Bobsleigh
Overview
 
Bobsleigh or bobsled is a winter sport
Winter sport
A winter sport is a sport which is played on snow or ice. Most such sports are variations of skiing, ice skating and sledding. Traditionally such sports were only played in cold areas during winter, but artificial snow and ice allow more flexibility...

 in which teams of two or four make timed runs down narrow, twisting, banked, iced tracks in a gravity-powered sled
Sled
A sled, sledge, or sleigh is a land vehicle with a smooth underside or possessing a separate body supported by two or more smooth, relatively narrow, longitudinal runners that travels by sliding across a surface. Most sleds are used on surfaces with low friction, such as snow or ice. In some cases,...

 that are combined to calculate the final score.

The various types of sleds came several years before the first tracks were built in St. Moritz
St. Moritz
St. Moritz is a resort town in the Engadine valley in Switzerland. It is a municipality in the district of Maloja in the Swiss canton of Graubünden...

, Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

, where the original bobsleds were adapted upsized luge
Luge
A Luge is a small one- or two-person sled on which one sleds supine and feet-first. Steering is done by flexing the sled's runners with the calf of each leg or exerting opposite shoulder pressure to the seat. Racing sleds weigh 21-25 kilograms for singles and 25-30 kilograms for doubles. Luge...

/skeleton
Skeleton (sport)
Skeleton is a fast winter sliding sport in which an individual person rides a small sled down a frozen track while lying face down, during which athletes experience forces up to 5g. It originated in St. Moritz, Switzerland as a spin-off from the popular British sport of Cresta Sledding...

 sleds designed by the adventurously wealthy to carry passengers.
Encyclopedia
Bobsleigh or bobsled is a winter sport
Winter sport
A winter sport is a sport which is played on snow or ice. Most such sports are variations of skiing, ice skating and sledding. Traditionally such sports were only played in cold areas during winter, but artificial snow and ice allow more flexibility...

 in which teams of two or four make timed runs down narrow, twisting, banked, iced tracks in a gravity-powered sled
Sled
A sled, sledge, or sleigh is a land vehicle with a smooth underside or possessing a separate body supported by two or more smooth, relatively narrow, longitudinal runners that travels by sliding across a surface. Most sleds are used on surfaces with low friction, such as snow or ice. In some cases,...

 that are combined to calculate the final score.

The various types of sleds came several years before the first tracks were built in St. Moritz
St. Moritz
St. Moritz is a resort town in the Engadine valley in Switzerland. It is a municipality in the district of Maloja in the Swiss canton of Graubünden...

, Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

, where the original bobsleds were adapted upsized luge
Luge
A Luge is a small one- or two-person sled on which one sleds supine and feet-first. Steering is done by flexing the sled's runners with the calf of each leg or exerting opposite shoulder pressure to the seat. Racing sleds weigh 21-25 kilograms for singles and 25-30 kilograms for doubles. Luge...

/skeleton
Skeleton (sport)
Skeleton is a fast winter sliding sport in which an individual person rides a small sled down a frozen track while lying face down, during which athletes experience forces up to 5g. It originated in St. Moritz, Switzerland as a spin-off from the popular British sport of Cresta Sledding...

 sleds designed by the adventurously wealthy to carry passengers. All three types were adapted from boys delivery sleds and toboggan
Toboggan
A toboggan is a simple sled which is a traditional form of transport used by the Innu and Cree of northern Canada. In modern times, it is used on snow to carry one or more people down a hill or other slope for recreation. Designs vary from simple, traditional models to modern engineered composites...

s.

Competition naturally followed, and to protect the working class and rich visitors in the streets and byways of St Moritz, hotel owner Caspar Badrutt
Caspar Badrutt
Swiss hotelier and tourism entrepreneur Caspar Badrutt was almost singlehandedly responsible for the origin of several modern winter sporting activities. These began when he sought to provide opportunities fun and frolic on the picturesque but cold slopes outside his first hotel in St Moritz,...

, owner of the historic Krup Hotel and the later Palace Hotel
Badrutt's Palace Hotel
The historic Palace Hotel in St. Moritz — more recently renamed as Badrutt's Palace Hotel — is an internationally known hotel in St Moritz, Switzerland, famous for its glitz and glamor...

, built the first familiarly configured 'half-pipe' track circa 1870. It has hosted the sports during two Olympics and is still in use today.

