a very brave man' dying of hypothermia. As with McNab's account, Ryan used the same pseudonyms for those who survived, but referred to Phillips, Lane and Consiglio by their real names. Ratcliffe said of this move, "[It is] insensitive on [Ryan's] and [McNab's] parts to hide behind pseudonyms when they named their dead colleagues in their books, in deliberate contravention of the Regiment's traditions." The book was released in 1995.

  • Peter Ratcliffe
    Peter Ratcliffe
    Major Peter Ratcliffe DCM is an author and former member of the Special Air Service .Peter Ratcliffe came originally from Salford, Greater Manchester. As a boy, he joined the 1st Battalion, The Parachute Regiment before and eventually going on to pass the SAS selection course...

     (The SAS's Regimental Sergeant Major
    Regimental Sergeant Major
    Regimental Sergeant Major is an appointment held by warrant officers class 1 in the British Army, the British Royal Marines and in the armies of many Commonwealth nations, including Australia and New Zealand; and by chief warrant officers in the Canadian Forces...

     at the time of the patrol) wrote Eye of the Storm (ISBN 1930983018) which refers the controversy surrounding the differing accounts of the patrol in some detail. The book was released in 2000.

  • Both McNab's and Ryan's earlier accounts were critiqued by SAS reserve veteran Michael Asher
    Michael Asher (explorer)
    Michael Asher is an author, historian, deep ecologist, and notable desert explorer who has covered more than 30,000 miles on foot and camel. He spent three years living with a traditional nomadic tribe in the Sudan.-Biography:...

     in The Real Bravo Two Zero (ISBN 0-304-36554-8). In 2001, Asher followed the original path of the patrol, interviewing local Iraqis who witnessed the events. The book was released in 2003.

  • The Gulf War Chronicles (ISBN 0595296696) by Richard Lowry recounted much of the patrol's story, though appeared to borrow heavily from the earlier story published by McNab. The book was released in 2003.

  • A third member of the patrol authored Soldier Five
    Soldier Five
    Soldier Five - The Real Truth About the Bravo Two Zero Mission is the third book about the Bravo Two Zero mission during the Gulf War to have been written by a member of the eight-man patrol involved....

    (ISBN 1-84018-907-X) under the pseudonym 'Mike Coburn,' aimed to "set the story straight", in reference to criticism of patrol member Vince Phillips in previous publications. The book was released in 2004.

  • W. A. Harbinson under the writing pseudonym "Shaun Clarke" presents a strikingly similar story to that told in the accounts of McNab and Ryan in the first book of his SAS adventure series, "Soldier A: SAS - Behind Iraqi Lines" (ISBN 1-898125-00-7). Events that seem to be the same include the crossing of the Euphrates and subsequent death of "Legs" Lane in a hut nearby; the drinking of radioactive/contaminated water by a lone SAS member running for Syria; the patrol being split into 3 and 5; the group of 3 splitting up after one dies of hypothermia, and the incident regarding a member who thought his hands had turned black when he was indeed wearing gloves, the remaining two of that group splitting up after one decides to follow a goat-herder. However, Harbinson's book was published in July 1993, pre-dating the publication of McNab's account in October 1993, and Ryan's two years later. The character who makes a run for Syria is given the name Danny Porter, while MacGown was called Stan, and Phillips Taff. The source of Harbinson's apparent knowledge of detailed information relating to the real Bravo Two Zero patrol is unknown.

Dramatic and documentary accounts

  • ITV
    ITV
    ITV is the major commercial public service TV network in the United Kingdom. Launched in 1955 under the auspices of the Independent Television Authority to provide competition to the BBC, it is also the oldest commercial network in the UK...

     produced a one-off dramatic version of Ryan's book, also titled The One That Got Away
    The One That Got Away (1996 film)
    The One That Got Away is a 1996 ITV television film, based on the book of the same name by 'Chris Ryan' telling the "true" story of a Special Air Service patrolduring the Gulf War in 1991....

