Boeing 767
Overview
 
The Boeing 767 is a mid-size, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner
Jet airliner
A jet airliner is an airliner that is powered by jet engines. This term is sometimes contracted to jetliner or jet.In contrast to today's relatively fuel-efficient, turbofan-powered air travel, first generation jet airliner travel was noisy and fuel inefficient...

 built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Boeing Commercial Airplanes designs, assembles, markets and sells large commercial jet aircraft and provides product-related maintenance and training to customers worldwide...

. It was the manufacturer's first wide-body twinjet
Twinjet
A twinjet or twin jet is a jet aircraft powered by two engines. Such configuration of an aircraft is the most popular today for commercial airliners, for fighters, and many other kinds, because while offering safety from a single engine failure, it is also acceptably fuel-efficient.-Aircraft...

 and its first airliner with a two-crew glass cockpit
Glass cockpit
A glass cockpit is an aircraft cockpit that features electronic instrument displays, typically large LCD screens, as opposed to the traditional style of analog dials and gauges...

. The aircraft features two turbofan
Turbofan
The turbofan is a type of airbreathing jet engine that is widely used for aircraft propulsion. A turbofan combines two types of engines, the turbo portion which is a conventional gas turbine engine, and the fan, a propeller-like ducted fan...

 engines, a supercritical wing
Supercritical airfoil
A supercritical airfoil is an airfoil designed, primarily, to delay the onset of wave drag in the transonic speed range. Supercritical airfoils are characterized by their flattened upper surface, highly cambered aft section, and greater leading edge radius compared with traditional airfoil shapes...

, and a conventional tail
Tailplane
A tailplane, also known as horizontal stabilizer , is a small lifting surface located on the tail behind the main lifting surfaces of a fixed-wing aircraft as well as other non-fixed wing aircraft such as helicopters and gyroplanes...

. Designed as a smaller wide-body airliner than preceding aircraft such as the 747
Boeing 747
The Boeing 747 is a wide-body commercial airliner and cargo transport, often referred to by its original nickname, Jumbo Jet, or Queen of the Skies. It is among the world's most recognizable aircraft, and was the first wide-body ever produced...

, the 767 has a capacity of 181 to 375 persons and a range
Range (aircraft)
The maximal total range is the distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft, or cross-country speed and environmental conditions in unpowered aircraft....

 of 3850 to 6385 nmi (7,130.2 to 11,825 km), depending on variant.
Encyclopedia
The Boeing 767 is a mid-size, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner
Jet airliner
A jet airliner is an airliner that is powered by jet engines. This term is sometimes contracted to jetliner or jet.In contrast to today's relatively fuel-efficient, turbofan-powered air travel, first generation jet airliner travel was noisy and fuel inefficient...

 built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Boeing Commercial Airplanes designs, assembles, markets and sells large commercial jet aircraft and provides product-related maintenance and training to customers worldwide...

. It was the manufacturer's first wide-body twinjet
Twinjet
A twinjet or twin jet is a jet aircraft powered by two engines. Such configuration of an aircraft is the most popular today for commercial airliners, for fighters, and many other kinds, because while offering safety from a single engine failure, it is also acceptably fuel-efficient.-Aircraft...

 and its first airliner with a two-crew glass cockpit
Glass cockpit
A glass cockpit is an aircraft cockpit that features electronic instrument displays, typically large LCD screens, as opposed to the traditional style of analog dials and gauges...

. The aircraft features two turbofan
Turbofan
The turbofan is a type of airbreathing jet engine that is widely used for aircraft propulsion. A turbofan combines two types of engines, the turbo portion which is a conventional gas turbine engine, and the fan, a propeller-like ducted fan...

 engines, a supercritical wing
Supercritical airfoil
A supercritical airfoil is an airfoil designed, primarily, to delay the onset of wave drag in the transonic speed range. Supercritical airfoils are characterized by their flattened upper surface, highly cambered aft section, and greater leading edge radius compared with traditional airfoil shapes...

, and a conventional tail
Tailplane
A tailplane, also known as horizontal stabilizer , is a small lifting surface located on the tail behind the main lifting surfaces of a fixed-wing aircraft as well as other non-fixed wing aircraft such as helicopters and gyroplanes...

. Designed as a smaller wide-body airliner than preceding aircraft such as the 747
Boeing 747
The Boeing 747 is a wide-body commercial airliner and cargo transport, often referred to by its original nickname, Jumbo Jet, or Queen of the Skies. It is among the world's most recognizable aircraft, and was the first wide-body ever produced...

, the 767 has a capacity of 181 to 375 persons and a range
Range (aircraft)
The maximal total range is the distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft, or cross-country speed and environmental conditions in unpowered aircraft....

 of 3850 to 6385 nmi (7,130.2 to 11,825 km), depending on variant. Development of the 767 occurred in tandem with a narrow-body
Narrow-body aircraft
A narrow-body aircraft is an airliner with a fuselage aircraft cabin width typically of 3 to 4 metres , and airline seat arranged 2 to 6 abreast along a single aisle...

 twinjet, the 757
Boeing 757
The Boeing 757 is a mid-size, narrow-body twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Passenger versions of the twinjet have a capacity of 186 to 289 persons and a maximum range of , depending on variant and cabin configuration...

, resulting in shared design features which allow pilots to obtain a common type rating
Type rating
A type rating is an allowance to fly a certain aircraft type that requires additional training beyond the scope of initial license and aircraft class training. What aircraft require a type rating is decided by the local aviation authority...

 to operate both aircraft.

The 767 is produced in three fuselage
Fuselage
The fuselage is an aircraft's main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo. In single-engine aircraft it will usually contain an engine, although in some amphibious aircraft the single engine is mounted on a pylon attached to the fuselage which in turn is used as a floating hull...

 lengths. The original 767-200 entered service in 1982, followed by the 767-300 in 1986 and the 767-400ER in 2000. The extended-range 767-200ER and 767-300ER models entered service in 1984 and 1988, respectively, while a production freighter
Cargo aircraft
A cargo aircraft is a fixed-wing aircraft designed or converted for the carriage of goods, rather than passengers. They are usually devoid of passenger amenities, and generally feature one or more large doors for the loading and unloading of cargo...

 version, the 767-300F, debuted in 1995. Freighter models converted from passenger aircraft include the 767-200SF and 767-300BCF, while military derivatives include the E-767
Boeing E-767
The Boeing E-767 is an airborne warning and control system aircraft. It was designed in response to the Japan Air Self-Defense Force's requirements, and is essentially the Boeing E-3 Sentry's surveillance radar and air control system installed on a Boeing 767-200.-Background:On September 6, 1976,...

 surveillance aircraft, the KC-767
Boeing KC-767
The Boeing KC-767 is a military aerial refueling and strategic transport aircraft developed from the Boeing 767-200ER. The tanker received the designation KC-767A in 2002, after being selected by the US Air Force initially to replace older KC-135Es...

 and KC-46A
Boeing KC-46
The Boeing KC-46 is a military aerial refueling and strategic transport aircraft developed by Boeing from its 767 jet airliner. In February 2011, the tanker was selected by United States Air Force as the winner in the KC-X tanker competition to replace older KC-135 Stratotankers.-Background:The U.S...

 aerial tankers
Aerial refueling
Aerial refueling, also called air refueling, in-flight refueling , air-to-air refueling or tanking, is the process of transferring fuel from one aircraft to another during flight....

, and VIP transports. Engines used on the 767 include the General Electric CF6
General Electric CF6
The General Electric CF6 is a family of high-bypass turbofan engines produced by GE Aviation. A development of the first high-power high-bypass jet engine available, the TF39, the CF6 powers a wide variety of civilian airliners. The basic engine core formed the basis for the LM2500, LM5000, and...

, Pratt & Whitney JT9D
Pratt & Whitney JT9D
-Bibliography:* Gunston, Bill. World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines. Cambridge, England. Patrick Stephens Limited, 1989. ISBN 1-85260-163-9-External links:*...

 and PW4000
Pratt & Whitney PW4000
|-See also:-External links:* * *...

, and Rolls-Royce RB211
Rolls-Royce RB211
The Rolls-Royce RB211 is a family of high-bypass turbofan engines made by Rolls-Royce plc and capable of generating 37,400 to 60,600 pounds-force thrust. Originally developed for the Lockheed L-1011 , it entered service in 1972 and was the only engine to power this aircraft type...

 turbofans.

United Airlines
United Airlines
United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees (which includes the entire holding company United Continental...

 first placed the 767 in commercial service in 1982. In its first three years of service, the aircraft was chiefly deployed on transcontinental routes, during which it demonstrated the reliability of its twin-engine design. In 1985, the 767 received regulatory approval to operate long-distance transoceanic flights. Subsequently, the aircraft became commonly flown on medium- to long-haul
Flight length
In aviation, the flight length is defined as the time airborne during a flight.- Domestic :A short-haul domestic flight is commonly categorized into being no longer than 1.5 hours in length, meaning that all domestic flights within a country such as the United Kingdom are short-haul...

 intercontinental routes, where it was used to expand non-stop
Non-stop flight
A non-stop flight, especially in the aviation industry, refers to any flight by an aircraft which does not involve any intermediate stops. A "direct flight" is not the same as a "non-stop flight"...

 airline services. In 1986, Boeing initiated studies for a higher-capacity 767, ultimately leading to the development of a larger wide-body twinjet, the 777
Boeing 777
The Boeing 777 is a long-range, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It is the world's largest twinjet and is commonly referred to as the "Triple Seven". The aircraft has seating for over 300 passengers and has a range from , depending on model...

. In the 1990s, the 767 became the most frequently used airliner for transatlantic flight
Transatlantic flight
Transatlantic flight is the flight of an aircraft across the Atlantic Ocean. A transatlantic flight may proceed east-to-west, originating in Europe or Africa and terminating in North America or South America, or it may go in the reverse direction, west-to-east...

s between North America and Europe.

As of August 2011, the 767 has received 1,057 orders from 71 customers, of which 1,007 have been delivered, and 837 are in service. The most popular variant is the 767-300ER, with 552 delivered, and Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines, Inc. is a major airline based in the United States and headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. The airline operates an extensive domestic and international network serving all continents except Antarctica. Delta and its subsidiaries operate over 4,000 flights every day...

 is the largest operator, with 94 aircraft. Competitors have included the Airbus A300
Airbus A300
The Airbus A300 is a short- to medium-range widebody jet airliner. Launched in 1972 as the world's first twin-engined widebody, it was the first product of Airbus Industrie, a consortium of European aerospace companies, wholly owned today by EADS...