International bobsleigh competitions are governed by the Fédération Internationale de Bobsleigh et de Tobogganing
Fédération Internationale de Bobsleigh et de Tobogganing
The Fédération Internationale de Bobsleigh et de Tobogganing or International Bobsleigh and Tobogganing Federation is the main international federation for all bobsleigh and skeleton sports...

(FIBT). National competitions are often governed by bodies such as the United States Bobsled and Skeleton Federation
United States Bobsled and Skeleton Federation
The United States Bobsled & Skeleton Federation is the official national governing body for bobsled and skeleton in the United States...

 and Bobsleigh Canada Skeleton
Bobsleigh Canada Skeleton
Bobsleigh Canada Skeleton is the official federation for bobsled and skeleton in Canada. It serves as the Canadian representative for the International Bobsleigh and Tobogganing Federation and is part of the Canadian Olympic Committee....

.

History

Although sledding on snow or ice had been popular in many northern countries, bobsleighing is a relatively modern sport. It originates from two crestas (skeleton sleds) being attached together with a board and a steering mechanism being attached to the front cresta. The beginnings of the Bobsleigh were humble, starting when English tourists were enticed to stay over the winter in the mineral spa
Mineral spa
Mineral spas are resorts developed around naturally occurring mineral spring locales.- Origins :Spas grew in reputation in the nineteenth century on into the late middle-twentieth century for their purported healing or healthful benefits to those wealthy enough to partake of their waters...

 town of St. Moritz, Switzerland by the successful marketing of hotelier Caspar Badrutt
Caspar Badrutt
Swiss hotelier and tourism entrepreneur Caspar Badrutt was almost singlehandedly responsible for the origin of several modern winter sporting activities. These began when he sought to provide opportunities fun and frolic on the picturesque but cold slopes outside his first hotel in St Moritz,...

. Badrutt successfully 'sold' the idea of 'winter resorting' to some of his English regulars as he was annoyed with a four month long season for the rooms, food, alcohol and activities he sold. A year or two later some of his more adventurous English guests began adapting boys' delivery sleds for recreation and began colliding with pedestrians whilst speeding down the village's lanes and alleys and roads.

This had both short and long term outcomes: in the short term the guests began to scheme about and invent 'steering means' for the sleds, which became the luge
Luge
A Luge is a small one- or two-person sled on which one sleds supine and feet-first. Steering is done by flexing the sled's runners with the calf of each leg or exerting opposite shoulder pressure to the seat. Racing sleds weigh 21-25 kilograms for singles and 25-30 kilograms for doubles. Luge...

, bobsleighs (bobsleds), and head-first skeleton
Skeleton (sport)
Skeleton is a fast winter sliding sport in which an individual person rides a small sled down a frozen track while lying face down, during which athletes experience forces up to 5g. It originated in St. Moritz, Switzerland as a spin-off from the popular British sport of Cresta Sledding...

. Long term, after a couple of more years of happy pedestrian peril, Badrutt built a special track for their activities—the world's first natural ice half-pipe track in about 1870. It is still in operation today and has served as a host track during two Winter Olympics. The track is one of the few natural weather tracks in the world - it does not use artificial refrigeration. The satisfied guests eventually enabled him to build the Palace Hotel
Badrutt's Palace Hotel
The historic Palace Hotel in St. Moritz — more recently renamed as Badrutt's Palace Hotel — is an internationally known hotel in St Moritz, Switzerland, famous for its glitz and glamor...

, while holding onto the popular Krup Hotel (which catered to different clientele) and brought competition in as winter tourism in alpine locales became very popular.

The first informal races were run on snow-covered roads. The opening of formal competition was in 1884 at St. Moritz
St. Moritz
St. Moritz is a resort town in the Engadine valley in Switzerland. It is a municipality in the district of Maloja in the Swiss canton of Graubünden...

. It's not known how much the original track evolved in the early years as the three sports matured and stabilized. The first club was formed in 1897, and the first purpose-built track solely for bobsleds was opened in 1902 outside of St Moritz. Over the years, bobsleigh tracks evolved from straight runs to twisting and turning tracks. The original wooden sleds were replaced by streamlined fiberglass and metal ones.

The Fédération Internationale de Bobsleigh et de Tobogganing
Fédération Internationale de Bobsleigh et de Tobogganing
The Fédération Internationale de Bobsleigh et de Tobogganing or International Bobsleigh and Tobogganing Federation is the main international federation for all bobsleigh and skeleton sports...

