Boeing 757
Overview
 
The Boeing 757 is a mid-size, narrow-body
Narrow-body aircraft
A narrow-body aircraft is an airliner with a fuselage aircraft cabin width typically of 3 to 4 metres , and airline seat arranged 2 to 6 abreast along a single aisle...

 twin-engine jet airliner
Jet airliner
A jet airliner is an airliner that is powered by jet engines. This term is sometimes contracted to jetliner or jet.In contrast to today's relatively fuel-efficient, turbofan-powered air travel, first generation jet airliner travel was noisy and fuel inefficient...

 manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Boeing Commercial Airplanes designs, assembles, markets and sells large commercial jet aircraft and provides product-related maintenance and training to customers worldwide...

. Passenger versions of the twinjet
Twinjet
A twinjet or twin jet is a jet aircraft powered by two engines. Such configuration of an aircraft is the most popular today for commercial airliners, for fighters, and many other kinds, because while offering safety from a single engine failure, it is also acceptably fuel-efficient.-Aircraft...

 have a capacity of 186 to 289 persons and a maximum range
Range (aircraft)
The maximal total range is the distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft, or cross-country speed and environmental conditions in unpowered aircraft....

 of 3100 to, depending on variant and cabin configuration. The 757 has been produced in two fuselage
Fuselage
The fuselage is an aircraft's main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo. In single-engine aircraft it will usually contain an engine, although in some amphibious aircraft the single engine is mounted on a pylon attached to the fuselage which in turn is used as a floating hull...

 lengths: the original 757-200 entered service in 1983, followed by the stretched 757-300 in 1999. A production freighter
Cargo aircraft
A cargo aircraft is a fixed-wing aircraft designed or converted for the carriage of goods, rather than passengers. They are usually devoid of passenger amenities, and generally feature one or more large doors for the loading and unloading of cargo...

 version, the 757-200PF, has been sold along with a combi
Combi
In commercial aviation, the term combi refers to versions of various aircraft that can be used for either passenger, as an airliner would, or cargo duties, as a freighter would, and often have a partition in the aircraft cabin to allow both uses at once...

 model, the 757-200M.
Encyclopedia
The Boeing 757 is a mid-size, narrow-body
Narrow-body aircraft
A narrow-body aircraft is an airliner with a fuselage aircraft cabin width typically of 3 to 4 metres , and airline seat arranged 2 to 6 abreast along a single aisle...

 twin-engine jet airliner
Jet airliner
A jet airliner is an airliner that is powered by jet engines. This term is sometimes contracted to jetliner or jet.In contrast to today's relatively fuel-efficient, turbofan-powered air travel, first generation jet airliner travel was noisy and fuel inefficient...

 manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Boeing Commercial Airplanes designs, assembles, markets and sells large commercial jet aircraft and provides product-related maintenance and training to customers worldwide...

. Passenger versions of the twinjet
Twinjet
A twinjet or twin jet is a jet aircraft powered by two engines. Such configuration of an aircraft is the most popular today for commercial airliners, for fighters, and many other kinds, because while offering safety from a single engine failure, it is also acceptably fuel-efficient.-Aircraft...

 have a capacity of 186 to 289 persons and a maximum range
Range (aircraft)
The maximal total range is the distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft, or cross-country speed and environmental conditions in unpowered aircraft....

 of 3100 to, depending on variant and cabin configuration. The 757 has been produced in two fuselage
Fuselage
The fuselage is an aircraft's main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo. In single-engine aircraft it will usually contain an engine, although in some amphibious aircraft the single engine is mounted on a pylon attached to the fuselage which in turn is used as a floating hull...

 lengths: the original 757-200 entered service in 1983, followed by the stretched 757-300 in 1999. A production freighter
Cargo aircraft
A cargo aircraft is a fixed-wing aircraft designed or converted for the carriage of goods, rather than passengers. They are usually devoid of passenger amenities, and generally feature one or more large doors for the loading and unloading of cargo...

 version, the 757-200PF, has been sold along with a combi
Combi
In commercial aviation, the term combi refers to versions of various aircraft that can be used for either passenger, as an airliner would, or cargo duties, as a freighter would, and often have a partition in the aircraft cabin to allow both uses at once...

 model, the 757-200M. Passenger models have also been converted to the 757-200SF cargo specification.

Launched with orders from Eastern Air Lines
Eastern Air Lines
Eastern Air Lines was a major United States airline that existed from 1926 to 1991. Before its dissolution it was headquartered at Miami International Airport in unincorporated Miami-Dade County, Florida.-History:...

 and British Airways
British Airways
British Airways is the flag carrier airline of the United Kingdom, based in Waterside, near its main hub at London Heathrow Airport. British Airways is the largest airline in the UK based on fleet size, international flights and international destinations...

 in 1978, the 757 was intended to replace the 727
Boeing 727
The Boeing 727 is a mid-size, narrow-body, three-engine, T-tailed commercial jet airliner, manufactured by Boeing. The Boeing 727 first flew in 1963, and for over a decade more were built per year than any other jet airliner. When production ended in 1984 a total of 1,832 aircraft had been produced...

 on short and medium
Flight length
In aviation, the flight length is defined as the time airborne during a flight.- Domestic :A short-haul domestic flight is commonly categorized into being no longer than 1.5 hours in length, meaning that all domestic flights within a country such as the United Kingdom are short-haul...

 airline routes. The aircraft was conceived and designed in tandem with the 767
Boeing 767
The Boeing 767 is a mid-size, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It was the manufacturer's first wide-body twinjet and its first airliner with a two-crew glass cockpit. The aircraft features two turbofan engines, a supercritical wing, and a conventional tail...

, a wide-body
Wide-body aircraft
A wide-body aircraft is a large airliner with two passenger aisles, also known as a widebody aircraft or twin-aisle aircraft. The typical fuselage diameter is . In the typical wide-body economy cabin, passengers are seated seven to ten abreast, allowing a total capacity of 200 to 850 passengers...

 twinjet with which it shares design features and two-crew glass cockpit
Glass cockpit
A glass cockpit is an aircraft cockpit that features electronic instrument displays, typically large LCD screens, as opposed to the traditional style of analog dials and gauges...

s. The operating similarities between the 757 and its wide-body counterpart allow pilots to obtain a common type rating
Type rating
A type rating is an allowance to fly a certain aircraft type that requires additional training beyond the scope of initial license and aircraft class training. What aircraft require a type rating is decided by the local aviation authority...

 to operate both jets, after the completion of a transition course. Following its introduction, the 757 became commonly used by operators in both the United States and Europe, and particularly with mainline
Mainline (flight)
A mainline flight is a flight operated by an airline's main operating unit, rather than by regional alliances, regional code-shares or regional subsidiaries...

 U.S. carriers and European charter airlines. The aircraft has also been acquired for use as government, military, and VIP transport.

Production of the 757 ended on October 28, 2004, after 1,050 had been built. The final aircraft was delivered to Shanghai Airlines
Shanghai Airlines
Shanghai Airlines is an airline headquartered in the Jing'an District, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of China Eastern Airlines, but its operations remain separate post-merger, retaining its distinct brand and livery....

 on November 28, 2005. The 757-200 is the most common variant, accounting for the majority of all 757s ordered. The 757-300 is the longest narrow-body twinjet ever produced. As of 2010, Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines, Inc. is a major airline based in the United States and headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. The airline operates an extensive domestic and international network serving all continents except Antarctica. Delta and its subsidiaries operate over 4,000 flights every day...

 operates the largest 757 fleet, and 945 examples are in airline service worldwide.

Background

In the early 1970s, following the launch of its wide-body 747
Boeing 747
The Boeing 747 is a wide-body commercial airliner and cargo transport, often referred to by its original nickname, Jumbo Jet, or Queen of the Skies. It is among the world's most recognizable aircraft, and was the first wide-body ever produced...

, Boeing began considering further developments of its narrow-body 727 trijet
Trijet
A Trijet is an aircraft powered by three jet engines. Early twin-jet designs were limited by the FAA's "60-minute rule", whereby the flight path of twin-engined jetliners was restricted to within 60 minutes' flying time from a suitable airport, in case of engine failure. In 1964 this rule was...