, A310
Airbus A310
The Airbus A310 is a medium- to long-range twin-engine widebody jet airliner. Launched in July 1978, it was the second aircraft created by Airbus Industrie,a consortium of European aerospace companies, Airbus is now fully owned by EADS and since 2001 has been known as Airbus SAS. the consortium of...

, and A330-200
Airbus A330
The Airbus A330 is a wide-body twin-engine jet airliner made by Airbus, a division of EADS. Versions of the A330 have a range of and can accommodate up to 335 passengers in a two-class layout or carry of cargo....

, while a successor, the 787 Dreamliner, entered service in October 2011.

Background

In 1970, Boeing's twin-aisle 747 became the first wide-body jetliner to enter service. Two years later, the manufacturer began a development study, code-named 7X7, for a new wide-body aircraft intended to replace the 707
Boeing 707
The Boeing 707 is a four-engine narrow-body commercial passenger jet airliner developed by Boeing in the early 1950s. Its name is most commonly pronounced as "Seven Oh Seven". The first airline to operate the 707 was Pan American World Airways, inaugurating the type's first commercial flight on...

 and other narrow-body jets. The aircraft would provide twin-aisle seating, but in a smaller fuselage than the existing 747, McDonnell Douglas DC-10
McDonnell Douglas DC-10
The McDonnell Douglas DC-10 is a three-engine widebody jet airliner manufactured by McDonnell Douglas. The DC-10 has range for medium- to long-haul flights, capable of carrying a maximum 380 passengers. Its most distinguishing feature is the two turbofan engines mounted on underwing pylons and a...

, and Lockheed L-1011 TriStar wide-bodies. Development costs were to be shared with Italian corporation Aeritalia
Aeritalia
Aeritalia was an aerospace engineering corporation based in Italy, originally Fiat Aviazione before merging with Aerfer, and now part of Alenia Aeronautica....

 in Boeing's first major international joint venture. The initial 7X7 was conceived as a short take-off and landing
STOL
STOL is an acronym for short take-off and landing, a term used to describe aircraft with very short runway requirements.-Definitions:There is no one accepted definition of STOL and many different definitions have been used by different authorities and nations at various times and for a myriad of...

 airliner intended for short-distance flights, but customers were unenthusiastic about the concept, leading to its redefinition as a mid-size, transcontinental-range airliner. At this stage the proposed aircraft featured two or three engines, with possible configurations including over-wing engines and a T-tail
T-tail
thumb|right|Grob motor gliderA T-tail is an aircraft tail stabilizer configuration in which the horizontal surfaces are mounted to the top of the vertical stabilizer. Traditionally, the horizontal control surfaces are mounted to the fuselage at the base of the vertical stabilizer...

.
By 1976, a twinjet layout, similar to the one which had debuted on the Airbus A300, became the baseline configuration. The decision to use two engines reflected increased industry confidence in the reliability and economics of new-generation jet powerplants. While airline requirements for new wide-body aircraft remained ambiguous, the 7X7 was generally focused on mid-size, high-density markets. As such, it was intended to transport large numbers of passengers between major cities. Advancements in civil aerospace technology, including high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines, new flight deck systems, aerodynamic improvements, and lighter construction materials were to be applied to the 7X7. Many of these features were also included in a parallel development effort for a mid-size narrow-body airliner, code-named 7N7, which would become the 757. Work on both proposals accelerated as a result of the airline industry upturn in the late 1970s.

In January 1978, Boeing announced a major extension of its Everett factory
Boeing Everett Factory
The Boeing Everett Factory, in Everett, Washington, is an airplane assembly building owned by Boeing. Located on the northeast corner of Paine Field, it is the largest building in the world by volume at 13,385,378 m3 and covers 399,480 m2...

—which was then dedicated to the manufacture of the 747—to accommodate its new wide-body family. The manufacturer also signed a risk-sharing agreement with the Civil Transport Development Corporation (CTDC), a consortium of Japanese aerospace companies, to share production responsibilities. By mid-1978, the new jetliner had received the 767 designation, and three variants were planned: a 767-100 with 180 seats, a 767-200 with 210 seats, and a trijet
Trijet
A Trijet is an aircraft powered by three jet engines. Early twin-jet designs were limited by the FAA's "60-minute rule", whereby the flight path of twin-engined jetliners was restricted to within 60 minutes' flying time from a suitable airport, in case of engine failure. In 1964 this rule was...

 767MR/LR version with 200 seats intended for intercontinental routes. The 767 was officially launched on July 14, 1978, when United Airlines ordered 30 of the 767-200 variant, followed by 50 more 767-200 orders from American Airlines
American Airlines
American Airlines, Inc. is the world's fourth-largest airline in passenger miles transported and operating revenues. American Airlines is a subsidiary of the AMR Corporation and is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas adjacent to its largest hub at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport...

 and Delta Air Lines later that year. The 767-100 was ultimately not offered for sale, as its capacity was too close to the 757's seating, while the 767MR/LR was re-designated as a proposed 777 trijet, and eventually dropped in favor of standardizing around the twinjet configuration.

Design effort

In the late 1970s, operating cost
Operating cost
Operating costs can be described as the expenses which are related to the operation of a business, or to the operation of a device, component, piece of equipment or facility.-Business operating costs:...

 replaced capacity as the primary factor in airliner purchases. As a result, the 767's design process emphasized fuel efficiency
Fuel efficiency
Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier fuel into kinetic energy or work. Overall fuel efficiency may vary per device, which in turn may vary per application, and this spectrum of variance is...

 from the outset. Boeing targeted a 20 to 30 percent cost saving over earlier aircraft, mainly through new engine and wing technology. As development progressed, engineers used computer aided design for over one-third of the 767's design drawings, and performed 26,000 hours of wind tunnel
Wind tunnel
A wind tunnel is a research tool used in aerodynamic research to study the effects of air moving past solid objects.-Theory of operation:Wind tunnels were first proposed as a means of studying vehicles in free flight...

 tests. Design work occurred concurrently with the 757 twinjet, leading Boeing to treat both as almost one program to reduce risk and cost. Both aircraft would ultimately receive shared avionics
Avionics
Avionics are electronic systems used on aircraft, artificial satellites and spacecraft.Avionic systems include communications, navigation, the display and management of multiple systems and the hundreds of systems that are fitted to aircraft to meet individual roles...

, flight management system
Flight management system
A flight management system is a fundamental part of a modern airliner's avionics. An FMS is a specialized computer system that automates a wide variety of in-flight tasks, reducing the workload on the flight crew to the point that modern aircraft no longer carry flight engineers or navigators. A...

s, instruments, and handling characteristics. Combined development costs were estimated at $3.5 to $4 billion.

Early 767 customers were given the choice of Pratt & Whitney JT9D or General Electric CF6 turbofans, marking the first time that Boeing had offered more than one engine option at the launch of a new airliner. Both jet engine models were capable of producing 48000 lbf (213.5 kN) of thrust. The engines were mounted approximately one-third the length of the wing from the fuselage, similar to previous wide-body trijets. The larger wings were designed using an aft-loaded
Supercritical airfoil
A supercritical airfoil is an airfoil designed, primarily, to delay the onset of wave drag in the transonic speed range. Supercritical airfoils are characterized by their flattened upper surface, highly cambered aft section, and greater leading edge radius compared with traditional airfoil shapes...

 shape which distributed lift
Lift (force)
A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a surface force on it. Lift is the component of this force that is perpendicular to the oncoming flow direction. It contrasts with the drag force, which is the component of the surface force parallel to the flow direction...

 more evenly across their surface span than any of the manufacturer's previous aircraft. The wings provided higher-altitude cruise
Cruise (flight)
Cruise is the level portion of aircraft travel where flight is most fuel efficient. It occurs between ascent and descent phases and is usually the majority of a journey. Technically, cruising consists of heading changes only at a constant airspeed and altitude...

 performance, added fuel capacity, and expansion room for future stretched variants. The initial 767-200 would be capable of operating routes up to 3850 nautical miles (7,130.2 km) in length, surpassing a design target for sufficient range to fly across North America or across the northern Atlantic.
The width of the 767's fuselage was set midway between the 707 and the 747 at 15 in 6 in (4.72 m) wide. While it was narrower than previous wide-body designs, seven abreast seating with two aisles could be fitted, and the reduced width produced less aerodynamic drag. The adoption of a conventional tail design also allowed the rear fuselage to be tapered over a shorter section, providing for parallel aisles along the full length of the passenger cabin, and eliminating odd seat rows toward the rear of the aircraft. However, the fuselage was not wide enough to accommodate two standard LD3 wide-body unit load device
Unit Load Device
A unit load device , is a pallet or container used to load luggage, freight, and mail on wide-body aircraft and specific narrow-body aircraft. It allows a large quantity of cargo to be bundled into a single unit. Since this leads to fewer units to load, it saves ground crews time and effort and...

s side-by-side. As a result, a smaller container, the LD2, was created specifically for the 767.

The 767 was the first Boeing wide-body to be designed with a two-crew digital glass cockpit. Cathode ray tube
Cathode ray tube
The cathode ray tube is a vacuum tube containing an electron gun and a fluorescent screen used to view images. It has a means to accelerate and deflect the electron beam onto the fluorescent screen to create the images. The image may represent electrical waveforms , pictures , radar targets and...

 (CRT) color displays and new electronics replaced the role of the flight engineer
Flight engineer
Flight engineers work in three types of aircraft: fixed-wing , rotary wing , and space flight .As airplanes became even larger requiring more engines and complex systems to operate, the workload on the two pilots became excessive during certain critical parts of the flight regime, notably takeoffs...

 by enabling the pilot and co-pilot to monitor aircraft systems directly. Despite the promise of reduced crew costs, United Airlines initially demanded a conventional three-person cockpit, citing concerns about the risks associated with introducing a new aircraft. The carrier maintained this position until July 1981, when a U.S. presidential task force determined that a crew of two was safe for operating wide-body jets. A three-crew cockpit remained as an option and was fitted to the first production models. Ansett Australia
Ansett Australia
Ansett Australia, Ansett, Ansett Airlines of Australia, or ANSETT-ANA as it was commonly known in earlier years, was a major Australian airline group, based in Melbourne. The airlines flew domestically within Australia and to destinations in Asia during its operation in 1996...

 ordered 767s with three-crew cockpits due to union demands; it was the only airline to order 767s so configured. The 767's two-crew cockpit was also applied to the 757, allowing pilots to operate both aircraft after a short conversion course, and adding incentive for airlines to purchase both types.