(FIBT) was founded in 1923. Men's four man bobsleigh appeared in the first ever Winter Olympic Games
Winter Olympic Games
The Winter Olympic Games is a sporting event, which occurs every four years. The first celebration of the Winter Olympics was held in Chamonix, France, in 1924. The original sports were alpine and cross-country skiing, figure skating, ice hockey, Nordic combined, ski jumping and speed skating...

 in 1924, and men's two man bobsleigh event was added in 1932. Bobsleigh was not included in the 1960 Winter Olympics
1960 Winter Olympics
The 1960 Winter Olympics, officially known as the VIII Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event held between February 18 and 28, 1960 in Squaw Valley, California, United States. In 1955 at the 50th IOC meeting, the organizing committee made the surprise choice to award Squaw Valley as...

, but has been in every Winter Olympics since. Women's bobsleigh competition began in the US in 1983 with two demonstration races in Lake Placid, New York, one held in February and the 2nd held during the World Cup races in March 1983. Women's two woman bobsleigh made its Olympic debut at the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. Bobsleigh is also contested at American, European, and World Cup championships.

Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

 and Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 have been the most successful bobsleighing nations measured by overall success in European, World, World Cup, and Olympic championships. The Swiss have won more medals than any other nation, and since the 1990s Germans have been dominant in international competition. Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

, USA and Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 also have strong bobsleigh traditions.

Bobsleighs can attain speeds of 150 km/h (93.2 mph). The record however is 201 km/h (124.9 mph). A record the United States Bobsled and Skeleton Federation repeatedly rejected as valid due to lack of documentation that still need to be presented.

Tracks


Modern tracks are made of concrete
Concrete
Concrete is a composite construction material, composed of cement and other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement, aggregate , water and chemical admixtures.The word concrete comes from the Latin word...

, coated with ice. They are required to have at least one straight section and one labyrinth (three turns in quick succession without a straight section).
Ideally, a modern track should be 1200 to 1300 meters long and have at least fifteen curves. Speeds may exceed 120 km/h, and some curves can subject the crews to as much as 5 g
G-force
The g-force associated with an object is its acceleration relative to free-fall. This acceleration experienced by an object is due to the vector sum of non-gravitational forces acting on an object free to move. The accelerations that are not produced by gravity are termed proper accelerations, and...

.

Some bobsleigh tracks are also used for luge
Luge
A Luge is a small one- or two-person sled on which one sleds supine and feet-first. Steering is done by flexing the sled's runners with the calf of each leg or exerting opposite shoulder pressure to the seat. Racing sleds weigh 21-25 kilograms for singles and 25-30 kilograms for doubles. Luge...

 and skeleton
Skeleton (sport)
Skeleton is a fast winter sliding sport in which an individual person rides a small sled down a frozen track while lying face down, during which athletes experience forces up to 5g. It originated in St. Moritz, Switzerland as a spin-off from the popular British sport of Cresta Sledding...

 competition.

Some tracks offer tourists rides in bobsleighs, including those at Sigulda
Sigulda bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track
The Sigulda bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track is located in Sigulda, Latvia. Currently, the track manager is Dainis Dukurs, former bobsleigh brakeman and the father of skeleton racers Martins and Tomass Dukurs.-History:...

, Latvia; Innsbruck-Igls, Austria; Calgary
Canada Olympic Park bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track
The Canada Olympic Park bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track is a bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track located in Calgary, Canada. Part of Canada Olympic Park, it hosted the bobsleigh and luge competitions at the 1988 Winter Olympics...

, Canada; Lillehammer, Norway; Cesana Pariol
Cesana Pariol
Cesana Pariol was the venue for bobsled, luge and skeleton during the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin, Italy. The track, built for the games, is located in Cesana...

, Italy; Lake Placid
Lake Placid bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track
The Mt. Van Hoevenberg Olympic Bobsled Run. is a venue for bobsleigh, luge and skeleton located in Lake Placid, New York, United States. This venue was used for the 1932 and 1980 Winter Olympics and for the only winter Goodwill Games in 2000...

, USA; Salt Lake City
Utah Olympic Park bobsleigh/luge/skeleton track
The Utah Olympic Park Track is a bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track located in the Utah Olympic Park, near Park City, Utah, United States. During the 2002 Winter Olympics, held nearby in Salt Lake City, the track hosted the bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton events...

, USA and La Plagne
La Plagne bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track
The La Plagne bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track is a bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track located in La Plagne, France. The track hosted the bobsleigh and luge competitions for the 1992 Winter Olympics located in neighboring Albertville.-History:...

, France.