. Designed for short- and medium-range routes, the 727 was the best-selling commercial jet of the 1960s, and had become a mainstay of the U.S. domestic airline market. Development studies focused on improving the 189-seat 727-200, the most successful 727 model. Two approaches were considered: a stretched 727-300, and a new development study, code-named 7N7. The former was a relatively inexpensive derivative using the 727's existing technology and three-engine configuration, while the latter was a narrow-body twinjet which incorporated new materials and propulsion advances in the civil aerospace industry.
Buoyed by strong interest from United Airlines
United Airlines
United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees (which includes the entire holding company United Continental...

, which had collaborated with Boeing on its basic design, the 727-300 was poised for program launch in late 1975. However, following examination of the manufacturer's new technology studies, United's enthusiasm waned in favor of the 7N7. Although the 727-300 was formally proposed to Braniff International Airways
Braniff International Airways
Braniff International Airways was an American airline that operated from 1928 until 1982, primarily in the midwestern and southwestern U.S., South America, Panama, and in its later years also Asia and Europe...

 and other carriers, customer interest remained insufficient for further development. Instead, airlines showed greater regard for the high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines, new flight deck
Cockpit
A cockpit or flight deck is the area, usually near the front of an aircraft, from which a pilot controls the aircraft. Most modern cockpits are enclosed, except on some small aircraft, and cockpits on large airliners are also physically separated from the cabin...

 technologies, lowered weight, improved aerodynamics
Aerodynamics
Aerodynamics is a branch of dynamics concerned with studying the motion of air, particularly when it interacts with a moving object. Aerodynamics is a subfield of fluid dynamics and gas dynamics, with much theory shared between them. Aerodynamics is often used synonymously with gas dynamics, with...

, and reduced operating cost promised by the 7N7. These features were also included in a parallel development effort, code-named 7X7, for a mid-size wide-body which would become the 767. Work on both proposals accelerated as a result of the airline industry upturn in the late 1970s.

By 1978, the 7N7 studies focused on two variants: a 7N7-100 with seating for 160, and a 7N7-200 with capacity for over 180 seats. The T-tail
T-tail
thumb|right|Grob motor gliderA T-tail is an aircraft tail stabilizer configuration in which the horizontal surfaces are mounted to the top of the vertical stabilizer. Traditionally, the horizontal control surfaces are mounted to the fuselage at the base of the vertical stabilizer...

 configuration of the 727 remained along with its narrow-body construction, forward fuselage, and flight deck layout, while a redesigned wing and new under-wing engines were added. Boeing touted the 7N7 as offering the lowest fuel burn per passenger-kilometer of any narrow-body airliner. On August 31, 1978, the 7N7 received its first airline commitments when Eastern Air Lines and British Airways announced launch orders totaling 40 aircraft for the −200 version. These orders were formally signed in March 1979, at which time Boeing officially designated its new twinjet as the 757. The shorter −100 development, which failed to attract any orders, was dropped, with its role eventually taken by the versions of the 737.

Design effort

In response to industry concerns over rising fuel costs exacerbated by the Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War or October War , also known as the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and the Fourth Arab-Israeli War, was fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, between Israel and a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria...

 of 1973, the design process for the 757 emphasized fuel efficiency
Fuel efficiency
Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier fuel into kinetic energy or work. Overall fuel efficiency may vary per device, which in turn may vary per application, and this spectrum of variance is...

 from the outset. Manufacturer estimates forecast a 20 percent reduction in fuel consumption from new engines, plus an additional 10 percent from aerodynamic improvements, compared with preceding aircraft. The twin-engine configuration itself reduced cost versus three- and four-engined designs. The 757 was the first Boeing airliner launched with engines produced outside the U.S., with early customers selecting the British-built Rolls-Royce
Rolls-Royce plc
Rolls-Royce Group plc is a global power systems company headquartered in the City of Westminster, London, United Kingdom. It is the world’s second-largest maker of aircraft engines , and also has major businesses in the marine propulsion and energy sectors. Through its defence-related activities...

 RB211-535C
Rolls-Royce RB211
The Rolls-Royce RB211 is a family of high-bypass turbofan engines made by Rolls-Royce plc and capable of generating 37,400 to 60,600 pounds-force thrust. Originally developed for the Lockheed L-1011 , it entered service in 1972 and was the only engine to power this aircraft type...

 turbofan capable of 37400 lbf (166.4 kN) of thrust (a measure of jet engine output). Pratt & Whitney
Pratt & Whitney
Pratt & Whitney is a U.S.-based aerospace manufacturer with global service operations. It is a subsidiary of United Technologies Corporation . Pratt & Whitney's aircraft engines are widely used in both civil aviation and military aviation. Its headquarters are in East Hartford, Connecticut, USA...

 subsequently offered the 36600 lbf (162.8 kN) thrust PW2037
Pratt & Whitney PW2000
|-See also:-External links:...

, which Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines, Inc. is a major airline based in the United States and headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. The airline operates an extensive domestic and international network serving all continents except Antarctica. Delta and its subsidiaries operate over 4,000 flights every day...

 launched with an order for 60 aircraft in November 1980. General Electric also offered its CF6-32
General Electric CF6
The General Electric CF6 is a family of high-bypass turbofan engines produced by GE Aviation. A development of the first high-power high-bypass jet engine available, the TF39, the CF6 powers a wide variety of civilian airliners. The basic engine core formed the basis for the LM2500, LM5000, and...

 engine early in the program, but eventually abandoned its involvement due to insufficient demand.
As design work advanced, the 757 moved increasingly away from 727 elements and incorporated features from the 767, which was several months ahead in development. As both aircraft used the same twinjet layout and many of the same technologies, Boeing opted to treat both as almost one program to reduce risk and cost. Accordingly, the 757's design incorporated elements from the 767's nose section, control systems, and interior fittings. Computer aided design, first employed on the 767, was used for 35–40 percent of the 757's design drawings. Increases in the maximum take-off weight
Maximum Take-Off Weight
The Maximum Takeoff Weight or Maximum Takeoff Mass of an aircraft is the maximum weight at which the pilot of the aircraft is allowed to attempt to take off, due to structural or other limits. The analogous term for rockets is Gross Lift-Off Mass, or GLOW...

 (MTOW) were implemented to improve takeoff
Takeoff
Takeoff is the phase of flight in which an aerospace vehicle goes from the ground to flying in the air.For horizontal takeoff aircraft this usually involves starting with a transition from moving along the ground on a runway. For balloons, helicopters and some specialized fixed-wing aircraft , no...

 performance in hot and high
Hot and high
In aviation, hot and high is a condition of low air density due to high ambient temperature and high airport elevation. Air density decreases with increasing temperature and altitude. Lower air density reduces the amount of lift generated by the wings or the rotors of an aircraft, which may hamper...

 climates.

In early 1979, Boeing adopted a common two-crew glass cockpit for the 757 and 767, featuring similarly configured systems, shared instrumentation, avionics
Avionics
Avionics are electronic systems used on aircraft, artificial satellites and spacecraft.Avionic systems include communications, navigation, the display and management of multiple systems and the hundreds of systems that are fitted to aircraft to meet individual roles...

, and flight management system
Flight management system
A flight management system is a fundamental part of a modern airliner's avionics. An FMS is a specialized computer system that automates a wide variety of in-flight tasks, reducing the workload on the flight crew to the point that modern aircraft no longer carry flight engineers or navigators. A...

s. Cathode-ray tube (CRT) color displays replaced conventional electromechanical
Electromechanics
In engineering, electromechanics combines the sciences of electromagnetism, of electrical engineering and mechanics. Mechanical engineering in this context refers to the larger discipline which includes chemical engineering, and other related disciplines. Electrical engineering in this context...

 instruments, with increased automation eliminating the flight engineer
Flight engineer
Flight engineers work in three types of aircraft: fixed-wing , rotary wing , and space flight .As airplanes became even larger requiring more engines and complex systems to operate, the workload on the two pilots became excessive during certain critical parts of the flight regime, notably takeoffs...

 position common to three-crew cockpits. Due to their shared flight decks and handling characteristics, pilots rated in the 757 could be qualified to fly the 767 and vice versa, by achieving a common type rating after a short conversion course. This was considered an incentive for airlines to operate both aircraft.