Production and testing

To produce the 767, Boeing formed a network of subcontractors which included domestic suppliers and international contributions from Italy's Aeritalia and Japan's CTDC. The wings and cabin floor were produced in-house, while Aeritalia provided control surfaces, Boeing Vertol made the leading edge
Leading edge
The leading edge is the part of the wing that first contacts the air; alternatively it is the foremost edge of an airfoil section. The first is an aerodynamic definition, the second a structural one....

 for the wings, and Boeing Wichita
Spirit AeroSystems
Spirit AeroSystems, Inc. , based in Wichita, Kansas, is the world's largest first-tier aerostructures manufacturer. The company builds several important pieces of Boeing aircraft, including the fuselage of the 737, portions of the 787 fuselage, and the cockpit of nearly all of its airliners...

 produced the forward fuselage. The CTDC provided multiple assemblies through its constituent companies, namely Fuji Heavy Industries
Fuji Heavy Industries
, or FHI, is a Japanese transportation conglomerate most known for being the manufacturer of Subaru automobiles. It traces its roots to the Nakajima Aircraft Company, a leading supplier of airplanes to the Japanese government during World War II...

 (wing fairings and gear doors), Kawasaki Heavy Industries
Kawasaki Heavy Industries
is an international corporation based in Japan. It has headquarters in both Chūō-ku, Kobe and Minato, Tokyo.The company is named after its founder Shōzō Kawasaki and has no connection with the city of Kawasaki, Kanagawa....

 (center fuselage), and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
, or MHI, is a Japanese company. It is one of the core companies of Mitsubishi Group.-History:In 1870 Yataro Iwasaki, the founder of Mitsubishi took a lease of Government-owned Nagasaki Shipyard. He named it Nagasaki Shipyard & Machinery Works, and started the shipbuilding business on a full scale...

 (rear fuselage, doors, and tail). All components were integrated during final assembly at the Everett factory. Building on techniques developed for the 747, the Everett factory received wing spar
Spar (aviation)
In a fixed-wing aircraft, the spar is often the main structural member of the wing, running spanwise at right angles to the fuselage. The spar carries flight loads and the weight of the wings whilst on the ground...

 assembly machines to eliminate time-consuming manual work. Final assembly of the first aircraft began on July 6, 1979.
The prototype aircraft, registered
Aircraft registration
An aircraft registration is a unique alphanumeric string that identifies a civil aircraft, in similar fashion to a licence plate on an automobile...

 N767BA and equipped with JT9D turbofans, rolled out on August 4, 1981. By this time, the 767 program had accumulated 173 firm orders from 17 customers, including Air Canada
Air Canada
Air Canada is the flag carrier and largest airline of Canada. The airline, founded in 1936, provides scheduled and charter air transport for passengers and cargo to 178 destinations worldwide. It is the world's tenth largest passenger airline by number of destinations, and the airline is a...

, All Nippon Airways
All Nippon Airways
, also known as or ANA, is one of the largest airlines in Japan. It is headquartered at the Shiodome City Center in the Shiodome area in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. It operates services to 49 destinations in Japan and 35 international routes and employed over 14,000 employees as of May 2009...

 (ANA), Britannia Airways
Britannia Airways
Britannia Airways was the largest charter airline in the United Kingdom, rebranded as Thomsonfly in 2005. Its main bases were Gatwick, London Luton, Birmingham, Manchester, Newcastle and Glasgow...

, Transbrasil
Transbrasil
TransBrasil is a defunct Brazilian airline which ceased operations in December 2001. During most of its history, Transbrasil was owned by local entrepeneur Omar Fontana. Its aircraft usually featured a colorful livery, remarkably with a rainbow on the tail fin. Transbrasil base was Brasilia...

, and Trans World Airlines
Trans World Airlines
Trans World Airlines was an American airline that existed from 1925 until it was bought out by and merged with American Airlines in 2001. It was a major domestic airline in the United States and the main U.S.-based competitor of Pan American World Airways on intercontinental routes from 1946...

 (TWA). On September 26, 1981, the prototype took its maiden flight
Maiden flight
The maiden flight of an aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground of its own accord. This is similar to a ship's maiden voyage....

 under the command of company test pilots Tommy Edmonds, Lew Wallick, and John Brit. The maiden flight was largely uneventful, save for the inability to retract the landing gear
Undercarriage
The undercarriage or landing gear in aviation, is the structure that supports an aircraft on the ground and allows it to taxi, takeoff and land...

 owing to a hydraulic
Hydraulics
Hydraulics is a topic in applied science and engineering dealing with the mechanical properties of liquids. Fluid mechanics provides the theoretical foundation for hydraulics, which focuses on the engineering uses of fluid properties. In fluid power, hydraulics is used for the generation, control,...

 fluid leak. The prototype was used for subsequent flight tests.

The 10-month 767 flight test program utilized the first six aircraft built. Of these aircraft, the first four were equipped with JT9D engines, while the fifth and sixth were fitted with CF6 engines. Tests mainly focused on verifying the 767's handling, performance, and avionics. The sixth aircraft was also used for route-proving flights. During testing, pilots described the 767 as generally easy to fly, with its maneuverability unencumbered by the bulkiness associated with larger wide-body jets. Following the successful completion of 1,600 hours of flight tests, the JT9D-powered 767-200 received Federal Aviation Administration
Federal Aviation Administration
The Federal Aviation Administration is the national aviation authority of the United States. An agency of the United States Department of Transportation, it has authority to regulate and oversee all aspects of civil aviation in the U.S...

 (FAA) and Civil Aviation Authority
Civil Aviation Authority
This is a list of national and supra-national civil aviation authorities.-See also:* Air route authority between the United States and the People's Republic of China* National Transportation Safety Board -External links:****...

 (CAA) certification in July 1982. The first delivery occurred on August 19, 1982, to United Airlines. The CF6-powered 767-200 received certification in September 1982, and the initial delivery to Delta Air Lines took place on October 20, 1982.

Service entry and operations

The 767 entered service with United Airlines on September 8, 1982. The aircraft's first commercial flight used a JT9D-powered 767-200 on the Chicago-to-Denver route. The CF6-powered 767-200 commenced service three months later with Delta Air Lines. The list of early operators grew to include Air Canada, ANA, American Airlines, and TWA. Upon delivery, early 767s were mainly deployed on transcontinental routes. The aircraft's introduction was relatively smooth, with few operational glitches and greater dispatch
Dispatch (logistics)
Dispatch is a procedure for assigning employees or vehicles to customers. Industries that dispatch include taxicabs, couriers, emergency services, as well as home and commercial services such as maid services, plumbing, HVAC, pest control and electricians.With vehicle dispatching, clients are...

 reliability
Reliability engineering
Reliability engineering is an engineering field, that deals with the study, evaluation, and life-cycle management of reliability: the ability of a system or component to perform its required functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time. It is often measured as a probability of...

 than prior jetliners. In its first year, the 767 logged a 96.1 percent rate of takeoff
Takeoff
Takeoff is the phase of flight in which an aerospace vehicle goes from the ground to flying in the air.For horizontal takeoff aircraft this usually involves starting with a transition from moving along the ground on a runway. For balloons, helicopters and some specialized fixed-wing aircraft , no...

 without delay due to technical issues, which exceeded the industry average for new aircraft. Operators reported generally favorable ratings for the twinjet's sound levels, interior comfort, and economic performance. Resolved issues included the recalibration of a leading edge sensor to prevent false readings, the replacement of an evacuation slide
Evacuation slide
An evacuation slide is an inflatable slide used to evacuate an aircraft quickly. An escape slide is required on all commercial aircraft where the door sill height is such that, in the event of an evacuation, passengers would be unable to "step down" from the door uninjured An evacuation slide is...

 latch, and the repair of a tailplane
Tailplane
A tailplane, also known as horizontal stabilizer , is a small lifting surface located on the tail behind the main lifting surfaces of a fixed-wing aircraft as well as other non-fixed wing aircraft such as helicopters and gyroplanes...

 pivot to match production specifications.
Seeking to capitalize on its new wide-body's potential for growth, Boeing offered an extended-range model, the 767-200ER, in its first year of service. Ethiopian Airlines
Ethiopian Airlines
Ethiopian Airlines , formerly Ethiopian Air Lines, often referred to as simply Ethiopian, is an airline headquartered on the grounds of Bole International Airport in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. It serves as the country's flag carrier, and is wholly owned by the Government of Ethiopia...

 placed the first order for the 767-200ER in December 1982. Featuring increased gross weight specifications and greater fuel capacity, the extended-range model could carry heavier payloads at distances up to 6385 nautical miles (11,825 km), and was targeted at overseas customers. The 767-200ER entered service with El Al
El Al
El Al Israel Airlines Ltd , trading as El Al , is the flag carrier of Israel. It operates scheduled domestic and international services and cargo flights to Europe, North America, Africa and the Far East from its main base in Ben Gurion International Airport...

 on March 27, 1984. The type was mainly ordered by international airlines operating medium-traffic, long-distance flights.

In the mid-1980s, the 767 spearheaded the growth of twinjet flights across the northern Atlantic under extended-range twin-engine operational performance standards (ETOPS) regulations, the FAA's safety rules governing transoceanic flights by aircraft with two engines. Before the 767, over-water flight paths of twinjets could be no more than 90 minutes away from diversion airport
Diversion airport
Diversion airports are suitable airports capable of handling a particular ETOPS rated aircraft during an emergency landing and whose flying distance at the point of emergency shall not exceed the ETOPS diversion period of that particular aircraft....

s. In May 1985, the FAA granted its first approval for 120-minute ETOPS flights to 767 operators, on an individual airline basis starting with TWA, provided that the operator met flight safety criteria. This allowed the aircraft to fly overseas routes at up to two hours' distance from land. The larger safety margins were permitted because of the improved reliability demonstrated by the twinjet and its turbofan engines. The FAA lengthened the ETOPS time to 180 minutes for CF6-powered 767s in 1989, making the type the first to be certified under the longer duration, and all other engine specifications received approval by 1993. Regulatory approval spurred the expansion of transoceanic 767 flights and boosted the aircraft's sales.

