Battle of St. Matthew's Day
The Battle of St. Matthew's Day was fought near Viljandi
Viljandi is a town and municipality in southern Estonia with a population of 19,150 . It is the capital of Viljandi County. The town was first mentioned in 1283, upon being granted its town charter by Wilhelm von Endorpe....

 on September 21, 1217 during the Livonian Crusade
Livonian Crusade
The Livonian Crusade refers to the German and Danish conquest and colonization of medieval Livonia, the territory constituting modern Latvia and Estonia, during the Northern Crusades...

. The adversaries were the German crusading order the Sword Brethren
Livonian Brothers of the Sword
The Livonian Brothers of the Sword were a military order founded by Bishop Albert of Riga in 1202. Pope Innocent III sanctioned the establishment in 1204. The membership of the order comprised German "warrior monks"...

 with their recently converted Livonian and Latgalian
The term Latgalians The term Latgalians The term Latgalians (Latgalian: latgalīši, latgali, (also spelt Latgallians and sometimes known as Lettigalls, Latgolans, or Lettigallians) can refer to the inhabitants of the Latgale region in eastern Latvia in general, the ethnic Latvians of Latgale...

 allies and an army of 6000 Estonia
Estonia , officially the Republic of Estonia , is a state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia , and to the east by Lake Peipsi and the Russian Federation . Across the Baltic Sea lies...

n men from different counties, led by Lembitu, who had attempted to unify the Estonians. The Germans won, Lembitu and Caupo of Turaida
Caupo of Turaida
Caupo of Turaida, or Kaupo was a leader of the Finnic-speaking Livonian people in the beginning of the 13th century, in what is now Latvia. He is sometimes called 'King of Livonia', Chronicle of Henry of Livonia calls him quasi rex, 'like a king'.He was the first prominent Livonian to be christened...

(converted Livonian chieftain, fought on the order's side) were killed. Also many others were forced to convert.
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