The wings developed for the 757 used a new aft-loaded
Supercritical airfoil
A supercritical airfoil is an airfoil designed, primarily, to delay the onset of wave drag in the transonic speed range. Supercritical airfoils are characterized by their flattened upper surface, highly cambered aft section, and greater leading edge radius compared with traditional airfoil shapes...

 design which produced lift
Lift (force)
A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a surface force on it. Lift is the component of this force that is perpendicular to the oncoming flow direction. It contrasts with the drag force, which is the component of the surface force parallel to the flow direction...

 across the majority of the upper surface, instead of a narrow band as in previous aircraft. The airfoil
Airfoil
An airfoil or aerofoil is the shape of a wing or blade or sail as seen in cross-section....

 was more efficient than preceding designs, with less aerodynamic drag and greater fuel capacity. The improved lift performance necessitated an extensive set of flap
Flap (aircraft)
Flaps are normally hinged surfaces mounted on the trailing edges of the wings of a fixed-wing aircraft to reduce the speed an aircraft can be safely flown at and to increase the angle of descent for landing without increasing air speed. They shorten takeoff and landing distances as well as...

s, leading edge slats, and spoiler
Spoiler (aeronautics)
In aeronautics, a spoiler is a device intended to reduce lift in an aircraft. Spoilers are plates on the top surface of a wing which can be extended upward into the airflow and spoil it. By doing so, the spoiler creates a carefully controlled stall over the portion of the wing behind it, greatly...

s to slow from cruise to landing speeds. One of the last 727 vestiges, the T-tail, was dropped in late 1979 in favor of a conventional tail. This allowed for more passengers to be carried without lengthening the fuselage, and avoided the risk of an aerodynamic condition known as a deep stall. The same single-aisle configuration and upper-fuselage diameter as previous Boeing narrow-bodies was retained for lower drag and reduced production cost. Market research also indicated that passenger preference for wide-body aircraft was less prevalent on the short-haul routes targeted for the 757.

Production and testing

Boeing's Renton factory
Boeing Renton Factory
The Boeing Company's Renton, Washington Factory is a facility where Next-Generation Boeing 737 airliners are built. Current production includes the 737-600, 737-700, 737-800, and 737-900 models.The factory lies adjacent to Renton Municipal Airport....

 in Washington, home of 727 and 737 production, was adapted to serve as the final assembly site for the 757. Approximately half of the aircraft's components, including the nose section, wings, and empennage
Empennage
The empennage , also known as the tail or tail assembly, of most aircraft gives stability to the aircraft, in a similar way to the feathers on an arrow...

, were produced in-house, with the remainder subcontracted to primarily U.S.-based companies. Assembly chain subcontractors included Rockwell International
Rockwell International
Rockwell International was a major American manufacturing conglomerate in the latter half of the 20th century, involved in aircraft, the space industry, both defense-oriented and commercial electronics, automotive and truck components, printing presses, valves and meters, and industrial automation....

 (main fuselage), Fairchild Aircraft (leading edge slats), and Grumman (flaps). British Airways and Rolls-Royce initially lobbied the British aircraft industry to build 757 wings, but this did not occur. The production ramp-up on the new twinjet coincided with the winding-down of 727 assembly, allowing the Renton factory to sustain productivity levels. Final assembly of the first aircraft began in January 1981.

The first 757 rolled out of the Renton factory on January 13, 1982. The aircraft, equipped with Rolls-Royce RB211-535C engines, completed its maiden flight on February 19, 1982 under the command of company test pilots John Armstrong and co-pilot Lew Wallick. The first flight was affected by a stall
Stall (engine)
A stall is the slowing or stopping of a process, and in the case of an engine, refers to a sudden stopping of the engine turning, usually brought about accidentally....

 of the number two engine, following indications of low oil pressure. After checking system diagnostics, the pilots were able to restart the engine, and the flight proceeded normally thereafter. Subsequently, the 757 embarked on a seven-day weekly flight test schedule. Five aircraft participated in the flight test program, which took place over seven months for a total of 1,250 flying hours. Data already collected from 767 flight tests helped expedite the 757's test process. By the time flight testing began, the 757 had received 136 firm orders from seven carriers, namely Air Florida
Air Florida
Air Florida was an American low-cost carrier that operated from 1971 to 1984. In 1975 it was headquartered in the Dadeland Towers in what is now the Kendall CDP in unincorporated Miami-Dade County, Florida.-History:...

, American Airlines
American Airlines
American Airlines, Inc. is the world's fourth-largest airline in passenger miles transported and operating revenues. American Airlines is a subsidiary of the AMR Corporation and is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas adjacent to its largest hub at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport...

, British Airways, Delta Air Lines, Eastern Air Lines, Monarch Airlines
Monarch Airlines
Monarch Airlines, often shortened to and trading as Monarch, is a British charter and scheduled airline based at London Luton Airport in Luton. It is one of the United Kingdom's largest charter airlines, operating to Europe, the United States, the Caribbean, India and Africa, serving mainly leisure...

, and Transbrasil
Transbrasil
TransBrasil is a defunct Brazilian airline which ceased operations in December 2001. During most of its history, Transbrasil was owned by local entrepeneur Omar Fontana. Its aircraft usually featured a colorful livery, remarkably with a rainbow on the tail fin. Transbrasil base was Brasilia...

.

Following completion of the flight test program, the Rolls-Royce RB211-powered 757 received Federal Aviation Administration
Federal Aviation Administration
The Federal Aviation Administration is the national aviation authority of the United States. An agency of the United States Department of Transportation, it has authority to regulate and oversee all aspects of civil aviation in the U.S...

 (FAA) certification on December 21, 1982, followed by Civil Aviation Authority
Civil Aviation Authority
This is a list of national and supra-national civil aviation authorities.-See also:* Air route authority between the United States and the People's Republic of China* National Transportation Safety Board -External links:****...

 (CAA) certification on January 14, 1983. The first delivery to launch customer Eastern Air Lines occurred on December 22, 1982, approximately four months after the first 767 deliveries. The first Pratt & Whitney PW2037-powered 757 rolled out approximately one year later, and was delivered to Delta Air Lines on November 5, 1984.

Service entry and operations

Eastern Air Lines placed the 757 into commercial service on January 1, 1983, followed by British Airways on February 9, 1983. Monarch Airlines and lease customer Air Europe
Air Europe
Air Europe was a wholly privately owned, independentindependent from government-owned corporations British airline, established in 1978 under the working title Inter European Airways. It adopted the Air Europe name the following year...

 also began 757 operations later that year. The aircraft's debut was relatively smooth, with greater reliability than previous jetliners and quieter airport operations. Early pilots underwent specialized training to transition to the two-person cockpit with CRT displays. Eastern Air Lines, the first 727 operator to take delivery of 757s, found that the aircraft demonstrated greater payload capability than its predecessor with reduced fuel burn and fewer crew requirements. Compared to the 707 and 727, the new twinjet burned 42 and 40 percent less fuel per seat, respectively, on typical medium-haul flights.

Following its introduction, the 757 remained largely unchanged for the 1980s. Purchase options were limited to variants of the −200 model with either Rolls-Royce or Pratt & Whitney engines, and regular or longer-range fuel capacity. Updates included more powerful engines; the RB211-535E4 succeeded the −535C, and upgraded PW2037 and PW2040 engines became available. In December 1985, a freighter model, the 757-200PF, was announced following a launch order for 20 aircraft from UPS Airlines
UPS Airlines
UPS Airlines is an American cargo airline owned by United Parcel Service Inc. . The company is headquartered in Louisville, Kentucky. Its home airport is located at Louisville International Airport...

. In February 1986, a freighter-passenger combi model, the 757-200M, was launched following a single order from Royal Nepal Airlines
Royal Nepal Airlines
Nepal Airlines is the flag carrier of Nepal. Its main base is Tribhuvan International Airport, Kathmandu. The airline was established in July 1958 as Royal Nepal Airlines Corporation . The airlines first aircraft was a single Douglas DC-3, used to serve domestic routes and a handful of...