Stretched derivatives

Forecasting airline interest in larger-capacity models, Boeing announced the stretched 767-300 in 1983 and the extended-range 767-300ER in 1984. Both models offered a 20 percent passenger capacity increase, while the extended-range version was capable of operating flights up to 5990 nautical miles (11,093.5 km) in length. Japan Airlines
Japan Airlines
is an airline headquartered in Shinagawa, Tokyo, Japan. It is the flag carrier of Japan and its main hubs are Tokyo's Narita International Airport and Tokyo International Airport , as well as Nagoya's Chūbu Centrair International Airport and Osaka's Kansai International Airport...

 (JAL) placed the first order for the 767-300 in September 1983. Following its first flight on January 30, 1986, the type entered service with JAL on October 20, 1986. The 767-300ER completed its first flight on December 9, 1986, but it was not until March 1987 that the first firm order, from American Airlines, was placed. The type entered service with American Airlines on March 3, 1988. The 767-300 and 767-300ER came to be widely embraced by airline customers, and accounted for nearly two-thirds of all 767s sold.
After the debut of the first stretched 767s, Boeing sought to address airline requests for even more capacity by proposing larger models, including a partial double-deck version informally dubbed the "Hunchback of Mukilteo" (from a town near Boeing's Everett factory) with a 757 body section mounted over the aft main fuselage. A 1986 proposal called 767-X featured extended wings and a wider cabin, but attracted little interest. In 1988, the 767-X was dropped for an all-new twinjet, which revived the 777
Boeing 777
The Boeing 777 is a long-range, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It is the world's largest twinjet and is commonly referred to as the "Triple Seven". The aircraft has seating for over 300 passengers and has a range from , depending on model...

 designation. Until the 777's 1995 debut, the 767-300 and 767-300ER remained Boeing's second-largest wide-bodies behind the 747.

Buoyed by a recovering global economy and ETOPS approval, 767 sales accelerated in the mid-to-late 1980s, with 1989 being the most prolific year with 132 firm orders. By the early 1990s, the wide-body twinjet had become its manufacturer's best-selling aircraft, despite a slight decrease due to economic recession. During this time, the 767 became the most common airliner used for transatlantic flights between North America and Europe. By the end of the decade, 767s crossed the Atlantic more frequently than all other aircraft types combined. The 767 also propelled the growth of point-to-point
Point-to-point transit
Point-to-point transit refers to a transportation system where a plane, bus or train travels directly to a destination, rather than going through a central hub...

 flights which bypassed major airline hub
Airline hub
An airline hub is an airport that an airline uses as a transfer point to get passengers to their intended destination. It is part of a hub and spoke model, where travelers moving between airports not served by direct flights change planes en route to their destinations...

s in favor of direct route
Direct flight
A direct flight in the aviation industry is any flight between two points by an airline with no change in flight numbers, which may include a stop over at an intermediate point. The stop over may either be to get new passengers or a mere technical stop over...

s. Taking advantage of the aircraft's lower operating costs and smaller capacity, operators added nonstop flights to secondary population centers, thereby eliminating the need for connecting flights. The increase in the number of cities receiving nonstop services caused a paradigm shift in the airline industry as point-to-point travel gained prominence at the expense of the traditional hub-and-spoke
Spoke-hub distribution paradigm
The hub-and-spoke distribution paradigm is a system of connections arranged like a chariot wheel, in which all traffic moves along spokes connected to the hub at the center...

 model.
In January 1993, following an order from UPS Airlines
UPS Airlines
UPS Airlines is an American cargo airline owned by United Parcel Service Inc. . The company is headquartered in Louisville, Kentucky. Its home airport is located at Louisville International Airport...

, Boeing launched a freighter variant, the 767-300F, which entered service with UPS on October 16, 1995. The 767-300F featured a main deck cargo hold, upgraded landing gear, and strengthened wing structure. In November 1993, the Japanese government launched the first 767 military derivative when it placed orders for the E-767, an Airborne Early Warning and Control (AWACS) variant based on the 767-200ER. The first two E-767s, featuring extensive modifications to accommodate surveillance radar
Radar
Radar is an object-detection system which uses radio waves to determine the range, altitude, direction, or speed of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. The radar dish or antenna transmits pulses of radio...

 and other monitoring equipment, were delivered in 1998 to the Japan Self-Defense Forces
Japan Self-Defense Forces
The , or JSDF, occasionally referred to as JSF or SDF, are the unified military forces of Japan that were established after the end of the post–World War II Allied occupation of Japan. For most of the post-war period the JSDF was confined to the islands of Japan and not permitted to be deployed...

.

In November 1995, after abandoning development of a smaller version of the 777, Boeing announced that it was revisiting studies for a larger 767. The proposed 767-400X, a second stretch of the aircraft, offered a 12 percent capacity increase over the 767-300, and featured an upgraded flight deck, enhanced interior, and wider wingspan. The variant was specifically aimed at Delta Air Lines' pending replacement of its aging Lockheed L-1011 TriStars, and faced competition from the A330-200, a shortened derivative of the Airbus A330. In March 1997, Delta Air Lines launched the 767-400ER when it ordered the type to replace its L-1011 fleet. In October 1997, Continental Airlines
Continental Airlines
Continental Airlines was a major American airline now merged with United Airlines. On May 3, 2010, Continental Airlines, Inc. and UAL, Inc. announced a merger via a stock swap, and on October 1, 2010, the merger closed and UAL changed its name to United Continental Holdings, Inc...

 also ordered the 767-400ER to replace its McDonnell Douglas DC-10 fleet. The type completed its first flight on October 9, 1999, and entered service with Continental Airlines on September 14, 2000.

Further developments

In the early 2000s, cumulative 767 deliveries approached 900, but new sales declined during an airline industry downturn. In 2001, Boeing dropped plans for a longer-range model, the 767-400ERX, in favor of the proposed Sonic Cruiser
Boeing Sonic Cruiser
|-References:*Haenggi, Michael. "The Sonic Future?". Boeing Widebodies. MBI, 2003. ISBN 0-7603-0842-X.-External links:* * * * . Seattle PI, November 4, 2001* . Flight International, January 7, 2003*...

, a new jetliner which aimed to fly 15 percent faster while burning fuel at the same rate as the 767. The following year, the manufacturer announced the KC-767 Tanker Transport, a second military derivative of the 767-200ER. Launched with an order from the Italian Air Force
Italian Air Force
The Italian Air Force has gone under different names in different periods:*Regia Aeronautica , from 1923 to June 1946*Aeronautica Nazionale Repubblicana, the air force of Italian Social Republic during World War II...

, the KC-767 was intended for the dual role of refueling other aircraft and carrying cargo. The Japanese government became the second customer for the type in 2003. The first KC-767s were delivered in 2008 to the Japan Self-Defense Forces.
In late 2002, after airlines expressed reservations about its emphasis on speed over cost reduction, Boeing halted development of the Sonic Cruiser. The following year, the manufacturer announced the 7E7, a mid-size 767 successor made from composite material
Composite material
Composite materials, often shortened to composites or called composition materials, are engineered or naturally occurring materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties which remain separate and distinct at the macroscopic or...

s which promised to be 20 percent more fuel efficient. The new jetliner was the first stage of a replacement aircraft initiative called the Boeing Yellowstone Project
Boeing Yellowstone Project
Yellowstone is a Boeing Commercial Airplanes project to replace its entire civil aircraft portfolio with advanced technology aircraft. New technologies to be introduced include composite aerostructures, more electrical systems , and more fuel-efficient turbofan engines Yellowstone is a Boeing...

. Customers embraced the 7E7, later renamed 787 Dreamliner, and within two years it had become the fastest-selling airliner in the company's history. In 2005, Boeing opted to continue 767 production despite record Dreamliner sales, citing a need to provide customers waiting for the 787 with a more readily available option. Subsequently, the 767-300ER was offered to customers affected by Dreamliner delays, including ANA and JAL.

In 2007, UPS and DHL Aviation
DHL Aviation
DHL Aviation is a division of DHL Express responsible for providing air transport capacity. It is not a single airline but refers to several airlines owned, co-owned or chartered by DHL Express...

 placed combined orders for 33 767-300Fs, providing the aircraft with a production boost. Renewed freighter interest led Boeing to consider enhanced versions of the and with increased gross weights, wing extensions, and 777 avionics. However, the 767 program received only 24 net orders in 2008, seven in 2009, and three in 2010. During the same period, operators upgraded aircraft already in service; in 2008, the first 767-300ER retrofitted with blended winglets from Aviation Partners Incorporated
Aviation Partners Inc.
Aviation Partners Inc. or API is a Seattle-based private corporation, which specializes in the production of performance enhancing winglet systems...

 debuted with American Airlines. The manufacturer-sanctioned winglets, at 11 feet (3.4 m) in height, improved fuel efficiency by an estimated 6.5 percent. Other carriers including ANA and Delta Air Lines also ordered winglet kits.
On February 2, 2011, the 1,000th 767, a model destined for ANA, rolled out. The aircraft was the 91st 767-300ER ordered by ANA, and with its completion the 767 became only the second wide-body airliner to reach the thousand-unit milestone after the 747. The 1,000th aircraft also marked the last model produced on the original 767 assembly line. Beginning with the 1,001st aircraft, production moved to another area in the Everett factory which occupied nearly half the space as before. The new assembly line made room for Dreamliner production and aimed to boost manufacturing efficiency by over 20 percent.

At the inauguration of its new assembly line, the 767's order backlog numbered approximately 50, only enough for production to last until 2013. Despite the reduced backlog, Boeing officials expressed optimism that additional orders were forthcoming. On February 24, 2011, the United States Air Force
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947 under the National Security Act of...

 (USAF) selected the KC-767 Advanced Tanker
Boeing KC-46
The Boeing KC-46 is a military aerial refueling and strategic transport aircraft developed by Boeing from its 767 jet airliner. In February 2011, the tanker was selected by United States Air Force as the winner in the KC-X tanker competition to replace older KC-135 Stratotankers.-Background:The U.S...