    , in 1996. The film starred Paul McGann
    Paul McGann
    Paul McGann is an English actor who made his name on the BBC serial The Monocled Mutineer, in which he played the lead role...

     as 'Ryan', and was directed by Paul Greengrass
    Paul Greengrass
    Paul Greengrass is an English film director, screenwriter and former journalist. He specialises in dramatisations of real-life events and is known for his signature use of hand-held cameras.-Life and career:...

    , director of the television drama Bloody Sunday, and the feature films United 93
    United 93 (film)
    United 93 is a 2006 fact-based historical drama film written, co-produced, and directed by Paul Greengrass that chronicles events aboard United Airlines Flight 93, which was hijacked during the September 11 attacks...

    , The Bourne Supremacy
    The Bourne Supremacy
    The Bourne Supremacy is the second Jason Bourne novel written by Robert Ludlum, first published in 1986. It was the sequel to Ludlum's bestseller The Bourne Identity and precedes Ludlum's final Bourne novel, The Bourne Ultimatum ....

     and The Bourne Ultimatum
    The Bourne Ultimatum
    The Bourne Ultimatum is the third Jason Bourne novel written by Robert Ludlum and a sequel to The Bourne Supremacy . First published in 1990, it was the last Bourne novel to be written by Ludlum himself. Eric Van Lustbader wrote a sequel titled The Bourne Legacy fourteen years later.A film titled...

    .

  • The BBC
    BBC
    The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters is at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff...

     produced a two-part adaptation of McNab's book, also titled Bravo Two Zero
    Bravo Two Zero (film)
    Bravo Two Zero is a 1999 two hour television miniseries , based on the book of the same name by Andy McNab. The film covers real life events - from the perspective of Andy McNab, patrol commander of Bravo Two Zero, a British SAS patrol , tasked to find Iraqi Scud missile launchers during the Gulf...

    , in 1998. It starred Sean Bean
    Sean Bean
    Shaun Mark "Sean" Bean is an English film and stage actor. Bean is best known for playing Boromir in The Lord of the Rings Trilogy and, previously, British Colonel Richard Sharpe in the ITV television series Sharpe...

     as 'McNab' and was directed by Tom Clegg
    Tom Clegg (director)
    Tom Clegg is a British television and film director. He was born in Lancashire in 1934.-Selected filmography:Television* Special Branch * The Sweeney * A Captain's Tale * Sharpe ...

    . In addition to using all of McNab's characters' pseudonyms, the names of the three deceased patrol members, Phillips, Consiglio and Lane were also changed for the film.

  • In 2002, Channel 4
    Channel 4
    Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster which began working on 2 November 1982. Although largely commercially self-funded, it is ultimately publicly owned; originally a subsidiary of the Independent Broadcasting Authority , the station is now owned and operated by the Channel...

     aired Asher
    Michael Asher (explorer)
    Michael Asher is an author, historian, deep ecologist, and notable desert explorer who has covered more than 30,000 miles on foot and camel. He spent three years living with a traditional nomadic tribe in the Sudan.-Biography:...

    's documentary (which accompanied his book), also titled The Real Bravo Two Zero directed and produced by Gavin Searle.

  • In 2003, the TV-series JAG
    JAG (TV series)
    JAG is an American adventure/legal drama television show that was produced by Belisarius Productions, in association with Paramount Network Television and, for the first season only, NBC Productions...

     ran an episode (The One That Got Away, S9, EP04) loosely based on the story of Bravo Two Zero involving US Marines Force Recon in Iraq. The name of the team that was involved was Bravo Two One.

  • The Video Game Conflict: Desert Storm
    Conflict: Desert Storm
    Conflict: Desert Storm is a tactical third-person shooter set during the first Gulf War. It is the first video game in the Conflict series.-Gameplay:...

    is very loosely based the events of Bravo Two Zero.
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