. However, 757 sales remained relatively slow until the end of the decade, a consequence of declining fuel prices and a shift to smaller, less-expensive aircraft in the post-deregulation
Deregulation
Deregulation is the removal or simplification of government rules and regulations that constrain the operation of market forces.Deregulation is the removal or simplification of government rules and regulations that constrain the operation of market forces.Deregulation is the removal or...

 U.S. market. Although the 757 lacked a direct competitor, 150-seat narrow-bodies such as the 737 and the McDonnell Douglas MD-80 shared the lower-capacity portion of its target market. The 1988 to 1989 period saw a turnaround when 322 orders were placed, including a combined 160 orders from American Airlines and United Airlines. Increasing airline hub
Airline hub
An airline hub is an airport that an airline uses as a transfer point to get passengers to their intended destination. It is part of a hub and spoke model, where travelers moving between airports not served by direct flights change planes en route to their destinations...

 congestion and airport noise regulation
Noise regulation
Noise regulation includes statutes or guidelines relating to sound transmission established by national, state or provincial and municipal levels of government. After the watershed passage of the United States Noise Control Act of 1972, other local and state governments passed further regulations...

s, both of which favored the 757's capacity and sound characteristics, helped propel the aircraft to its most prolific sales period.
By the end of the 1980s, the 757 had become commonly used on domestic routes and high-frequency shuttle flights
Air shuttle
An air shuttle is a scheduled airline service that operates a frequent, regular service on short routes with a simplified fare and class structure. Although no exact specifications exist, frequency is normally once per hour or more often and travel time is typically an hour or less, although longer...

 in the U.S. and Europe. The largest operators included Delta Air Lines and American Airlines, with both carriers ultimately operating fleets of over 100 757s each. In addition to mainline carriers, the aircraft found use by holiday and charter airlines, mainly in Europe. In Asia, China became the largest market for the 757, following the first sale to the Civil Aviation Administration of China
Civil Aviation Administration of China
The Civil Aviation Administration of China , formerly the General Administration of Civil Aviation of China , is the aviation authority under the Ministry of Transport of the People's Republic of China. It oversees civil aviation and investigates aviation accidents and incidents...

 in 1987. International aircraft lease corporations were also major customers for the 757.

Expanding the 757's capabilities, the aircraft was approved by the FAA for Extended-range Twin-engine Operational Performance Standards (ETOPS) operations over the North Atlantic in 1990. Approval under ETOPS regulations, a set of safety standards governing twinjet flights over oceans, allowed the aircraft to be deployed on transatlantic routes between North America and Europe. In addition to ocean crossings, the 757 became used to add capacity on flights to airports with aircraft size restrictions, such as Reagan National Airport
Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport
Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport is a public airport located south of downtown Washington, D.C., in Arlington County, Virginia. It is the commercial airport nearest to Washington, D.C. For many decades, it was called Washington National Airport, but this airport was renamed in 1998 to...

 near downtown Washington, D.C.

Stretched variant

In the 1990s, Boeing considered possible upgrades to the 757, which for over a decade had been the manufacturer's only narrow-body jet without a stretched variant. Rumors of a long-range −200X and stretched −300X circulated at the time, but no formal announcements had been made. European charter carriers were particularly interested in a higher-capacity version of the aircraft, which would allow it to take better advantage of its range. In addition to meeting the needs of charter customers, a larger model would allow Boeing to match the passenger lift capabilities of the 767-200 with lower operating costs, while countering longer-range versions of the Airbus A321
Airbus A320 family
The Airbus A320 family is a family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger jet airliners manufactured by Airbus Industrie.Airbus was originally a consortium of European aerospace companies, and is now fully owned by EADS. Airbus's name has been Airbus SAS since 2001...

.
In September 1996, following a launch order for 12 aircraft from charter carrier Condor Airlines
Condor Airlines
Condor Flugdienst GmbH, usually shortened to Condor, is an airline based in Germany, operating scheduled leisure flights to the Mediterranean, Asia, Africa, North America and the Caribbean as part of Thomas Cook Group...

, Boeing announced the stretched 757-300 program at the Farnborough Airshow. The −300 design effort was intended to be the shortest development program in Boeing history, with 27 months targeted between launch and certification. While the stretched variant avoided radical upgrades from the −200, it received enhanced avionics and a redesigned interior. Four engine options were offered, namely the 43500 lbf (193.5 kN) thrust RB211-535E4B, the 42600 lbf (189.5 kN) thrust PW2043, along with the PW2037 and PW2040 from the −200.

The first 757-300 rolled out on May 31, 1998, and completed its maiden flight on August 2, 1998. Following regulatory certification in January 1999, the aircraft entered service with Condor on March 19, 1999. However, sales for the type remained slow, and ultimately totaled 55 aircraft. By November 1999, faced with diminishing sales and a reduced backlog despite the launch of the −300, Boeing began studying a decrease in 757 production rates.

Further developments

While the overall 757 program had been a financial success, its continued production came into question in the early 2000s. Airlines were again gravitating towards smaller aircraft such as the 737 and Airbus A320
Airbus A320 family
The Airbus A320 family is a family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger jet airliners manufactured by Airbus Industrie.Airbus was originally a consortium of European aerospace companies, and is now fully owned by EADS. Airbus's name has been Airbus SAS since 2001...

, at the expense of the 757, because of their reduced financial risk. In 2001, Boeing launched the 757-200SF program to convert second-hand passenger models for freighter use. In 2003, a renewed sales campaign yielded only five new orders for the 757. In October 2003, following Continental Airlines
Continental Airlines
Continental Airlines was a major American airline now merged with United Airlines. On May 3, 2010, Continental Airlines, Inc. and UAL, Inc. announced a merger via a stock swap, and on October 1, 2010, the merger closed and UAL changed its name to United Continental Holdings, Inc...

' decision to switch its outstanding 757-300 orders for the 737-800, Boeing announced the end of 757 production. The 1,050th and last 757, a −200 model destined for Shanghai Airlines, rolled off the production line at Renton on October 28, 2004, and was delivered on April 28, 2005 after several months of storage.
Since 2004, most 757s have remained in service, with U.S. carriers the primary operators. However, rising fuel prices in the late 2000s put increasing pressure on airlines to improve the fuel efficiency of their 757 fleets. From 2004 to 2008, the fuel cost to operate a 757-200 on mid-range domestic U.S. flights tripled. In May 2005, the FAA granted regulatory approval for manufacturer-sanctioned blended winglets from Aviation Partners Incorporated
Aviation Partners Inc.
Aviation Partners Inc. or API is a Seattle-based private corporation, which specializes in the production of performance enhancing winglet systems...

 as a retrofit on the 757-200, with an estimated improvement of five percent on fuel efficiency and 200 nautical miles (370.4 km) on range through the reduction of lift-induced drag
Lift-induced drag
In aerodynamics, lift-induced drag, induced drag, vortex drag, or sometimes drag due to lift, is a drag force that occurs whenever a moving object redirects the airflow coming at it. This drag force occurs in airplanes due to wings or a lifting body redirecting air to cause lift and also in cars...

. Continental Airlines received the first modified −300 with winglets in February 2009.

Through the 2010s, the 757 is the only aircraft type used by all five U.S. legacy carrier
Legacy carrier
A legacy carrier, in the United States, is an airline that had established interstate routes by the time of the route liberalization which was permitted by the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 and was thus directly affected by that act...

s, with Delta Air Lines, American Airlines, United Airlines, Continental Airlines, US Airways
US Airways
US Airways, Inc. is a major airline based in the U.S. city of Tempe, Arizona. The airline is an operating unit of US Airways Group and is the sixth largest airline by traffic and eighth largest by market value in the country....

, America West Airlines
America West Airlines
America West Airlines corporate offices were in Tempe, Arizona and the main hub was at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport. The airline became part of the US Airways Group after a merger in 2005....

 (now a part of the US Airways Group
US Airways Group
US Airways Group Inc. is an airline holding company based in Tempe, Arizona. US Airways Group operate US Airways, along with its subsidiaries PSA Airlines, Inc. and Piedmont Airlines, Inc., which are wholly owned but marketed under the branding of US Airways Express...

), and Northwest Airlines
Northwest Airlines
Northwest Airlines, Inc. was a major United States airline founded in 1926 and absorbed into Delta Air Lines by a merger approved on October 29, 2008, making Delta the largest airline in the world...