, a second aerial refueling variant based on the 767-200ER, for its KC-X
KC-X
KC-X is the United States Air Force program to procure its next-generation aerial refueling tanker aircraft to replace some of the older Boeing KC-135 Stratotankers. The contest was for a production contract for 179 new tankers with estimated value of US$35 billion...

 fleet renewal program. The USAF's order encompassed 179 aircraft. When finalized, the tanker order is expected to sustain 767 production past 2013.

Overview

The 767 is a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a conventional tail unit featuring a single fin and rudder. The wings are swept at 31.5 degrees and optimized for a cruising speed of Mach
Mach number
Mach number is the speed of an object moving through air, or any other fluid substance, divided by the speed of sound as it is in that substance for its particular physical conditions, including those of temperature and pressure...

 0.8 (533 mph (857.8 km/h)). Each wing features a supercritical cross-section and is equipped with six-panel leading edge slats, single- and double-slotted flap
Flap (aircraft)
Flaps are normally hinged surfaces mounted on the trailing edges of the wings of a fixed-wing aircraft to reduce the speed an aircraft can be safely flown at and to increase the angle of descent for landing without increasing air speed. They shorten takeoff and landing distances as well as...

s, inboard and outboard aileron
Aileron
Ailerons are hinged flight control surfaces attached to the trailing edge of the wing of a fixed-wing aircraft. The ailerons are used to control the aircraft in roll, which results in a change in heading due to the tilting of the lift vector...

s, and six spoiler
Spoiler (aeronautics)
In aeronautics, a spoiler is a device intended to reduce lift in an aircraft. Spoilers are plates on the top surface of a wing which can be extended upward into the airflow and spoil it. By doing so, the spoiler creates a carefully controlled stall over the portion of the wing behind it, greatly...

s. The 767's airframe
Airframe
The airframe of an aircraft is its mechanical structure. It is typically considered to include fuselage, wings and undercarriage and exclude the propulsion system...

 also incorporates carbon-fiber reinforced plastic composite wing surfaces, Kevlar
Kevlar
Kevlar is the registered trademark for a para-aramid synthetic fiber, related to other aramids such as Nomex and Technora. Developed at DuPont in 1965, this high strength material was first commercially used in the early 1970s as a replacement for steel in racing tires...

 fairings and access panels, plus improved aluminum alloys
Aluminium alloy
Aluminium alloys are alloys in which aluminium is the predominant metal. The typical alloying elements are copper, magnesium, manganese, silicon and zinc. There are two principal classifications, namely casting alloys and wrought alloys, both of which are further subdivided into the categories...

, which together reduce overall weight by 1250 lb (567 kg) versus preceding aircraft.
To distribute the aircraft's weight on the ground, the 767 has a retractable tricycle landing gear
Tricycle gear
Tricycle gear describes an aircraft undercarriage, or landing gear, arranged in a tricycle fashion. The tricycle arrangement has one wheel in the front, called the nose wheel, and two or more main wheels slightly aft of the center of gravity...

 with four wheels on each main gear and two for the nose gear. The original wing and gear design accommodated the stretched 767-300 without major changes. For the 767-400ER, the same general landing gear configuration is retained, but with a larger main gear in a more widely spaced configuration using 777 wheels, tires, and brakes, and a retractable tailskid
Tailstrike
Tailstrike is an aviation term that describes an event in which the rear end of an aircraft touches the runway. This can happen during takeoff of a fixed-wing aircraft if the pilot pulls up too rapidly, leading to the rear end of the fuselage touching the runway. It can also occur during landing...

 is added.

Along with shared flight control systems, the 767 has the same forward cockpit windows as the 757 and a raised cockpit floor to provide viewing angles similar to those on the narrow-body twinjet. Related design and technology allows 767 pilots to obtain a common type rating to operate the 757 and share the same seniority roster with pilots of either aircraft.

Avionics technologies introduced on the 767 include Rockwell Collins
Rockwell Collins
Rockwell Collins, Inc. is a large United States-based international company headquartered in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, primarily providing aviation and information technology systems and services to governmental agencies and aircraft manufacturers.- History :...

 cathode ray tube (CRT) displays, replacing conventional electromechanical
Electromechanics
In engineering, electromechanics combines the sciences of electromagnetism, of electrical engineering and mechanics. Mechanical engineering in this context refers to the larger discipline which includes chemical engineering, and other related disciplines. Electrical engineering in this context...

 instruments, and an enhanced flight management system, improved over versions used on previous 747 models. High-bypass turbofan engines, upgraded from versions introduced on the 747, are used to power the 767. Engine upgrades introduced with the wide-body twinjet include core-mounted accessories for reduced drag and pylon-mounted doors for improved maintenance access.

Flight systems

The original 767 flight deck uses six CRT screens to display electronic flight instrument system
Electronic Flight Instrument System
An electronic flight instrument system is a flight deck instrument display system in which the display technology used is electronic rather than electromechanical. EFIS normally consists of a primary flight display , multi-function display and engine indicating and crew alerting system display...

 (EFIS) and engine indication and crew alerting system (EICAS) information, allowing pilots to handle monitoring tasks previously performed by the flight engineer. An automatic landing
Autoland
In aviation, autoland describes a system that fully automates the landing phase of an aircraft's flight, with the human crew merely supervising the process.-Description:...

 system is fitted for adverse weather conditions, allowing the aircraft to perform CAT IIIb
Instrument Landing System
An instrument landing system is a ground-based instrument approach system that provides precision guidance to an aircraft approaching and landing on a runway, using a combination of radio signals and, in many cases, high-intensity lighting arrays to enable a safe landing during instrument...

 instrument landings in 300 metres (984.3 ft) low visibility situations. The 767 was the first aircraft to receive CAT IIIb certification from the FAA in 1984. On the 767-400ER, the cockpit layout is simplified further with five Rockwell Collins liquid crystal display
Liquid crystal display
A liquid crystal display is a flat panel display, electronic visual display, or video display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals . LCs do not emit light directly....

 (LCD) screens, and adapted for similarities with the 777 and the Next Generation 737
Boeing 737 Next Generation
The Boeing 737 Next Generation, commonly abbreviated as Boeing 737NG, is the name given to the -600/-700/-800/-900 series of the Boeing 737 after the introduction of the -300/-400/-500 Classic series. They are short- to medium-range, narrow-body jet airliners...

. To retain operational commonality
Commonality
Aviation commonality describes the economic and logistic benefits of operating a standardized fleet of aircraft that share common parts, training requirements, or other characteristics. Commonality lowers the cost of operating a fleet of aircraft by reducing the quantity and variety of spare parts...

, the LCD screens can be programmed to display information in the same manner as earlier 767s.

The 767 is equipped with three redundant hydraulic systems for operation of control surfaces, landing gear, and other equipment. Each engine powers a separate hydraulic system, and the third system uses electric pumps. A ram air turbine
Ram air turbine
A ram air turbine is a small turbine that is connected to a hydraulic pump, or electrical generator, installed in an aircraft and used as a power source...

 is fitted to provide emergency power in the event of hydraulic failure. A basic form of fly-by-wire
Fly-by-wire
Fly-by-wire is a system that replaces the conventional manual flight controls of an aircraft with an electronic interface. The movements of flight controls are converted to electronic signals transmitted by wires , and flight control computers determine how to move the actuators at each control...

 is employed for spoiler operation, utilizing electric signaling instead of traditional control cables. The fly-by-wire system reduces weight and provides for the independent operation of individual spoilers.

Interior

The 767 features a twin-aisle cabin with a typical configuration of six abreast in business class
Business class
Business class is a travel class available on many commercial airlines and rail lines, known by brand names which vary by airline or rail company. In the airline industry, it was originally intended as an intermediate level of service between economy class and first class, but many airlines now...

 and seven across in economy
Economy class
__FORCETOC__Economy class, also called coach class , steerage, or standard class, is the lowest class of seating in air travel, rail travel, and sometimes ferry or maritime travel....

. The standard seven abreast, 2–3–2 economy class layout places 87 percent of all seats at a window or aisle. As a result, the aircraft can be largely occupied before center seats need to be filled, and each passenger is no more than one seat from the aisle. It is possible to squeeze an extra seat for an eight abreast configuration, but this configuration is cramped and therefore uncommon.
The 767 interior introduced larger overhead bins and more lavatories per passenger than previous aircraft. The bins are wider to accommodate garment bags without folding, and strengthened for heavier carry-on items. A single large economy class galley
Galley (kitchen)
The galley is the compartment of a ship, train or aircraft where food is cooked and prepared. It can also refer to a land based kitchen on a naval base or a particular formed household kitchen.-Ship's kitchen:...

 is installed near the aft doors, allowing for faster meal service and ground loading. Passenger and service doors are an overhead plug
Plug door
A plug door is a door designed to seal itself by taking advantage of pressure difference on its two sides and is typically used on pressurised aircraft...

 type, which retract upwards, and commonly-used doors can be equipped with an electric-assist
Electric motor
An electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.Most electric motors operate through the interaction of magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors to generate force...

 system.

In 2000, a 777-style interior, known as the Boeing Signature Interior, debuted on the 767-400ER. Subsequently adopted for all new-build 767s, the Signature Interior features even larger overhead bins, indirect lighting, and sculpted panels. The 767-400ER also received larger windows derived from the 777. Older 767s can be retrofitted with the Signature Interior. Some operators have adopted a simpler modification known as the Enhanced Interior, featuring curved ceiling panels and indirect lighting with minimal modification of cabin architecture, as well as aftermarket modifications such as the NuLook 767 package by Heath Tecna.

Variants

The 767 has been produced in three fuselage lengths. These debuted in progressively larger form as the 767-200, 767-300, and 767-400ER, respectively. Longer-range variants have been produced as the 767-200ER and 767-300ER ("ER" for Extended Range). Cargo variants include the 767-300F, a production freighter, and conversions of passenger 767-200 and 767-300 models.

When referring to different variants, Boeing and airlines often collapse the model number (767) and the variant designator (e.g. –200 or –300) into a truncated form (e.g. "762" or "763"). Subsequent to the capacity number, designations may or may not append the range identifier. The International Civil Aviation Organization
International Civil Aviation Organization
The International Civil Aviation Organization , pronounced , , is a specialized agency of the United Nations. It codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth...