The most famous of all the turns is the 'Petersen'. The Petersen is renowned for its trademark 180 degree turn and 270 degree bank angle, which is a compulsory feature on all Winter Olympic runs. The Petersen is named after the pioneer track designer Heidi Petersen.

Sleighs and crews

Modern day sleighs combine light metals, steel runners, and an aerodynamic composite body. Competition sleighs must be a maximum of 3.80 m (12.5 ft) long (4-crew) or 2.70 m (8.9 ft) long (2-crew). The runners on both are set at 0.67 m (2.2 ft) gauge
Rail gauge
Track gauge or rail gauge is the distance between the inner sides of the heads of the two load bearing rails that make up a single railway line. Sixty percent of the world's railways use a standard gauge of . Wider gauges are called broad gauge; smaller gauges, narrow gauge. Break-of-gauge refers...

. Until the weight-limit rule was added in 1952, bobsleigh crews tended to be very heavy. Now, the maximum weight
Weight
In science and engineering, the weight of an object is the force on the object due to gravity. Its magnitude , often denoted by an italic letter W, is the product of the mass m of the object and the magnitude of the local gravitational acceleration g; thus:...

, including crew, is 630 kg (1,388.9 lbs) (4-man), 390 kg (859.8 lbs) (2-man), or 340 kg (749.6 lbs) (2-woman). Metal weights may be added to reach these limits, as greater weight makes for a faster run.

Bobsleigh crews once consisted of five or six people, but were reduced to two- and four-person sleighs in the 1930s. A crew is made up of a pilot, a brakeman, and, in 4 man only, two pushers. Athletes are selected based on speed and strength, necessary to push the sleigh to a competitive initial speed at the start of the race. Pilots must have the skill, timing, and finesse to drive the sleigh along the best possible line to achieve the greatest possible speed.

Modern bobsleighs are steered by the pilot, using two metal steering rings. The rings are connected to cables which in turn are attached to the front runners via a pulley system. This is all housed within the forward cowling. To steer the sled left, the left ring is pulled toward the pilot; for turning right, the right ring is pulled toward the pilot. Only subtle steering adjustments are necessary to guide the sled; a slight bit too much either way can result in a crash when traveling at speeds of 80 mph or more. The crew also leans into curves as necessary to aid in steering the sled. The brakeman's job is to stop the sled after crossing the finish line by pulling on a lever that activates the brake.

Women compete in Women's Bobsleigh (which is always two-woman), and men in both two- and four-man competitions.

Races

Runs begin from a standing start, with the crew pushing the sled for up to 50 meters before boarding. The runners of the sled follow grooves in the ice for this distance, so steering is unnecessary until after the sleigh exits the starting area. Races can be lost in the initial push but are rarely won there. Over the rest of the course, the sleigh's speed depends on its weight, aerodynamics, runners, weight, the condition of the ice, and the skill of the driver.

Race times are recorded in hundredths of seconds, so even seemingly minor errors can have a measurable impact on the final race standings. Because any decrease in speed affects the sleigh for the remainder of the course, errors made high on the track will have a greater effect than those made closer to the finish.

Each run down the course in competition is referred to as a heat. The men's and women's standings for normal races are calculated over the aggregate of two runs or heats. At the Olympic Winter Games and World Championships, all competitions (for both men and women) consist of four heats.

Olympic Medal table

Four man

Current Olympic champion:
1  Germany 8 4 6 18
2  Switzerland 5 5 5 15
3  United States 4 4 3 11
4  Italy 1 2 1 4
5  Austria 1 2 0 3
6  Canada 1 0 1 2
7  United Kingdom 0 1 2 3
8  Belgium 0 1 1 2
8  Russia 0 1 1 2
10  France 0 0 1 1
Total 20 20 21 61

♥♦

Two man

Current Olympic champion:
1  Germany 7 8 4 19
2  Switzerland 4 5 6 15
3  Italy 3 2 2 7
4  United States 2 1 3 6
5  Canada 1 1 0 2
6  Russia 1 0 2 3
7  United Kingdom 1 0 0 1
8  Romania 0 0 1 1
Total 19 17 18 54

Two woman

Current Olympic champion:
1  Germany 1 1 1 3
1  United States 1 1 1 3
3  Canada 1 1 0 2
4  Italy 0 0 1 1
Total 3 3 3 9

Total Olympic Ranking (2010)