 (now a part of Delta Air Lines) operating large 757 fleets. In the short term, the 757-200 has been succeeded in active production by the 737-900ER, touted by Boeing as filling in the range and capacity gap previously filled by the former aircraft. Variants of the 787 Dreamliner may also take on the 757's routes.

Design

Boeing designed the 757 to have improved capabilities and efficiency over its predecessors, most notably the 727. Along with the concurrently designed 767, new technologies applied to the 757 included Rockwell Collins
Rockwell Collins
Rockwell Collins, Inc. is a large United States-based international company headquartered in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, primarily providing aviation and information technology systems and services to governmental agencies and aircraft manufacturers.- History :...

 CRT displays, replacing conventional electromechanical instruments, and an enhanced flight management system, improved over versions used on existing 747 models. The aircraft's structure incorporated an aft-loaded wing design and weight-saving materials.

Airframe and systems

The 757 is a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a conventional tail unit featuring a single fin and rudder. The wing is swept at 25 degrees and optimized for a cruising speed of Mach 0.8 (533 mph (857.8 km/h)). The airframe
Airframe
The airframe of an aircraft is its mechanical structure. It is typically considered to include fuselage, wings and undercarriage and exclude the propulsion system...

 features extensive use of carbon-fiber reinforced plastic wing surfaces, Kevlar
Kevlar
Kevlar is the registered trademark for a para-aramid synthetic fiber, related to other aramids such as Nomex and Technora. Developed at DuPont in 1965, this high strength material was first commercially used in the early 1970s as a replacement for steel in racing tires...

 fairings and access panels, plus improved aluminium alloy
Aluminium alloy
Aluminium alloys are alloys in which aluminium is the predominant metal. The typical alloying elements are copper, magnesium, manganese, silicon and zinc. There are two principal classifications, namely casting alloys and wrought alloys, both of which are further subdivided into the categories...

s, which together reduce overall weight by 2000 lb (907.2 kg) versus preceding aircraft. A basic form of fly-by-wire
Fly-by-wire
Fly-by-wire is a system that replaces the conventional manual flight controls of an aircraft with an electronic interface. The movements of flight controls are converted to electronic signals transmitted by wires , and flight control computers determine how to move the actuators at each control...

 is used for spoiler operation by utilizing electric signaling in place of traditional control cables. To distribute the 757's weight on the ground, the two main landing gear
Undercarriage
The undercarriage or landing gear in aviation, is the structure that supports an aircraft on the ground and allows it to taxi, takeoff and land...

 have four wheels each and the forward nose gear has two wheels. The landing gear was purposely designed to be taller than the company's previous narrow-body aircraft in order to provide ground clearance for stretched models. The 757-200 was the first jetliner to offer carbon brakes as a factory option, supplied by Dunlop
Dunlop Rubber
Dunlop Rubber was a company based in the United Kingdom which manufactured tyres and other rubber products for most of the 20th century. It was acquired by BTR plc in 1985. Since then, ownership of the Dunlop trade-names has been fragmented.-Early history:...

. A retractable tailskid
Tailstrike
Tailstrike is an aviation term that describes an event in which the rear end of an aircraft touches the runway. This can happen during takeoff of a fixed-wing aircraft if the pilot pulls up too rapidly, leading to the rear end of the fuselage touching the runway. It can also occur during landing...

 is installed on the 757-300's aft fuselage due to its greater length. Blended winglets are available as a retrofit
Retrofit
Retrofitting refers to the addition of new technology or features to older systems.* power plant retrofit, improving power plant efficiency / increasing output / reducing emissions...

 to increase fuel efficiency
Fuel efficiency
Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier fuel into kinetic energy or work. Overall fuel efficiency may vary per device, which in turn may vary per application, and this spectrum of variance is...

 and range
Range (aircraft)
The maximal total range is the distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft, or cross-country speed and environmental conditions in unpowered aircraft....

.

The 757's flight deck uses six CRT screens to display flight instrumentation. The displays are used for electronic flight instrument system
Electronic Flight Instrument System
An electronic flight instrument system is a flight deck instrument display system in which the display technology used is electronic rather than electromechanical. EFIS normally consists of a primary flight display , multi-function display and engine indicating and crew alerting system display...

 (EFIS) and engine indication and crew alerting system (EICAS) information, which allow the pilots to handle monitoring tasks previously performed by the flight engineer. The inertial reference system
Inertial navigation system
An inertial navigation system is a navigation aid that uses a computer, motion sensors and rotation sensors to continuously calculate via dead reckoning the position, orientation, and velocity of a moving object without the need for external references...

 (IRS) introduced on the 757 features laser-light gyros. The cockpit layout is shared with the 767, with the windows and floor height deliberately designed to provide similar pilot viewing angles. On the 757-300, the flight deck is upgraded with the addition of a Honeywell
Honeywell
Honeywell International, Inc. is a major conglomerate company that produces a variety of consumer products, engineering services, and aerospace systems for a wide variety of customers, from private consumers to major corporations and governments....

 Pegasus flight management computer, enhanced EICAS, and upgraded software systems. The 757 is fitted with three hydraulic
Hydraulics
Hydraulics is a topic in applied science and engineering dealing with the mechanical properties of liquids. Fluid mechanics provides the theoretical foundation for hydraulics, which focuses on the engineering uses of fluid properties. In fluid power, hydraulics is used for the generation, control,...

 systems, one powered by each engine, and the third using electric pumps.

Interior

The 757 interior offers up to a six abreast layout with a single center aisle. Originally optimized for flights averaging two hours in length, the interior debuted lighting and cabin architecture designs aimed at a more spacious impression. As on the 767, the cabin features garment bag length overhead bins and a rear economy class galley
Galley (kitchen)
The galley is the compartment of a ship, train or aircraft where food is cooked and prepared. It can also refer to a land based kitchen on a naval base or a particular formed household kitchen.-Ship's kitchen:...

. The bins have twice the capacity as those on the preceding 727. To save weight, crushed honeycomb is used for interior paneling and bins. In contrast with previous evacuation slide
Evacuation slide
An evacuation slide is an inflatable slide used to evacuate an aircraft quickly. An escape slide is required on all commercial aircraft where the door sill height is such that, in the event of an evacuation, passengers would be unable to "step down" from the door uninjured An evacuation slide is...

 designs which were not equipped for water landings, the main exits feature combination slide raft
Lifeboat (shipboard)
A lifeboat is a small, rigid or inflatable watercraft carried for emergency evacuation in the event of a disaster aboard ship. In the military, a lifeboat may be referred to as a whaleboat, dinghy, or gig. The ship's tenders of cruise ships often double as lifeboats. Recreational sailors sometimes...

s similar to those found on the 747. The 757's interior was later adopted for other 1980s narrow-body Boeing aircraft, such as the 737.

In 1998, the 757-300 debuted a redesigned interior derived from the Next Generation 737
Boeing 737 Next Generation
The Boeing 737 Next Generation, commonly abbreviated as Boeing 737NG, is the name given to the -600/-700/-800/-900 series of the Boeing 737 after the introduction of the -300/-400/-500 Classic series. They are short- to medium-range, narrow-body jet airliners...

 and 777
Boeing 777
The Boeing 777 is a long-range, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It is the world's largest twinjet and is commonly referred to as the "Triple Seven". The aircraft has seating for over 300 passengers and has a range from , depending on model...

, including sculptured ceiling panels, indirect lighting, and larger overhead bins with an optional continuous handrail built into their base for the entire cabin length. The 757-300 also adds centerline storage containers mounted in the aisle ceiling for additional escape rafts and other emergency equipment. In the 2000s, with wheeled carry-on baggage becoming more popular, American Airlines and Delta Air Lines installed overhead bin extensions on their 757-200s to provide additional storage space. Larger bins are also part of aftermarket interior upgrades which include updated ceiling panels and lighting.

Variants

There are several variants of the 757, with standard and stretched length. The 757-200 was the original, launched in 1979 with introduction into service in 1983. The lengthened 757-300 was launched in 1996 with introduction into service in 1999. The International Civil Aviation Organization
International Civil Aviation Organization
The International Civil Aviation Organization , pronounced , , is a specialized agency of the United Nations. It codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth...