 (ICAO) aircraft type designator system classifies all variants based on the 767-200 and 767-300 under the codes "B762" and "B763", respectively, while the 767-400ER is referred to as "B764."

767-200

The 767-200 was the original model and entered service with United Airlines in 1982. The type has been used primarily by mainline
Mainline (flight)
A mainline flight is a flight operated by an airline's main operating unit, rather than by regional alliances, regional code-shares or regional subsidiaries...

 U.S. carriers for domestic routes between major hub centers such as Los Angeles to Washington. The 767-200 was the first aircraft to be used on transatlantic ETOPS flights, beginning with TWA on February 1, 1985 under 90-minute diversion rules. Deliveries for the type totaled 128 aircraft, and 64 examples were in airline service as of July 2011. The type's competitors have included the Airbus A300 and A310.

The 767-200 ceased production in the late 1980s due to being superseded by the extended-range 767-200ER. All models subsequently built have been the extended-range version. Some early 767-200s have been converted to specification. In 1998, Boeing also began converting 767-200s to the 767-200SF ("SF" for Special Freighter) specification for cargo use, and Israel Aerospace Industries has been licensed to perform cargo conversions since 2005. The 767-200SF is positioned as a replacement for Douglas DC-8
Douglas DC-8
The Douglas DC-8 is a four-engined narrow-body passenger commercial jet airliner, manufactured from 1958 to 1972 by the Douglas Aircraft Company...

 freighters.

767-200ER

The 767-200ER was the first extended-range model and entered service with El Al in 1984. The type's increased range is due to an additional center fuel tank and a higher maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) of up to 395000 lb (179,169 kg). The type was originally offered with the same engines as the , while more powerful Pratt & Whitney PW4000
Pratt & Whitney PW4000
|-See also:-External links:* * *...

 and General Electric CF6
General Electric CF6
The General Electric CF6 is a family of high-bypass turbofan engines produced by GE Aviation. A development of the first high-power high-bypass jet engine available, the TF39, the CF6 powers a wide variety of civilian airliners. The basic engine core formed the basis for the LM2500, LM5000, and...

 engines later became available. The was the first 767 to complete a nonstop transatlantic journey, and broke the flying distance record for a twinjet airliner on April 17, 1988 with an Air Mauritius
Air Mauritius
Air Mauritius Limited, stylised as Air Mauritius, is the flag carrier of Mauritius. The airline is headquartered at the Air Mauritius Centre in Port Louis, Mauritius. Its main base is Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam International Airport...

 flight from Halifax, Nova Scotia to Port Louis, Mauritius, covering a distance of 8727 nautical miles (16,162.4 km). The 767-200ER has been acquired by international operators seeking smaller wide-body aircraft, with typical routings including New York to Beijing. Deliveries of the type totaled 121 and no unfilled orders remain. As of July 2011, 64 examples were in airline service. The type's competitors have included the Airbus A300-600R and the A310-300.

767-300

The 767-300, the first stretched version of the aircraft, entered service with Japan Airlines in 1986. The type features a 21.1 feet (6.4 m) fuselage stretch over the 767-200, achieved by additional sections inserted before and after the wings, for an overall length of 180 in 3 in (54.94 m). Reflecting the growth potential built into the original 767 design, the wings, engines, and most systems are largely unchanged on the 767-300. A mid-cabin exit door positioned ahead of the wings is optional. Boeing later catered to customer requests by adding the option of more powerful Pratt & Whitney PW4000 and Rolls-Royce RB211
Rolls-Royce RB211
The Rolls-Royce RB211 is a family of high-bypass turbofan engines made by Rolls-Royce plc and capable of generating 37,400 to 60,600 pounds-force thrust. Originally developed for the Lockheed L-1011 , it entered service in 1972 and was the only engine to power this aircraft type...

 engines. The 767-300's increased capacity is targeted at high-density routes such as those flown within Asia and Europe. Deliveries for the type totaled 104 aircraft and no unfilled orders remain. As of July 2011, 101 of the variant were in airline service. The type's competitors have included the Airbus A300.

767-300ER

The 767-300ER, the extended-range version of the 767-300, entered service with American Airlines in 1988. The type's increased range is made possible by greater fuel tankage and a higher MTOW of 407000 lb (184,612.1 kg). Design improvements allowed the available MTOW to increase to 412000 lb (186,880.1 kg) by 1993. Power is provided by Pratt & Whitney PW4000, General Electric CF6, or Rolls-Royce RB211 engines. Typical routes for the type include Los Angeles to Frankfurt. The combination of increased capacity and range available in the  has found wide acceptance from airline customers, making it the most successful 767 variant. As of October 2011, deliveries of aircraft stand at 578 with 22 remaining unfilled orders. Airlines had 511 examples in service as of July 2011. The type's main competitor is the Airbus A330-200.

767-300F

The 767-300F, the production freighter version of the 767-300ER, entered service with UPS Airlines in 1995. The 767-300F can hold up to 24 standard 88 by pallet
Pallet
A pallet , sometimes called a skid, is a flat transport structure that supports goods in a stable fashion while being lifted by a forklift, pallet jack, front loader or other jacking device. A pallet is the structural foundation of a unit load which allows handling and storage efficiencies...

s on its main deck and up to 30 LD2 unit load devices on the lower deck, for a total cargo volume of 15469 cu ft (438 m³). The freighter has a main deck cargo door and crew exit, while the lower deck features two port-side cargo doors and one starboard cargo door. A general market version with onboard freight-handling systems, refrigeration
Refrigeration
Refrigeration is a process in which work is done to move heat from one location to another. This work is traditionally done by mechanical work, but can also be done by magnetism, laser or other means...

 capability, and crew facilities entered service with Asiana Airlines
Asiana Airlines
Asiana Airlines Inc. is one of South Korea's two major airlines, along with Korean Air. Asiana has its headquarters in Asiana Town in Osoe-dong, Gangseo-gu, Seoul...

 on August 23, 1996. As of October 2011, 767-300F deliveries total 64 with 20 unfilled orders. Airlines operated 59 examples of the type as of July 2011.

In 2008, All Nippon Airways sent one of its 767-300s to ST Aerospace Services in Paya Lebar, Singapore, to launch the 767 PTF (Passenger To Freighter) program. Since then, Boeing, Israel Aerospace Industries, and Wagner Aeronautical have also offered 767-300BCF ("BCF" for Boeing Converted Freighter) conversions via the 767 PTF program.

767-400ER

The 767-400ER, the first Boeing wide-body jet resulting from two fuselage stretches, entered service with Continental Airlines in 2000. The type features a 21.1 ft (6.4 m) stretch over the 767-300 for a total length of 201 in 4 in (61.37 m). The wingspan is also increased by 14.3 ft (4.4 m) through the addition of extended and raked wingtips. Other differences include an updated cockpit, redesigned landing gear, and 777-style Signature Interior. Power is provided by uprated Pratt & Whitney PW4000 or General Electric CF6 engines.

The FAA granted approval for the 767-400ER to operate 180-minute ETOPS flights before it entered service. Because its fuel capacity was not increased over preceding models, the 767-400ER has a range of 5625 nautical miles (10,417.5 km), less than previous extended-range 767s. Typical routings for the type include London to Tokyo. A longer-range version, the 767-400ERX, was offered for sale in 2000 but cancelled a year later, leaving the as the sole version of the largest 767. Continental Airlines and Delta Air Lines, the type's only two airline customers, have received 37 aircraft, with no unfilled orders remaining. All 37 aircraft were operating as of July 2011. One additional example was produced as a military testbed, and later sold as a VIP transport. The type's closest competitor is the Airbus A330-200.

Military and government

Versions of the 767 serve prominently in a number of military and government applications, with responsibilities ranging from airborne surveillance and refueling to cargo and VIP transport. Most military 767s are derived from the 767-200ER, the longest-range version of the aircraft.
  • Airborne Surveillance Testbed – the Airborne Optical Adjunct (AOA) was modified from the prototype 767-200 for a United States Army
    United States Army
    The United States Army is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military, and is one of seven U.S. uniformed services...

     program, under a contract signed with the Strategic Air Command
    Strategic Air Command
    The Strategic Air Command was both a Major Command of the United States Air Force and a "specified command" of the United States Department of Defense. SAC was the operational establishment in charge of America's land-based strategic bomber aircraft and land-based intercontinental ballistic...

     in July 1984. Intended to evaluate the feasibility of using airborne optical sensors to detect and track hostile intercontinental ballistic missile
    Intercontinental ballistic missile
    An intercontinental ballistic missile is a ballistic missile with a long range typically designed for nuclear weapons delivery...

    s, the modified aircraft first flew on August 21, 1987. Alterations included a large "cupola
    Cupola
    In architecture, a cupola is a small, most-often dome-like, structure on top of a building. Often used to provide a lookout or to admit light and air, it usually crowns a larger roof or dome....

    " or hump which ran along the top of the aircraft from above the cockpit to just behind the trailing edge
    Trailing edge
    The trailing edge of an aerodynamic surface such as a wing is its rear edge, where the airflow separated by the leading edge rejoins. Essential control surfaces are attached here to redirect the air flow and exert a controlling force by changing its momentum...

     of the wings, and a pair of ventral fins below the rear fuselage. Inside the cupola was a suite of infrared seekers used for tracking theater ballistic missile launches. The aircraft, later renamed Airborne Surveillance Testbed (AST), was retired in 2003.

  • E-767
    Boeing E-767
    The Boeing E-767 is an airborne warning and control system aircraft. It was designed in response to the Japan Air Self-Defense Force's requirements, and is essentially the Boeing E-3 Sentry's surveillance radar and air control system installed on a Boeing 767-200.-Background:On September 6, 1976,...