1  Germany 16 13 11 40
2  Switzerland 9 10 11 30
3  United States 7 6 7 20
4  Italy 4 4 4 12
5  Canada 3 2 1 6
6  Austria 1 2 0 3
7  Russia 1 1 3 5
8  United Kingdom 1 1 2 4
9  Belgium 0 1 1 2
10  France 0 0 1 1
10  Romania 0 0 1 1
Total 42 40 41 123

Fatal accidents

No Competitor Year Track Section Race Event Vehicle
Oberüberl 1911 Practice run 5-man sled
  Karl Gerloff 1933   Oberhof
Oberhof bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track
The Oberhof bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track is a venue used for bobsled, luge and skeleton located in Oberhof, Germany.-History:Oberhof had been the home of sledding activities since 1905, mostly bobsleigh. In 1931, the facility hosted the first ever FIBT World Championships in the two-man...

Practice run 4-man sled
  Rudolf Gerloff 1933   Oberhof
Oberhof bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track
The Oberhof bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track is a venue used for bobsled, luge and skeleton located in Oberhof, Germany.-History:Oberhof had been the home of sledding activities since 1905, mostly bobsleigh. In 1931, the facility hosted the first ever FIBT World Championships in the two-man...

Practice run 4-man sled
  Reto Capadrutt
Reto Capadrutt
Reto Capadrutt was a Swiss bobsledder who competed in the 1930s. Competing in two Winter Olympics, he won a silver medal in the two-man event in 1932 and another silver medal in the four-man event in 1936....

1939   Cortina d'Ampezzo
Eugenio Monti track
The Eugenio Monti track is a bobsleigh and skeleton track located in Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy. It is named after Eugenio Monti , who won six bobsleigh medals at the Winter Olympic Games between 1956 and 1968 and ten medals at the FIBT World Championships between 1957 and 1966...

Practice run World Championships 1939
FIBT World Championships 1939
The FIBT World Championships 1939 took place in St. Moritz, Switzerland and Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy . St. Moritz hosted the two-man event for the second time after hosting it previously in 1938, along with hosting the four-man event in 1931, 1935, and 1937. Cortina d'Ampezzo hosted the two-man...

4-man sled
  Max Houben
Max Houben
Max Houben was a Belgian athlete and bobsledder who competed from the early 1920s to the late 1940s. He won a silver medal in the four-man event at the 1948 Winter Olympics in St...

1949   Lake Placid Shady corner Practice run World Championships 1949
FIBT World Championships 1949
The FIBT World Championships 1949 took place in Lake Placid, New York, United States. It marked the first time the championships took place outside of Europe.-Two man bobsleigh:-Four man bobsleigh:...

2-man sled
  Felix Endrich
Felix Endrich
Felix Endrich was a Swiss bobsledder who competed in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Competing in two Winter Olympics, he won the gold medal in the two-man event at the 1948 Winter Olympics in St...

1953   Garmisch-Partenkirchen
Riessersee
Riessersee is a German lake located in southwest Garmisch-Partenkirchen. The lake itself hosted the ice hockey and speed skating events for the 1936 Winter Olympics. Adjacent to the lake, the bobsleigh event took place.-Bobsleigh track:...

Bayernkurve Practice run World Championships 1953
FIBT World Championships 1953
The FIBT World Championships 1953 took place in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, West Germany for the third time after previously hosting the four-man event of the championships in 1934 and 1938...

4-man sled
  Sergio Zardini
Sergio Zardini
Sergio Zardini was an Italian bobsledder who competed from the late 1950s to the mid 1960s. He won the silver medal in the two-man event at the 1964 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck...

1966   Lake Placid Zig-Zag Curves Practice run 4-man sled
  Toni Pensperger
Toni Pensperger
Anton "Toni" Pensperger was a West German bobsledder who competed during the 1960s. He was posthumously awarded a gold medal in the four-man event after he was killed during the event at the 1966 FIBT World Championships in Cortina d'Ampezzo...

1966   Cortina d'Ampezzo
Eugenio Monti track
The Eugenio Monti track is a bobsleigh and skeleton track located in Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy. It is named after Eugenio Monti , who won six bobsleigh medals at the Winter Olympic Games between 1956 and 1968 and ten medals at the FIBT World Championships between 1957 and 1966...

Practice run World Championships 1966
FIBT World Championships 1966
The FIBT World Championships 1966 took place in Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy for the sixth time, having hosted the event previously in 1937 , 1939 , 1950, 1954, and 1960. The Four-man event was cancelled following the death of West Germany's Toni Pensperger during competition...

