August Keim

Brief history

From the Hessian
Hesse or Hessia is both a cultural region of Germany and the name of an individual German state.* The cultural region of Hesse includes both the State of Hesse and the area known as Rhenish Hesse in the neighbouring Rhineland-Palatinate state...

 family line, known for its military prestige, August Keim was an avid military historian
Military history
Military history is a humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity, and its impact on the societies, their cultures, economies and changing intra and international relationships....

. Keim followed his bloodline by joining the army as a cadet in 1862 where his father and grandfather had previously attended. He was used in the historical division of the Hessian regiment where he was provided a chance to lecture at the Military Academy
Military academy
A military academy or service academy is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps of the army, the navy, air force or coast guard, which normally provides education in a service environment, the exact definition depending on the country concerned.Three...


Keim battled in the wars of 1866 and 1870 as well as the Wars of Unification, referred to as the Austro-Prussian
Austro-Prussian War
The Austro-Prussian War was a war fought in 1866 between the German Confederation under the leadership of the Austrian Empire and its German allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia with its German allies and Italy on the...

 and Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War was a conflict between the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia. Prussia was aided by the North German Confederation, of which it was a member, and the South German states of Baden, Württemberg and...

s, before he proceeded to the General Staff
General Staff
A military staff, often referred to as General Staff, Army Staff, Navy Staff or Air Staff within the individual services, is a group of officers and enlisted personnel that provides a bi-directional flow of information between a commanding officer and subordinate military units...

 in 1881. During the tail end of the 1880s Keim began to write for the press and ultimately criticized the German defense policy leading to his discharge to a lesser field position. He was later recalled in 1892 to lead the Army Bill of 1892-1893 campaign. Keim left the German Army in 1899 at the age of 54 by retiring.

Keim's Approach on German Military Techniques and Mindset

As a charismatic German nationalist, Keim was very influential. Being part of the far right
Far right
Far-right, extreme right, hard right, radical right, and ultra-right are terms used to discuss the qualitative or quantitative position a group or person occupies within right-wing politics. Far-right politics may involve anti-immigration and anti-integration stances towards groups that are...

, he believed that the Kaiserheer, or the Imperial German Army, was in dire need of a redirection from where the army was before his involvement. According to him, German leadership was poor and their strategy was just as poorly thought out. According to his mindset, only a scholarly approach to this dilemma could help educate the German Army and increase its effectiveness.

By using an intellectual view, Keim lectured and criticized the German forces. By attempting to be more free-thinking
Freethought is a philosophical viewpoint that holds that opinions should be formed on the basis of science, logic, and reason, and should not be influenced by authority, tradition, or other dogmas...

, Keim reviewed the German commands and war strategies. After scrutinizing such subjects which were included in German warfare, Keim lectured of how poorly the German war machine operated. By using late Prussian tactics, Keim was able to create a new focus on war preparation, wartime decisions, and post war solutions to exemplify the German's progress as an army.

As the head of the German Populist Faction, Keim wished to take a more political view on educating the public. Believing this matter needed a more active push to understanding, Keim worked to help expand the German fleet
German Navy
The German Navy is the navy of Germany and is part of the unified Bundeswehr .The German Navy traces its roots back to the Imperial Fleet of the revolutionary era of 1848 – 52 and more directly to the Prussian Navy, which later evolved into the Northern German Federal Navy...

 as well as contribute the Army League by founding it in 1912.

Keim's History With German Organizations

After Keim retired from the Kaiserheer, he wished to increase his position in Germany by becoming the president and head of a myriad of German organizations like the Navy League as to become more influential and in turn create a more powerful position for himself in the German society. Along with joining groups, Keim became a journalist. He focused on the undesirable state that the army was in and his views for a future reformation within the Kaiserheer.

By using Wilhelmine pressure groups which utilized press campaigns, leafleting and public meetings, Keim was able to assert his position on certain issues of the day. Joining an Anti-Feminist
Antifeminism is opposition to feminism in some or all of its forms. Modern antifeminists say that the feminist movement has achieved its aims and now seeks higher status for women than for men.-History:...

 organization because he believed that Feminists were anti-national aided his position as well as his introduction of the Army Bill of 1893,which was intended to increase funds for the Kaiserheer. By using defense-minded propaganda groups like the Deutsche Flottenverein and Wehrverein to influence the German press to summon a military Weltpolitik
The "Weltpolitik" strategy was adopted by Germany in the late 19th century, replacing the earlier "Realpolitik" approach.The start of this policy was signaled in 1897 with then Foreign Minister Bernhard von Bülow stating that Germany now pursued such a policy...

, Keim lobbied the Kaiser
Kaiser is the German title meaning "Emperor", with Kaiserin being the female equivalent, "Empress". Like the Russian Czar it is directly derived from the Latin Emperors' title of Caesar, which in turn is derived from the personal name of a branch of the gens Julia, to which Gaius Julius Caesar,...

 to subtract money from the Navy and add to the Army, all in which the Kaiser
Kaiser is the German title meaning "Emperor", with Kaiserin being the female equivalent, "Empress". Like the Russian Czar it is directly derived from the Latin Emperors' title of Caesar, which in turn is derived from the personal name of a branch of the gens Julia, to which Gaius Julius Caesar,...

 did in time.

He joined the Pan-German League in 1908 and became the president, but later joined the German Army League in 1912 in order to become its leader and help aid Germany with its unification while strengthening its army so that it would be ready for any inevitable war. This non-partisan group was intended to increase the army's soldier number by fifty percent, but never achieved such a dramatic reformation. Near the advent of World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, the group went into a depression because of the lack of money and never regained its full composure thereafter.

See also

  • Nationalism
    Nationalism is a political ideology that involves a strong identification of a group of individuals with a political entity defined in national terms, i.e. a nation. In the 'modernist' image of the nation, it is nationalism that creates national identity. There are various definitions for what...

  • Wilhelmine Germany
    William II, German Emperor
    Wilhelm II was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. He was a grandson of the British Queen Victoria and related to many monarchs and princes of Europe...

  • Erich Von Falkenhayn
    Erich von Falkenhayn
    Erich von Falkenhayn was a German soldier and Chief of the General Staff during World War I. He became a military writer after World War I.-Early life:...

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.