    – the Airborne Early Warning and Control (AWACS) platform used by the Japan Self-Defense Forces; it is essentially the E-3 Sentry
    E-3 Sentry
    The Boeing E-3 Sentry is an airborne warning and control system developed by Boeing as the prime contractor. Derived from the Boeing 707, it provides all-weather surveillance, command, control and communications, and is used by the United States Air Force , NATO, Royal Air Force , French Air Force...

     mission package on a 767-200ER platform. E-767 modifications, completed on 767-200ERs flown from the Everett factory to Boeing Integrated Defense Systems in Wichita, Kansas, include structural strengthening to accommodate a dorsal surveillance radar system, engine nacelle
    Nacelle
    The nacelle is a cover housing that holds engines, fuel, or equipment on an aircraft. In some cases—for instance in the typical "Farman" type "pusher" aircraft, or the World War II-era P-38 Lightning—an aircraft's cockpit may also be housed in a nacelle, which essentially fills the...

     alterations, as well as electrical and interior changes. Japan operates four E-767s. The first E-767s were delivered on March 11, 1998.

  • FACh 1 – a 767-300ER operated by the Chilean Air Force
    Chilean Air Force
    The Chilean Air Force is the air force of Chile, a branch of the Chilean military.-History:The first step towards the current FACh was taken by Teniente Coronel Pedro Pablo Dartnell, when he founded the Servicio de Aviación Militar de Chile on December 20, 1910, being trained as a pilot in France...

     (Fuerza Aérea de Chile, or FACh), with functions including serving as the official transport for the President of Chile
    President of Chile
    The President of the Republic of Chile is both the head of state and the head of government of the Republic of Chile. The President is responsible of the government and state administration...

    . The 767-300ER was acquired in January 2008 to replace the country's previous presidential transport, a 707. The aircraft also performs strategic transport missions separate from its VIP duties.

  • KC-767
    Boeing KC-767
    The Boeing KC-767 is a military aerial refueling and strategic transport aircraft developed from the Boeing 767-200ER. The tanker received the designation KC-767A in 2002, after being selected by the US Air Force initially to replace older KC-135Es...

    – the 767-200ER-based aerial tanker developed for the USAF KC-X tanker competition, an effort to replace aging KC-135
    KC-135 Stratotanker
    The Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker is an aerial refueling military aircraft. It and the Boeing 707 airliner were developed from the Boeing 367-80 prototype. The KC-135 was the US Air Force's first jet-powered refueling tanker and replaced the KC-97 Stratotanker...

     tankers. The KC-767 was selected in 2003 and subsequently designated KC-767A. However, due to a conflict of interest
    Conflict of interest
    A conflict of interest occurs when an individual or organization is involved in multiple interests, one of which could possibly corrupt the motivation for an act in the other....

     scandal, the Pentagon
    The Pentagon
    The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia. As a symbol of the U.S. military, "the Pentagon" is often used metonymically to refer to the Department of Defense rather than the building itself.Designed by the American architect...

     suspended the contract pending investigation and voided it in 2006. Boeing subsequently offered the KC-767 Advanced Tanker, which was derived from studies for a longer-range cargo version of the 767-200ER. On February 24, 2011, Boeing was awarded the KC-X contract to build a 767-based tanker, to be designated KC-46A
    Boeing KC-46
    The Boeing KC-46 is a military aerial refueling and strategic transport aircraft developed by Boeing from its 767 jet airliner. In February 2011, the tanker was selected by United States Air Force as the winner in the KC-X tanker competition to replace older KC-135 Stratotankers.-Background:The U.S...

    .

  • KC-767 Tanker Transport – the 767-200ER-based aerial refueling platform operated by the Italian Air Force (Aeronautica Militare), and the Japan Self-Defense Forces. Modifications conducted by Boeing Integrated Defense Systems include the addition of a fly-by-wire refueling boom, strengthened flaps, and optional auxiliary fuel tanks, as well as structural reinforcement and modified avionics. All four KC-767Js ordered by Japan have been delivered. The Aeronautica Militare received the first of its four KC-767As in January 2011.

  • 767 MMTT – the 767-200ER-based Multi-Mission Tanker Transport operated by the Colombian Air Force
    Colombian Air Force
    The Colombian Air Force or FAC is the Air Force of the Republic of Colombia.The Colombian Air Force is one of the three institutions of the Armed Forces of Colombia, charge according to the 1991 Constitution of the work to exercise and maintain control of Colombia's airspace to defend the...

     (Fuerza Aérea Colombiana). Israel Aerospace Industries completed modification of the first 767 MMTT in June 2010, with changes including the addition of wing refueling pods and a side cargo door. The 767 MMTT can perform aerial tanker, cargo, and VIP transport duties.


767-400ERX

Boeing offered the 767-400ERX, a longer-range version of the largest 767 model, for sale in 2000. Introduced along with the 747X, the type was to be powered by the 747X's engines, namely the Engine Alliance GP7000 and the Rolls-Royce Trent 600
Rolls-Royce Trent
Rolls-Royce Trent is the name given to a family of high bypass turbofan aircraft engines manufactured by Rolls-Royce plc. All are developments of the RB211 with thrust ratings of . Versions of the Trent are in service on the Airbus A330, A340, A380, Boeing 777, and 787, and variants are in...

. An increased range of 6492 nautical miles (12,023.2 km) was specified. Kenya Airways
Kenya Airways
Kenya Airways Ltd., more commonly known as Kenya Airways, is the flag carrier and largest airline of Kenya. The company was founded in 1977, after the dissolution of East African Airways. The carrier's head office is located in Embakasi, Nairobi, with its main base at Jomo Kenyatta International...

 provisionally ordered three 767-400ERXs to supplement its 767 fleet, but after Boeing cancelled the type's development in 2001, switched the order to the 777-200ER.

E-10 MC2A

The Northrop Grumman E-10 MC2A was to be a 767-400ER-based replacement for the USAF's 707-based E-3 Sentry AWACS, E-8 Joint STARS
E-8 Joint STARS
The Northrop Grumman E-8 Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System is a battle management and command and control aircraft of the United States Air Force...

, and RC-135 SIGINT
SIGINT
Signals intelligence is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether between people , whether involving electronic signals not directly used in communication , or combinations of the two...

 aircraft. The E-10 MC2A would have included an all-new AWACS system, with a powerful Active Electronically Scanned Array
Active Electronically Scanned Array
An Active Electronically Scanned Array , also known as active phased array radar is a type of phased array radar whose transmitter and receiver functions are composed of numerous small solid-state transmit/receive modules . AESAs aim their "beam" by broadcasting radio energy that interfere...

 (AESA) that was also capable of jamming enemy aircraft or missiles. One 767-400ER aircraft was produced as a testbed for systems integration, but the program was terminated in January 2009 and the prototype sold to Bahrain as a VIP transport.

Operators

The customers that have received the most 767s are Delta Air Lines, American Airlines, and All Nippon Airways. Delta Air Lines is the largest customer, having ordered 117 aircraft through October 2011, and is the only carrier to have operated all passenger versions of the 767. A total of 837 aircraft (all variants) were in airline service in July 2011. Airline operators include Delta Air Lines (94), American Airlines (73), All Nippon Airways (63), United Airlines (60), UPS Airlines (59), Japan Airlines (44), ABX Air (31), Air Canada (31), and others with fewer aircraft of the type.

Orders and deliveries

Year Total 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995
Orders 1057 13 3 2 28 36 10 15 9 10 8 40 9 30 38 79 43 22
Deliveries 1014 17 12 13 10 12 12 10 9 24 35 40 44 44 47 42 43 37
Year 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978
Orders 17 54 21 65 52 100 83 57 23 38 15 20 2 5 11 45 49
Deliveries 41 51 63 62 60 37 53 37 27 25 29 55 20 0 0 0 0
  • Data through end of October 2011. Updated on November 3, 2011.

Incidents and accidents

As of November 2011, the 767 has been in 42 incidents, including 13 hull-loss accidents
Aviation accidents and incidents
An aviation accident is defined in the Convention on International Civil Aviation Annex 13 as an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight and all such persons have disembarked, in which a...

, resulting in 569 total fatalities.

The type's first fatal crash, Lauda Air Flight 004
Lauda Air Flight 004
Lauda Air Flight 004 was an international passenger flight that crashed due to a thrust reverser deployment of the number 1 engine in flight.-History of the flight:...

, occurred on May 26, 1991, following the in-flight deployment of the left engine thrust reverser on a 767-300ER; none of the 223 aboard survived, and as a result of this accident all 767 thrust reversers were deactivated until a redesign was implemented. On October 31, 1999, EgyptAir Flight 990
EgyptAir Flight 990
EgyptAir Flight 990 was a regularly scheduled flight from Los Angeles International Airport, California to Cairo International Airport, Egypt, with a stop at John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York...

, a 767-300ER, crashed off Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, in international waters
International waters
The terms international waters or trans-boundary waters apply where any of the following types of bodies of water transcend international boundaries: oceans, large marine ecosystems, enclosed or semi-enclosed regional seas and estuaries, rivers, lakes, groundwater systems , and wetlands.Oceans,...

 killing all 217 people on board. The probable cause was determined by the National Transportation Safety Board
National Transportation Safety Board
The National Transportation Safety Board is an independent U.S. government investigative agency responsible for civil transportation accident investigation. In this role, the NTSB investigates and reports on aviation accidents and incidents, certain types of highway crashes, ship and marine...

 to be deliberate action by the first officer; Egypt disputed this conclusion. On April 15, 2002, Air China Flight 129
Air China Flight 129
Air China Flight 129 was a flight from Beijing Capital International Airport, Beijing, People's Republic of China to Gimhae International Airport, Busan, South Korea. On April 15, 2002, the jet on this route crashed into a hill near Busan, killing 129 of 166 on board...

, a 767-200ER flying from Beijing to Busan, South Korea, crashed into a hill
Controlled flight into terrain
Controlled flight into terrain describes an accident in which an airworthy aircraft, under pilot control, is unintentionally flown into the ground, a mountain, water, or an obstacle. The term was coined by engineers at Boeing in the late 1970s...

 while trying to land at Gimhae International Airport
Gimhae International Airport
Gimhae International Airport is located on the western end of Busan, South Korea. It opened in 1976. A new international terminal opened on October 31, 2007. Gimhae International Airport is the main hub for Air Busan...

 during inclement weather. The crash resulted in the death of 129 of the 166 people on board, and the cause was attributed to pilot error
Pilot error
Pilot error is a term used to describe the cause of an accident involving an airworthy aircraft where the pilot is considered to be principally or partially responsible...