4-man sled
  Josef Schnellneger 1970   Königssee
Königssee bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track
The Königssee bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track is a venue for bobsleigh, luge and skeleton located in Schönau am Königsee, Germany. It is located near Königssee...

Practice run Austria-Cup 2-man sled
  Luis Lopez 1971   Cervinia Practice run World Championships 1971
FIBT World Championships 1971
-Two man bobsleigh:-Four man bobsleigh:-Medal table:-References:**...

2-man sled
  Giuseppe Soravia 1980   Igls Finish Practice run 4-man sled
  James Morgan 1981   Cortina d'Ampezzo
Eugenio Monti track
The Eugenio Monti track is a bobsleigh and skeleton track located in Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy. It is named after Eugenio Monti , who won six bobsleigh medals at the Winter Olympic Games between 1956 and 1968 and ten medals at the FIBT World Championships between 1957 and 1966...

Finish Practice run World Championships 1981
FIBT World Championships 1981
The FIBT World Championships 1981 took place in Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy for the seventh time, having hosted the event previously in 1937 , 1939 , 1950, 1954, 1960, and 1966...

4-man sled
Paolo Rigon 1981   Cortina d'Ampezzo
Eugenio Monti track
The Eugenio Monti track is a bobsleigh and skeleton track located in Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy. It is named after Eugenio Monti , who won six bobsleigh medals at the Winter Olympic Games between 1956 and 1968 and ten medals at the FIBT World Championships between 1957 and 1966...

Production For Your Eyes Only (film)
For Your Eyes Only (film)
For Your Eyes Only is the twelfth spy film in the James Bond series and the fifth to star Roger Moore as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond. It marked the directorial debut of John Glen, who had worked as editor and second unit director in three other Bond films. The screenplay by Richard Maibaum...

  Imants Karlsons 1982   Igls Training session Training 2-man sled
  Daniel Oaida 1989   Altenberg
Altenberg bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track
The Altenberg bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track is a venue for bobsleigh, luge and skeleton located in Altenberg, Germany.-History:Altenberg raced bobsleigh as early as 1908 on a natural track going downhill. By the late 1970s, the East Germans who were already successful in luge, began getting...

Curve 4 Training session Training 4-man sled
41   Peter Förster 1990   Altenberg
Altenberg bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track
The Altenberg bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track is a venue for bobsleigh, luge and skeleton located in Altenberg, Germany.-History:Altenberg raced bobsleigh as early as 1908 on a natural track going downhill. By the late 1970s, the East Germans who were already successful in luge, began getting...

Finish Training session Training 2-man sled
42   Yvonne Cernota
Yvonne Cernota
Yvonne Cernota was a German bobsledder who competed from 2000 to 2004. She won a bronze medal in the two-woman event at the 2003 FIBT World Championships in Winterberg....

2004   Königssee
Königssee bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track
The Königssee bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track is a venue for bobsleigh, luge and skeleton located in Schönau am Königsee, Germany. It is located near Königssee...

Echowand Training session Training 2-man sled

See also

  • List of Bobsleigh World Cup champions
  • Luge
    Luge
    A Luge is a small one- or two-person sled on which one sleds supine and feet-first. Steering is done by flexing the sled's runners with the calf of each leg or exerting opposite shoulder pressure to the seat. Racing sleds weigh 21-25 kilograms for singles and 25-30 kilograms for doubles. Luge...

  • Skeleton
    Skeleton (sport)
    Skeleton is a fast winter sliding sport in which an individual person rides a small sled down a frozen track while lying face down, during which athletes experience forces up to 5g. It originated in St. Moritz, Switzerland as a spin-off from the popular British sport of Cresta Sledding...

  • Toboggan
    Toboggan
    A toboggan is a simple sled which is a traditional form of transport used by the Innu and Cree of northern Canada. In modern times, it is used on snow to carry one or more people down a hill or other slope for recreation. Designs vary from simple, traditional models to modern engineered composites...

  • Cool Runnings
    Cool Runnings
    Cool Runnings is a 1993 comedy film directed by Jon Turteltaub. It is loosely based on the true story of the Jamaica national bobsled team's debut in the bobsleigh competition of the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, Alberta. It stars Leon Robinson, Doug E. Doug, Malik Yoba, and Rawle D...

  • Sledding
    Sledding
    Sledding , sledging , sleding or tobogganing is a common activity in wintry areas, similar to sliding, but in a prone or seated position requiring a device or vehicle generically known in the US as a sled or in other countries as a sledge or toboggan...

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