 (ICAO) classifies all variants based on the under the code "B752", while the is referred to as "B753."

757-200

The 757-200 is the definitive version and comprises the majority of 757s sold. It has a maximum take-off weight (MTOW) of 255000 lb (115,666.1 kg), a length of 155.25 ft (47.3 m), and a maximum range of 4100 nautical miles (7,593.2 km). According to manufacturer specifications, the –200 can carry up to 228 passengers in a typical single class configuration. The maximum FAA certified capacity is 239 passengers, provided that emergency exits are configured to regulatory specifications. The 757-200 was available in two different door configurations; the baseline version had three standard size doors per side with a smaller emergency exit aft of the wing on each side, while the alternate version had three standard doors per side and two plug-type over-the-wing exits.
Total production for the 757-200 numbered 913 aircraft. In July 2010, 759 examples were in airline service with operators Delta Air Lines (180), American Airlines (124), United Airlines (96), Continental Airlines (41), US Airways (25), Thomson Airways
Thomson Airways
Thomson Airways is the world's largest charter airline, offering scheduled and charter flights from the UK to destinations across Europe, Africa, Asia and North America. The company commenced operations on 1 November 2008, following the merger and subsequent re-branding of Thomsonfly and First...

 (27), China Southern Airlines
China Southern Airlines
China Southern Airlines is an airline headquartered in Baiyun District, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China. It is the world's sixth-largest airline measured by passengers carried, and Asia's largest airline in terms of both fleet size and passengers carried...

 (17), and other airlines with fewer aircraft.

757-200PF

The 757-200PF ("PF" for Package Freighter) is the production cargo version of the –200. It has a standard MTOW of 250000 lb (113,398.1 kg), with an option for 255000 lb (115,666.1 kg). Maximum range is 3150 nautical miles (5,833.8 km) when fully loaded. Up to 15 container
Unit Load Device
A unit load device , is a pallet or container used to load luggage, freight, and mail on wide-body aircraft and specific narrow-body aircraft. It allows a large quantity of cargo to be bundled into a single unit. Since this leads to fewer units to load, it saves ground crews time and effort and...

s or pallet
Pallet
A pallet , sometimes called a skid, is a flat transport structure that supports goods in a stable fashion while being lifted by a forklift, pallet jack, front loader or other jacking device. A pallet is the structural foundation of a unit load which allows handling and storage efficiencies...

s can be accommodated on the main deck of the –200PF. Total main deck container volume is 6600 cu ft (186.9 m³) and the two lower holds provide 1830 cu ft (51.8 m³) for bulk loading. These provide a combined maximum revenue payload capability of 87700 lb (39,780.1 kg) including container weight.

The 757-200PF has no passenger windows or interior amenities. A large main deck cargo door is installed on the left-hand side of the forward fuselage, and all other emergency exits are omitted. Pilots board the aircraft through a single entry door installed immediately aft of the flight deck on the left side of the aircraft. The main deck cargo hold has a smooth fiberglass
Fiberglass
Glass fiber is a material consisting of numerous extremely fine fibers of glass.Glassmakers throughout history have experimented with glass fibers, but mass manufacture of glass fiber was only made possible with the invention of finer machine tooling...

 lining, and a fixed rigid barrier serves as a restraint wall next to the flight deck. The barrier contains a sliding door for crew access.

Total production for the 757-200PF numbered 80 aircraft. As of July 2010, all were in service, with UPS Airlines (75) the largest operator of the type. Other customers for the 757-200PF include Blue Dart Aviation
Blue Dart Aviation
Blue Dart Aviation is an all-cargo airline based in Chennai, India. It operates scheduled night express cargo flights including domestic and regional charters. It has an in-house maintenance capability and provides aircraft maintenance and engineering support to other airlines .- History :The...

 (2), Arrow Cargo (1), Ethiopian Airlines
Ethiopian Airlines
Ethiopian Airlines , formerly Ethiopian Air Lines, often referred to as simply Ethiopian, is an airline headquartered on the grounds of Bole International Airport in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. It serves as the country's flag carrier, and is wholly owned by the Government of Ethiopia...

 (1), and European Air Transport Leipzig
European Air Transport Leipzig
European Air Transport Leipzig GmbH is a cargo airline with its head office on the grounds of Leipzig/Halle Airport in Schkeuditz, Germany. The airline is wholly owned by Deutsche Post DHL and operates the group's DHL-branded parcel and express services in Europe. It also provides ad-hoc charter...

 (1).

757-200M

The 757-200M is a convertible version where the seats can be removed in order to place cargo on the main deck. The –200M was delivered to Royal Nepal Airlines (later renamed Nepal Airlines) in September 1988. The Kathmandu-based carrier needed a plane that could operate from high altitude airfields, and due to variable passenger traffic, also needed a plane that could be converted to a freighter. Boeing saw market potential for the –200M, as convertible models of the 737 and 747 had proved popular. However, Nepal Airlines' example was the only one ever ordered.

In 2010, Pemco World Air Services launched an aftermarket conversion program to modify 757-200s into 757 Combi aircraft, in which a portion of the passenger cabin is replaced with a cargo storage area. As of October 2010, the fourth 757-200 had begun conversion.

757-200SF

The 757-200SF ("SF" for Special Freighter) is a conversion of passenger 757-200s for cargo use. The conversion involves adding a cargo door on the left forward fuselage, identical to the 757-200PF, and removing all passenger amenities. All but the two forward exits are sealed shut, and cabin windows are deleted. The first –200SF aircraft entered service in March 2001 with DHL Aviation
DHL Aviation
DHL Aviation is a division of DHL Express responsible for providing air transport capacity. It is not a single airline but refers to several airlines owned, co-owned or chartered by DHL Express...

, following the carrier's acquisition of 44 aircraft for freighter conversion. In September 2006, FedEx Express launched a US$2.6 billion fleet renewal initiative based on retiring its 727 aircraft and acquiring second-hand 757s for –200SF conversion from 2008 and 2016. As of July 2010, 55 aircraft were in service, with DHL Aviation (22) the largest operator, followed by FedEx Express (20), European Air Transport Leipzig (10), Blue Dart Aviation (2), and Shanghai Airlines (1).

757-300

The 757-300 is the stretched version of the –200 and the longest single-aisle twinjet ever built. The variant is 23.4 ft (7.1 m) longer than the –200, owing to fuselage plugs inserted before and after the wing. Its MTOW is 272500 lb (123,603.9 kg). The fuel capacity was not increased over the –200 and therefore the maximum range is reduced by approximately 13 percent to 3395 nautical miles (6,287.5 km). The –300 has a maximum capacity of 289 passengers. Airlines ordered 55 examples, of which all have been delivered.

The 757-300 has eight standard doors, with two over-the-wing exit doors per side. It has proved popular with charter airlines for its efficiency and dense capacity. In July 2010, all 55 aircraft were in airline service with Continental Airlines (21), Delta Air Lines (16), Condor Airlines (13), Arkia Israel Airlines
Arkia Israel Airlines
Arkia Israel Airlines , usually referred to as Arkia is an airline with its head office on the grounds of Sde Dov Airport in Tel Aviv, Israel. It is Israel's second largest airline operating scheduled domestic and international services as well as charter flights to destinations in Western Europe...

 (2), Thomas Cook Airlines
Thomas Cook Airlines
Thomas Cook Airlines is a British charter airline based in Manchester, England. It serves main holiday resorts worldwide, from its main bases at Manchester and Gatwick.The airline also operates services from nine other bases in the United Kingdom....

 (2) and Icelandair
Icelandair
Icelandair ehf is the flag carrier airline of Iceland, based on the grounds of Reykjavík Airport in Reykjavík. It is part of the Icelandair Group and currently operates scheduled services to 31 cities in 13 countries on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean out of its hub at Keflavík International Airport...

 (1).

Government, military and corporate

The 757 has been purchased for government, military, and private service. The aircraft is used as the official transport for the President of Argentina
President of Argentina
The President of the Argentine Nation , usually known as the President of Argentina, is the head of state of Argentina. Under the national Constitution, the President is also the chief executive of the federal government and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces.Through Argentine history, the...

