Biliary reflux
Biliary reflux or duodenogastric reflux is a condition that occurs when biliary fluid flows upward (refluxes) from the duodenum
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds. In fish, the divisions of the small intestine are not as clear and the terms anterior intestine or proximal intestine may be used instead of duodenum...

 into the stomach
The stomach is a muscular, hollow, dilated part of the alimentary canal which functions as an important organ of the digestive tract in some animals, including vertebrates, echinoderms, insects , and molluscs. It is involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication .The stomach is...

 and esophagus
The esophagus is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. During swallowing, food passes from the mouth through the pharynx into the esophagus and travels via peristalsis to the stomach...


It is different from Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
Gastroesophageal reflux disease , gastro-oesophageal reflux disease , gastric reflux disease, or acid reflux disease is chronic symptoms or mucosal damage caused by stomach acid coming up from the stomach into the esophagus...

 (GERD), which happens when the stomach acid
An acid is a substance which reacts with a base. Commonly, acids can be identified as tasting sour, reacting with metals such as calcium, and bases like sodium carbonate. Aqueous acids have a pH of less than 7, where an acid of lower pH is typically stronger, and turn blue litmus paper red...

s flow into the esophagus.


  • Frequent heartburn
    Heartburn, also known as pyrosis or acid indigestion is a burning sensation in the chest, just behind the breastbone or in the epigastrium...

  • Nausea
    Nausea , is a sensation of unease and discomfort in the upper stomach with an involuntary urge to vomit. It often, but not always, precedes vomiting...

  • Vomiting

Biliary reflux often confused with acid reflux, should not be left untreated
"Biliary reflux has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Barrett's Oesophagus. Gastro oesophageal reflux disease is typically thought of as an acid reflux problem. However, studies have shown that biliary reflux can be a contributing factor in oesophageal complications of the disease. Incidence of Barrett’s oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma
Esophageal cancer
Esophageal cancer is malignancy of the esophagus. There are various subtypes, primarily squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinoma . Squamous cell cancer arises from the cells that line the upper part of the esophagus...

 is greater among patients with biliary reflux and excessive duodenogastric reflux has been implicated in the etiology of antral gastric ulcers and gastritis."


Most damage to the pyloric valve occurs as a complication of gastric surgery. Other causes of biliary reflux include:
  • Peptic ulcer
    Peptic ulcer
    A peptic ulcer, also known as PUD or peptic ulcer disease, is the most common ulcer of an area of the gastrointestinal tract that is usually acidic and thus extremely painful. It is defined as mucosal erosions equal to or greater than 0.5 cm...

  • Gallbladder surgery (cholecystectomy
    Cholecystectomy is the surgical removal of the gallbladder. It is the most common method for treating symptomatic gallstones. Surgical options include the standard procedure, called laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and an older more invasive procedure, called open cholecystectomy.-Open surgery:A...


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