.
An early 767 incident was survived by all on board. On July 23, 1983, Air Canada Flight 143
Gimli Glider
The Gimli Glider is the nickname of the Air Canada aircraft that was involved in a notable aviation incident. On 23 July 1983, Air Canada Flight 143, a Boeing 767-200 jet, ran out of fuel at an altitude of ASL, about halfway through its flight from Montreal to Edmonton via Ottawa...

, a 767-200, ran out of fuel in-flight and had to glide with both engines out almost 50 miles (80.5 km) to an emergency landing. The pilots used the aircraft's ram air turbine to power the hydraulic systems for aerodynamic control. There were no fatalities and only minor injuries. This aircraft was nicknamed "Gimli Glider" for the airport at which it landed. The aircraft, registered C-GAUN, continued flying for Air Canada until its retirement in January 2008.

The six hijacking
Aircraft hijacking
Aircraft hijacking is the unlawful seizure of an aircraft by an individual or a group. In most cases, the pilot is forced to fly according to the orders of the hijackers. Occasionally, however, the hijackers have flown the aircraft themselves, such as the September 11 attacks of 2001...

s involving the 767 have resulted in 282 on-board fatalities. On November 23, 1996, Ethiopian Airlines Flight 961
Ethiopian Airlines Flight 961
Ethiopian Airlines Flight 961, a Boeing 767-260ER, was hijacked on , en route from Addis Ababa to Nairobi on a Bombay–Addis Ababa–Nairobi–Brazzaville–Lagos–Abidjan service, by three Ethiopians seeking political asylum in Australia. The plane crash-landed in the Indian Ocean near Comoros due to fuel...

, a 767-200ER, was hijacked and crash-landed in the Indian Ocean near Comoros after running out of fuel, killing 125 with 50 survivors; rescuees are rare among instances of land-based aircraft ditching on water. Two 767s were involved in the September 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center
World Trade Center
The original World Trade Center was a complex with seven buildings featuring landmark twin towers in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. The complex opened on April 4, 1973, and was destroyed in 2001 during the September 11 attacks. The site is currently being rebuilt with five new...

, resulting in the collapse of its two main towers. American Airlines Flight 11
American Airlines Flight 11
American Airlines Flight 11 was American Airlines' daily scheduled morning transcontinental flight from Logan International Airport, in Boston, Massachusetts, to Los Angeles International Airport, in Los Angeles, California...

, a 767-200ER, crashed into the north tower, killing all 92 people on board, and United Airlines Flight 175
United Airlines Flight 175
United Airlines Flight 175 was United Airlines' daily scheduled morning transcontinental flight, from Logan International Airport in Boston, Massachusetts, to Los Angeles International Airport in Los Angeles, California...

, a 767-200, crashed into the south tower, with the death of all 65 on board. In addition, over 2,600 people perished in the towers or on the ground.

On December 22, 2001, on board American Airlines Flight 63, a 767-300ER flight from Paris to Miami, Richard C. Reid
Richard Reid (shoe bomber)
Richard Colvin Reid , also known as the Shoe Bomber, is a self-admitted member of al-Qaeda who pled guilty in 2002 in U.S. federal court to eight criminal counts of terrorism stemming from his attempt to destroy a commercial aircraft in-flight by detonating explosives hidden in his shoes...

 tried detonating an explosive in his shoes during the flight. Passengers and crew subdued him and prevented the fuse from being lit. Reid was arrested, and later convicted and imprisoned. As a result airline passengers departing from U.S. airports are required to remove their shoes for scanning at security checkpoints.

On November 1, 2011, LOT Polish Airlines Flight 016 safely landed at Warsaw Frederic Chopin Airport
Warsaw Frederic Chopin Airport
Warsaw Chopin Airport is an international airport located in the Włochy district of Warsaw, Poland. Poland's busiest airport, Warsaw Chopin handles just under 50% of the country's air passenger traffic....

 in Warsaw, Poland after a mechanical failure of the landing gear prior to landing. The cockpit crew successfully performed an emergency landing at the airport with landing gear up. There were no injuries, but the 767 was damaged.

Retirement and display

As new 767s roll off the assembly line, older models have been retired and scrapped. Some aging models, exceeding 20 years in age, were kept in service in the 2010s past planned retirement dates following delays of replacement aircraft such as the 787. In 2010, four retired American Airlines 767-200s were dismantled for parts in Roswell, New Mexico, and their nose sections removed intact for collector or film use. Of these four aircraft, the cockpit of N301AA, the eighth 767 built, was transported to Victorville, California to be restored for museum display.

One complete aircraft is known to have been retained for exhibition, specifically N102DA, the first 767-200 to operate for Delta Air Lines and the twelfth example built. The exhibition aircraft, named "The Spirit of Delta" by the employees who helped purchase it in 1982, underwent restoration at the Delta Air Lines Air Transport Heritage Museum
Delta Heritage Museum
The Delta Heritage Museum is an aviation and corporate museum located in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. The museum is housed in two 1940s-era Delta Air Lines maintenance hangars, which were used until the 1960s when the Delta Technical Operations Center, formerly known as the Jet Base, was...

 in Atlanta, Georgia. The restoration was completed in 2010. Featuring the original delivered interior as well as historical displays, the aircraft is viewable by Delta employees and the general public by appointment.

Specifications

767-200 767-200ER 767-300 767-300ER 767-300F 767-400ER
Cockpit crew Two
Seating capacity,
typical
181 (3-class)
224 (2-class)
255; optional 290 (1-class)
218 (3-class)
269 (2-class)
350 (1-class)
N/A 245 (3-class)
304 (2-class)
375 (1-class)
Cargo 2,875 ft³ (81.4 m³)
22 LD2s
Unit Load Device
A unit load device , is a pallet or container used to load luggage, freight, and mail on wide-body aircraft and specific narrow-body aircraft. It allows a large quantity of cargo to be bundled into a single unit. Since this leads to fewer units to load, it saves ground crews time and effort and...

3,770 ft³ (106.8 m³)
30 LD2s
15,469 ft³ (438 m³)
30 LD2s + 24 pallets
4,580 ft³ (129.6 m³)
38 LD2s
Length 159 ft 2 in
(48.5 m)
180 ft 3 in
(54.9 m)
201 ft 4 in
(61.4 m)
Wingspan 156 ft 1 in
(47.6 m)
170 ft 4 in
(51.9 m)
Wing area 3,050 ft² (283.3 m²) 3,130 ft ² (290.7 m²)
Fuselage height 17 ft 9 in (5.41 m)
Fuselage width 16 ft 6 in (5.03 m)
Cabin width
(interior)
15 ft 6 in (4.72 m)
Maximum fuel
capacity
16700 US gal (63,216.4 l) 24100 US gal (91,228.4 l) 16700 US gal (63,216.4 l) 24100 US gal (91,228.4 l)
Empty weight,
operating
176,650 lb
(80,130 kg)
181,610 lb
(82,380 kg)
189,750 lb
(86,070 kg)
198,440 lb
(90,010 kg)
190,000 lb
(86,180 kg)
229,000 lb
(103,870 kg)
Maximum
takeoff weight
315,000 lb
(142,880 kg)
395,000 lb
(179,170 kg)
350,000 lb
(158,760 kg)
412,000 lb
(186,880 kg)
412,000 lb
(186,880 kg)
450,000 lb
(204,120 kg)
Maximum range
at MTOW
3,850 nmi
Nautical mile
The nautical mile is a unit of length that is about one minute of arc of latitude along any meridian, but is approximately one minute of arc of longitude only at the equator...

 
(7,300 km)
transatlantic
6,385 nmi
(11,825 km)
transpacific
4,260 nmi
(7,900 km)
transatlantic
5,990 nmi
(11,065 km)
transpacific
3,255 nmi
(6,025 km)
transcontinental
5,625 nmi
(10,415 km)
transpacific
Cruise speed Mach
Mach number
Mach number is the speed of an object moving through air, or any other fluid substance, divided by the speed of sound as it is in that substance for its particular physical conditions, including those of temperature and pressure...

 0.80 (470 knots, 530 mph, 851 km/h at 35000 ft (10,668 m) cruise altitude)
Max. Cruise
speed
Mach
Mach number
Mach number is the speed of an object moving through air, or any other fluid substance, divided by the speed of sound as it is in that substance for its particular physical conditions, including those of temperature and pressure...

 0.86 (493 knots, 567 mph, 913 km/h at 35000 ft (10,668 m) cruise altitude)
Takeoff distance
at MTOW
5,600 ft (1,710 m) 7,900 ft (2,410 m) 9,501 ft (2,896 m)
Engines (x2) P&W JT9D-7R4
Pratt & Whitney JT9D
-Bibliography:* Gunston, Bill. World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines. Cambridge, England. Patrick Stephens Limited, 1989. ISBN 1-85260-163-9-External links:*...

 
P&W PW4000-94
Pratt & Whitney PW4000
|-See also:-External links:* * *...

 
GE CF6-80A
General Electric CF6
The General Electric CF6 is a family of high-bypass turbofan engines produced by GE Aviation. A development of the first high-power high-bypass jet engine available, the TF39, the CF6 powers a wide variety of civilian airliners. The basic engine core formed the basis for the LM2500, LM5000, and...

 
GE CF6-80C2
P&W PW4000-94
GE CF6-80C2
P&W JT9D-7R4
P&W PW4000-94
GE CF6-80A
GE CF6-80C2
P&W PW4000-94
GE CF6-80C2
RR RB211-524H
Rolls-Royce RB211
The Rolls-Royce RB211 is a family of high-bypass turbofan engines made by Rolls-Royce plc and capable of generating 37,400 to 60,600 pounds-force thrust. Originally developed for the Lockheed L-1011 , it entered service in 1972 and was the only engine to power this aircraft type...

P&W PW4000-94
GE CF6-80C2
Thrust (x2) GE: 50,000 lbf
Pound-force
The pound force is a unit of force in some systems of measurement including English engineering units and British gravitational units.- Definitions :...

 (222 kN)
PW: 63,300 lb (282 kN)
GE: 62,100 lbf (276 kN)
PW: 50,000 lbf (220 kN) PW: 63,300 lbf (282 kN)
GE: 62,100 lbf (276 kN)
RR: 59,500 lbf (265 kN)
PW: 63,300 lbf (282 kN)
GE: 63,500 lbf (282 kN)

Sources: Boeing 767 airport planning report, and Boeing 767 specifications

See also

External links

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