, with the military serial Tango 01
Agrupación Aérea Presidencial
Agrupación Aérea Presidencial is the Head of State Air Transport Unit of Argentina.- Background :The Presidential Air Group is a small fleet of Argentine Air Force aircraft and helicopters for official use by the President, immediate family and senior government officials...

, and is also used as VIP transport for the President of Mexico
President of Mexico
The President of the United Mexican States is the head of state and government of Mexico. Under the Constitution, the president is also the Supreme Commander of the Mexican armed forces...

 under the callsign TP01 or Transporte Presidencial 1. The United States Air Force
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947 under the National Security Act of...

 (USAF) has fitted four 757-200s for VIP duties under the designation C-32A, with missions including the transport of the Vice President of the United States
Vice President of the United States
The Vice President of the United States is the holder of a public office created by the United States Constitution. The Vice President, together with the President of the United States, is indirectly elected by the people, through the Electoral College, to a four-year term...

 under the callsign Air Force Two
Air Force Two
Air Force Two is the air traffic control call sign used by any United States Air Force aircraft carrying the Vice President, but not the President. The term is often associated with the Boeing C-32, a modified 757 which is most commonly used as the Vice President's transport. The C-40 Clipper, a...

. The C-32As are painted in the standard blue and white paint scheme used by the USAF for its VIP transport fleet. The USAF also operates two 757-200 aircraft, designated C-32B, for use by the U.S. State Department Foreign Emergency Support Team.

The Royal New Zealand Air Force operates two 757s converted to −200M standard for delivering equipment, medical evacuation, troop movements, and VIP transport. A more powerful auxiliary power unit
Auxiliary power unit
An auxiliary power unit is a device on a vehicle that provides energy for functions other than propulsion. They are commonly found on large aircraft, as well as some large land vehicles.-Function:...

 and retractable airstair
Airstair
An airstair is a passenger staircase that is built in to an airliner — often, though not always, on the inside of a clamshell-style door. The stairs can be raised or lowered while the aircraft is on the ground, allowing passengers and ground personnel to board or depart the aircraft without the...

s are fitted. The royal family of Saudi Arabia
House of Saud
The House of Saud , also called the Al Saud, is the ruling royal family of Saudi Arabia and one of the wealthiest and most powerful dynasties in the world. The family holds thousands of members...

 uses a 757-200 as a flying hospital. In the mid 1990s, Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin is an American global aerospace, defense, security, and advanced technology company with worldwide interests. It was formed by the merger of Lockheed Corporation with Martin Marietta in March 1995. It is headquartered in Bethesda, Maryland, in the Washington Metropolitan Area....

 used a 757 as a testbed for F-22 Raptor avionics and sensor integration. The modified 757 had a forward canard
Canard (aeronautics)
In aeronautics, canard is an airframe configuration of fixed-wing aircraft in which the forward surface is smaller than the rearward, the former being known as the "canard", while the latter is the main wing...

 with sensors above its cockpit to simulate the F-22's wing sensor layout and a forward F-22 fuselage with radar and other systems.

During the 2004 U.S. presidential election, Senator John Kerry
John Kerry
John Forbes Kerry is the senior United States Senator from Massachusetts, the 10th most senior U.S. Senator and chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He was the presidential nominee of the Democratic Party in the 2004 presidential election, but lost to former President George W...

 chartered a 757-200 from TransMeridian Airlines
TransMeridian Airlines
TransMeridian Airlines was an Atlanta, Georgia based charter operator, operating under U.S. Department of Transportation FAR Part 121. It ceased all operations on September 29, 2005, after negotiations with creditors to restructure its debt failed.-History:...

 nicknamed "Freedom Bird" as his campaign jet. During the 2008 U.S. presidential election, then-Senator Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Barack Hussein Obama II is the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama previously served as a United States Senator from Illinois, from January 2005 until he resigned following his victory in the 2008 presidential election.Born in...

 charted a 757-200 from North American Airlines
North American Airlines
North American Airlines, Inc. is an American airline with its headquarters in Building 141 on the grounds of John F. Kennedy International Airport in Jamaica, Queens, New York City, USA. Prior to May 2008, it operated scheduled international services from the USA to Africa and Guyana. Today, it...

 for the same purpose. In 2008, British heavy metal
Heavy metal music
Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the Midlands of the United Kingdom and the United States...

 band Iron Maiden
Iron Maiden
Iron Maiden are an English heavy metal band from Leyton in east London, formed in 1975 by bassist and primary songwriter Steve Harris. Since their inception, the band's discography has grown to include a total of thirty-six albums: fifteen studio albums; eleven live albums; four EPs; and six...

 chartered and customized a 757 for their "Somewhere Back in Time World Tour
Somewhere Back In Time World Tour
Somewhere Back in Time World Tour was a concert tour by Iron Maiden in 2008 and 2009, focussed on the band's 80s material, in particular songs from Powerslave, Somewhere In Time and Seventh Son of a Seventh Son...

", of which singer Bruce Dickinson
Bruce Dickinson
Paul Bruce Dickinson is an English singer, songwriter, airline pilot, fencer, broadcaster, author, screenwriter, actor and marketing director, best known as the lead vocalist of the heavy metal band Iron Maiden....

 was the pilot.

Operators

Delta Air Lines and American Airlines are the first and second largest 757 customers, respectively. As of 2010, Delta Air Lines' 757 fleet numbers 196 aircraft, including −200 and −300 models acquired from its merger with Northwest Airlines. Prior to 2007, American Airlines was the largest operator, operating a fleet of 142 757s. American Airlines' fleet decreased with the retirement of 757s inherited via the carrier's buyout of TWA
Twa
The Twa are any of several hunting peoples of Africa who live interdependently with agricultural Bantu populations, and generally hold a socially subordinate position: They provide the farming population with game in exchange for agricultural products....

, due to the fact that they used Pratt & Whitney engines rather than Rolls-Royce like the remainder of American's 757s.

As joint launch customer, British Airways operated the 757 for longer than any other operator, but retired their last three aircraft in November 2010. The carrier unveiled one of its last 757s in a special retro style livery on October 4, 2010 to celebrate the fleet's retirement after 27 years, matching the color scheme that it introduced the aircraft into service with in 1983. Subsequently, the type remained in operation with the company's subsidiary, OpenSkies
OpenSkies
OpenSkies is a fully owned subsidiary airline of British Airways that began operations in June 2008. Originally OpenSkies was operated by BA European Limited but in April 2009 the name was transferred to Elysair . It is a full-service carrier and offers business class only cabins on board its...

.

Orders and deliveries

More than 1,000 units of the 757 were ordered over the duration of the program, of which 1,049 aircraft were delivered. By the end of production, 1,050 examples had been built. The prototype 757 was not delivered to any customer, as it remained with the manufacturer for testing purposes.
Year Total 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992
Orders 1049 0 0 7 0 37 43 18 50 44 59 13 12 33 35
Deliveries 1049 2 11 14 29 45 45 67 54 46 42 43 69 71 99
Year 19911990198919881987198619851984198319821981198019791978
Orders 50 95 166 148 46 13 45 2 26 2 3 64 0 38
Deliveries 80 77 51 48 40 35 36 18 25 2 0 0 0 0

  • Data through end of production in 2004.


Incidents and accidents

As of September 2011, the 757 has been involved in 22 incidents, including eight hull-loss accidents
Aviation accidents and incidents
An aviation accident is defined in the Convention on International Civil Aviation Annex 13 as an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight and all such persons have disembarked, in which a...

, resulting in over 700 fatalities (including 125 fatalities on ground due to terrorist hijacking
Aircraft hijacking
Aircraft hijacking is the unlawful seizure of an aircraft by an individual or a group. In most cases, the pilot is forced to fly according to the orders of the hijackers. Occasionally, however, the hijackers have flown the aircraft themselves, such as the September 11 attacks of 2001...

 and subsequent crash in the September 11, 2001 attacks
September 11, 2001 attacks
The September 11 attacks The September 11 attacks The September 11 attacks (also referred to as September 11, September 11th or 9/119/11 is pronounced "nine eleven". The slash is not part of the pronunciation...

). The first fatal event involving the 757 occurred on October 2, 1990 when a Xiamen Airlines
Xiamen Airlines
Xiamen Airlines is the first privately owned airline in the People's Republic of China. Established on July 25, 1984 and based in Xiamen, it operates scheduled passenger flights out of Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport and, to a lesser extent, Fuzhou Changle International Airport...

 737 was hijacked and collided with a China Southern Airlines 757 on the runways of Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport
Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport
Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport is the main airport of Guangzhou, the capital of the province of Guangdong, People's Republic of China. Both airport codes were inherited from the previous Guangzhou airport, and the IATA code reflects Guangzhou's former romanization Canton...

, China, killing 46 of the 110 passengers and 12 crew members on board. Two 757s were hijacked on September 11, 2001 and crashed with no survivors, namely United Airlines Flight 93
United Airlines Flight 93
United Airlines Flight 93 was United Airlines' scheduled morning transcontinental flight across the United States from Newark International Airport in Newark, New Jersey, to San Francisco International Airport in California. On Tuesday, September 11, 2001, the Boeing 757–222 aircraft operating the...

 with 44 on board near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, and American Airlines Flight 77
American Airlines Flight 77
American Airlines Flight 77 was American Airlines' daily scheduled morning transcontinental flight, from Washington Dulles International Airport, in Dulles, Virginia to Los Angeles International Airport in Los Angeles, California...

, with 64 on board and 125 lost on the ground at the Pentagon, Arlington, Virginia.

Accidents involving human error include American Airlines Flight 965
American Airlines Flight 965
American Airlines Flight 965, a Boeing 757 registered , was a scheduled flight from Miami International Airport in Miami, Florida to Alfonso Bonilla Aragón International Airport in Cali, Colombia, which crashed into a mountain in Buga, Colombia on December 20, 1995, killing 151 passengers and 8...

 on December 20, 1995, which crashed into a mountain in Buga, Colombia killing 151 passengers and 8 crew members with four survivors, and the mid-air collision of DHL Flight 611 near Überlingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany on July 1, 2002, with the loss of two on board plus 69 on a Tupolev Tu-154
Tupolev Tu-154
The Tupolev Tu-154 is a three-engine medium-range narrow-body airliner designed in the mid 1960s and manufactured by Tupolev. As the mainstay 'workhorse' of Soviet and Russian airlines for several decades, it serviced over a sixth of the world's landmass and carried half of all passengers flown...

. AA Flight 965 was blamed on navigational errors by the crew, while DHL Flight 611 involved air traffic control
Air traffic control
Air traffic control is a service provided by ground-based controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and in the air. The primary purpose of ATC systems worldwide is to separate aircraft to prevent collisions, to organize and expedite the flow of traffic, and to provide information and other...

 errors. Accidents attributed to instrument obstruction during aircraft storage, leading to subsequent pilot disorientation
Spatial disorientation
Spatial disorientation is the inability to correctly interpret aircraft attitude, altitude or airspeed, in relation to the Earth or point of reference. Spatial disorientation is a condition in which an aircraft pilot's perception of direction does not agree with reality...

 include Birgenair Flight 301
Birgenair Flight 301
Birgenair Flight 301 was a flight chartered by Turkish-managed Birgenair partner Alas Nacionales from Puerto Plata in the Dominican Republic to Frankfurt, Germany via Gander, Canada and Berlin, Germany...

 on February 6, 1996 in Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic, with the loss of all 189 passengers and crew, and Aeroperú Flight 603
AeroPeru Flight 603
Aeroperú Flight 603 was a scheduled flight from Jorge Chávez International Airport in Lima, Peru , to Comodoro Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport in Santiago, Chile , which crashed on October 2, 1996....

 on October 2, 1996 off the coast of Pasamayo, Peru, with the loss of all 70 on board.

From 1994 to 1996, the FAA updated air traffic control regulations to require greater separation behind the 757 than other large category jets because of its tendency to produce strong wake turbulence
Wake turbulence
Wake turbulence is turbulence that forms behind an aircraft as it passes through the air. This turbulence includes various components, the most important of which are wing vorticies and jetwash. Jetwash refers simply to the rapidly moving gases expelled from a jet engine; it is extremely turbulent,...

. This followed a series of investigations into multiple incidents of small private aircraft experiencing loss of control when flying closely behind 757s, of which two resulted in crashes with a total of 13 fatalities.

Two 757 incidents were survived by all on board. Britannia Airways Flight 226A crash landed on September 14, 1999 near Girona-Costa Brava Airport
Girona-Costa Brava Airport
Girona-Costa Brava Airport is an airport located southwest of the city of Girona, next to the small village of Vilobí d'Onyar, in the north-east of Catalonia, Spain...

, Spain with no fatalities. On October 25, 2010 American Airlines Flight 1640, a 757-200 flying between Miami and Boston, United States, suffered the loss of a two-foot section of the plane's fuselage which tore away at approximately 31,000 feet. The plane safely returned to Miami.

Specifications

757-200 757-200F 757-300
Flight deck crew Two
Seating, typical 200 (two-class)
234 (one-class)
N/A 243 (two-class)
289 (one-class)
Length 47.32 metre 54.47 metre
Wingspan 38.05 metre
Tail height 13.56 metre
Wing area 181.25 m² (1,951 sq ft)
Wing sweepback 25°
Wing aspect ratio 7.8
Wheelbase 18.29 m (60 ft) 22.35 m (73.3 ft)
Cabin width 3.54 m (11.6 ft)
Cabin length 36.09 m (118.4 ft) 43.21 m (141.8 ft)
Empty Weight 127,520 lb
Pound (mass)
The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the Imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement...

 
(57,840 kg)
142,400 lb
(64,590 kg)
Maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) 255,000 lb
(115,680 kg)
272,500 lb
(123,600 kg)
Take-off run at MTOW 9550 ft (2,910.8 m) 9600 ft (2,926.1 m)
Cruise speed Mach
Mach number
Mach number is the speed of an object moving through air, or any other fluid substance, divided by the speed of sound as it is in that substance for its particular physical conditions, including those of temperature and pressure...

 0.80 (530 mph, 458 knots, 850 km/h at cruise altitude of 35,000 ft or 10.66 km)1
Range
Range (aircraft)
The maximal total range is the distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft, or cross-country speed and environmental conditions in unpowered aircraft....

, loaded
3,900 nmi
Nautical mile
The nautical mile is a unit of length that is about one minute of arc of latitude along any meridian, but is approximately one minute of arc of longitude only at the equator...

 (7,222 km)
−200WL: 4,100 nmi (7,600 km)
3,150 nmi (5,834 km) 3,395 nmi (6,287 km)
−300WL: 3,595 nmi (6,658 km)
Maximum fuel 11,489 US gal
Gallon
The gallon is a measure of volume. Historically it has had many different definitions, but there are three definitions in current use: the imperial gallon which is used in the United Kingdom and semi-officially within Canada, the United States liquid gallon and the lesser used United States dry...

 (43,490 L)
11,276 US gal (42,680 L) 11,466 US gal (43,400 L)
Service ceiling 42,000 ft (12,800 m)
Engines (×2) Rolls-Royce RB211
Rolls-Royce RB211
The Rolls-Royce RB211 is a family of high-bypass turbofan engines made by Rolls-Royce plc and capable of generating 37,400 to 60,600 pounds-force thrust. Originally developed for the Lockheed L-1011 , it entered service in 1972 and was the only engine to power this aircraft type...

, Pratt & Whitney PW2037
Pratt & Whitney PW2000
|-See also:-External links:...

, PW2040
Pratt & Whitney PW2000
|-See also:-External links:...

, or PW2043
Pratt & Whitney PW2000
|-See also:-External links:...

Thrust (×2) PW: 38,400–43,734 lbf
Pound-force
The pound force is a unit of force in some systems of measurement including English engineering units and British gravitational units.- Definitions :...

 (171–194.54 kN)
RR: 37,400-43,100 lbf (166–191.71 kN)

Sources: Boeing 757 airport planning report, and Boeing 757 specifications

1 Note: speed is at altitude, not sea level. See NASA Mach number calculator page for explanation about Mach number
Mach number
Mach number is the speed of an object moving through air, or any other fluid substance, divided by the speed of sound as it is in that substance for its particular physical conditions, including those of temperature and pressure...

 and example calculations.

See also

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK