Audio engineering
Overview
 
An audio engineer, also called audio technician, audio technologist or sound technician, is a specialist in a skilled trade that deals with the use of machinery and equipment for the recording, mixing and reproduction of sound
Sound
Sound is a mechanical wave that is an oscillation of pressure transmitted through a solid, liquid, or gas, composed of frequencies within the range of hearing and of a level sufficiently strong to be heard, or the sensation stimulated in organs of hearing by such vibrations.-Propagation of...

s. The field draws on many artistic and vocational areas, including electronics
Electronics
Electronics is the branch of science, engineering and technology that deals with electrical circuits involving active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, and associated passive interconnection technologies...

, acoustics
Acoustics
Acoustics is the interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound. A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician while someone working in the field of acoustics...

, psychoacoustics
Psychoacoustics
Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of sound perception. More specifically, it is the branch of science studying the psychological and physiological responses associated with sound...

, and music
Music
Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence. Its common elements are pitch , rhythm , dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture...

. An audio technician is proficient with different types of recording media, such as analog tape, digital multitrack recorders and workstations, and computer knowledge.
Encyclopedia
An audio engineer, also called audio technician, audio technologist or sound technician, is a specialist in a skilled trade that deals with the use of machinery and equipment for the recording, mixing and reproduction of sound
Sound
Sound is a mechanical wave that is an oscillation of pressure transmitted through a solid, liquid, or gas, composed of frequencies within the range of hearing and of a level sufficiently strong to be heard, or the sensation stimulated in organs of hearing by such vibrations.-Propagation of...

s. The field draws on many artistic and vocational areas, including electronics
Electronics
Electronics is the branch of science, engineering and technology that deals with electrical circuits involving active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, and associated passive interconnection technologies...

, acoustics
Acoustics
Acoustics is the interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound. A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician while someone working in the field of acoustics...

, psychoacoustics
Psychoacoustics
Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of sound perception. More specifically, it is the branch of science studying the psychological and physiological responses associated with sound...

, and music
Music
Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence. Its common elements are pitch , rhythm , dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture...

. An audio technician is proficient with different types of recording media, such as analog tape, digital multitrack recorders and workstations, and computer knowledge. With the advent of the digital age, it is becoming more and more important for the audio technician to be versed in the understanding of software and hardware integration from synchronization to analog to digital transfers.

Audio engineering concerns the creative and practical aspects of sounds and music, in contrast with the formal engineering
Engineering
Engineering is the discipline, art, skill and profession of acquiring and applying scientific, mathematical, economic, social, and practical knowledge, in order to design and build structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes that safely realize improvements to the lives of...

 discipline known as acoustical engineering
Acoustical engineering
Acoustical engineering is the branch of engineering dealing with sound and vibration. It is the application of acoustics, the science of sound and vibration, in technology. Acoustical engineers are typically concerned with the manipulation and control of sound....

. Producer, engineer, mixer Phil Ek
Phil Ek
Phil Ek is an American record producer, engineer and mixer. Ek began his career in Seattle, Washington, in the early 1990s recording live sound in clubs. He then moved into studio recording, recording small projects and demos for local bands. Around this time, Ek was frequently working with...

 has described audio engineering as the "technical aspect of recording—the placing of microphones, the turning of pre-amp knobs, the setting of levels. The physical recording of any project is done by an engineer... the nuts and bolts." Many recording engineers also invented new technology, equipment and techniques, to enhance the process and art.

Terminology

Terms such as "audio technician", "sound technician", "audio engineer", "audio technologist", "sound mixer" and "sound engineer" can be ambiguous; depending on the context they may be synonymous, or they may refer to slightly different roles in audio production. Such terms can refer to a person working in sound and music production, as well as to technicians who design professional equipment for these tasks. Certain jurisdictions specifically prohibit the use of the title engineer
Engineer
An engineer is a professional practitioner of engineering, concerned with applying scientific knowledge, mathematics and ingenuity to develop solutions for technical problems. Engineers design materials, structures, machines and systems while considering the limitations imposed by practicality,...

 to any individual not a registered member of a professional engineering
Engineering
Engineering is the discipline, art, skill and profession of acquiring and applying scientific, mathematical, economic, social, and practical knowledge, in order to design and build structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes that safely realize improvements to the lives of...

 licensing body.

Individuals who design acoustical simulations of rooms, shaping algorithms for digital signal processing
Digital signal processor
A digital signal processor is a specialized microprocessor with an architecture optimized for the fast operational needs of digital signal processing.-Typical characteristics:...

 and computer music
Computer music
Computer music is a term that was originally used within academia to describe a field of study relating to the applications of computing technology in music composition; particularly that stemming from the Western art music tradition...

 problems, perform institutional research on sound, and other advanced fields of audio engineering are most often graduates of an accredited college or university, or have passed a difficult civil qualification test.

Other languages, such as German
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

 and Italian
Italian language
Italian is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, by minorities in Malta, Monaco, Croatia, Slovenia, France, Libya, Eritrea, and Somalia, and by immigrant communities in the Americas and Australia...

, have different words to refer to these activities. For instance, in German, the Tontechniker (audio technician) is the one who operates the audio equipment and the Tonmeister (sound master) is a person who creates recordings or broadcasts of music who is both deeply musically trained (in 'classical' and non-classical genres) and who also has a detailed theoretical and practical knowledge of virtually all aspects of sound, whereas the Toningenieur (audio engineer) is the one who designs, builds and repairs it.

Practitioners

An audio engineer is someone with experience and training in the production and manipulation of sound through mechanical (analog
Analog synthesizer
An analog or analogue synthesizer is a synthesizer that uses analog circuits and analog computer techniques to generate sound electronically. The earliest analog synthesizers in the 1920s and 1930s such as the Trautonium were built with a variety of vacuum-tube and electro-mechanical technologies...

) or digital
Digital
A digital system is a data technology that uses discrete values. By contrast, non-digital systems use a continuous range of values to represent information...

 means. As a professional title, this person is sometimes designated as a sound engineer or recording engineer instead. A person with one of these titles is commonly listed in the credits of many commercial music recordings (as well as in other productions that include sound, such as movies).

Audio engineers are generally familiar with the design, installation, and/or operation of sound recording, sound reinforcement, or sound broadcasting
Broadcasting
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and video content to a dispersed audience via any audio visual medium. Receiving parties may include the general public or a relatively large subset of thereof...

 equipment, including large and small format consoles
Mixing console
In professional audio, a mixing console, or audio mixer, also called a sound board, mixing desk, or mixer is an electronic device for combining , routing, and changing the level, timbre and/or dynamics of audio signals. A mixer can mix analog or digital signals, depending on the type of mixer...

. In the recording studio
Recording studio
A recording studio is a facility for sound recording and mixing. Ideally both the recording and monitoring spaces are specially designed by an acoustician to achieve optimum acoustic properties...

 environment, the audio engineer records, edits, manipulates, mixes, and/or masters
Audio mastering
Mastering, a form of audio post-production, is the process of preparing and transferring recorded audio from a source containing the final mix to a data storage device ; the source from which all copies will be produced...

 sound by technical means in order to realize an artist's or record producer
Record producer
A record producer is an individual working within the music industry, whose job is to oversee and manage the recording of an artist's music...

's creative vision. While usually associated with music production, an audio engineer deals with sound for a wide range of applications, including post-production
Post-production
Post-production is part of filmmaking and the video production process. It occurs in the making of motion pictures, television programs, radio programs, advertising, audio recordings, photography, and digital art...

 for video
Video
Video is the technology of electronically capturing, recording, processing, storing, transmitting, and reconstructing a sequence of still images representing scenes in motion.- History :...

 and film
Film
A film, also called a movie or motion picture, is a series of still or moving images. It is produced by recording photographic images with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or visual effects...

, live sound reinforcement, advertising
Advertising
Advertising is a form of communication used to persuade an audience to take some action with respect to products, ideas, or services. Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common...

, multimedia
Multimedia
Multimedia is media and content that uses a combination of different content forms. The term can be used as a noun or as an adjective describing a medium as having multiple content forms. The term is used in contrast to media which use only rudimentary computer display such as text-only, or...

, and broadcasting. When referring to video games, an audio engineer may also be a computer programmer.

In larger productions, an audio engineer is responsible for the technical aspects of a sound recording or other audio production, and works together with a record producer or director, although the engineer's role may also be integrated with that of the producer. In smaller productions and studios the sound engineer and producer is often one and the same person.

In typical sound reinforcement applications, audio engineers often assume the role of producer
Record producer
A record producer is an individual working within the music industry, whose job is to oversee and manage the recording of an artist's music...

, making artistic and technical decisions, and sometimes even scheduling and budget decisions.

Different professional branches

There are four distinct steps to commercial production of a recording: Recording, editing, mixing, and mastering. Typically, each is performed by a sound engineer who specializes only in that part of production.
  • Studio engineer – an engineer working within a studio facility, either with a producer or independently
  • Recording engineer – engineer who records sound.
  • Assistant engineer – often employed in larger studios, allowing them to train to become full-time engineers. They often assist full-time engineers with microphone setups, session breakdowns and in some cases, rough mixes.
  • Mixing engineer
    Mixing engineer
    A mix engineer is the person responsible for incorporating all the different recorded elements of music to make the final version of a song. These mixing professionals have many years of experience and training with audio equipment which has enabled them to master the art of audio mixing...

     – a person who creates mixes of multi-track recordings. It is common for a commercial record to be recorded at one studio and later mixed by different engineers in other studios.
  • Mastering engineer
    Mastering engineer
    A mastering engineer is one skilled in the practice of taking audio that has been previously mixed in either the analog or digital domain as mono, stereo, or multichannel formats and preparing it for use in distribution, whether by physical media such as a CD, vinyl record, or as some method of...

     – typically the person who mixes the final stereo tracks (or sometimes just a few tracks or stems) that the mix engineer produces. The mastering engineer makes any final adjustments to the overall sound of the record in the final step before commercial duplication. Mastering engineers use principles of equalization and compression to affect the coloration of the sound.
  • Game audio designer engineer – deals with sound aspects of game development.
  • Live sound engineer – a person dealing with live sound reinforcement
    Live sound mixing
    Live sound mixing is the art of combining and processing a number of audio signals together to create a "mix" that the audience or performers at a live show hear. There can be a variety of different mixes required, depending on the performance requirements...

    . This usually includes planning and installation of speakers, cabling and equipment and mixing sound during the show. This may or may not include running the foldback sound
    Foldback (sound engineering)
    Foldback is the use of rear-facing heavy-duty loudspeakers known as monitor speaker cabinets on stage during live music performances. The sound is amplified with power amplifiers or a public address system and the speakers are aimed at the on-stage performers rather than the audience...

    . A live/sound reinforcement engineer hears musical material and tries to correlate that sonic experience with system performance.
  • Foldback or Monitor engineer – a person running foldback sound during a live event. The term "foldback" is outdated and refers to the practice of folding back audio signals from the FOH (Front of House
    Front of House
    Front of house is primarily a theatrical term, referring to the portion of the building that is open to the public. In theatre and live music venues, it typically refers to the auditorium and foyer, as opposed to the stage and backstage areas...

    ) mixing console to the stage in order for musicians to hear themselves while performing. Monitor engineers usually have a separate audio system from the FOH engineer and manipulate audio signals independently from what the audience hears, in order to satisfy the requirements of each performer on stage. In-ear systems, digital and analog mixing consoles, and a variety of speaker enclosures are typically used by monitor engineers. In addition most monitor engineers must be familiar with wireless or RF (radio-frequency) equipment and must interface personally with the artist(s) during each performance.
  • Systems engineer – responsible for the design setup of modern PA systems which are often very complex. A systems engineer is usually also referred to as a "crew chief" on tour and is responsible for the performance and day-to-day job requirements of the audio crew as a whole along with the FOH audio system.
  • Audio post engineer – a person who edits and mixes audio for film and/or television program
    Television program
    A television program , also called television show, is a segment of content which is intended to be broadcast on television. It may be a one-time production or part of a periodically recurring series...

    s.

Education

Audio engineers come from backgrounds such as fine arts, broadcasting
Broadcasting
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and video content to a dispersed audience via any audio visual medium. Receiving parties may include the general public or a relatively large subset of thereof...

, music
Music
Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence. Its common elements are pitch , rhythm , dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture...

 or electronics
Electronics
Electronics is the branch of science, engineering and technology that deals with electrical circuits involving active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, and associated passive interconnection technologies...

. Many colleges and accredited institutions around the world offer degrees in audio engineering, such as a BSc
Bachelor of Science
A Bachelor of Science is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for completed courses that generally last three to five years .-Australia:In Australia, the BSc is a 3 year degree, offered from 1st year on...

 in audio production. The University of Miami's Frost School of Music
Frost School of Music
The Phillip and Patricia Frost School of Music or Frost School of Music of the University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida, known from 1926 to 2003 as University of Miami School of Music, is a music school in the United States....

 was the first university in the United States to offer a four-year Bachelor of Music degree in Music Engineering Technology. SAE Institute
SAE Institute
The SAE Institute is a private college founded in 1976 by Sound Engineer, Record Producer and businessman Tom Misner. The first school was opened 1977 in Sydney,...

 was the first college in Australia to provide specialized audio courses and now offers accredited audio degrees and diplomas in many worldwide locations. In the last 25 years, some contemporary music schools have initiated audio engineering programs, usually awarding a Bachelor of Music
Bachelor of Music
Bachelor of Music is an academic degree awarded by a college, university, or conservatory upon completion of program of study in music. In the United States, it is a professional degree; the majority of work consists of prescribed music courses and study in applied music, usually requiring a...

 degree emphasizing the use of audio technology as opposed to the mathematics and physics of acoustics and electrical engineering that is part of a traditional engineering program at an engineering college or department within a university. Some audio engineers are autodidacts with no formal training. Unless the audio engineer has an engineering degree from an accredited engineering school and is also a member of the Ordre des Inginieurs du Québec, he may not use the title "engineer" when providing services in Quebec regardless of his address outside of Quebec.

Equipment

Audio engineers in their daily work operate and make use of:

  • Mixing console
    Mixing console
    In professional audio, a mixing console, or audio mixer, also called a sound board, mixing desk, or mixer is an electronic device for combining , routing, and changing the level, timbre and/or dynamics of audio signals. A mixer can mix analog or digital signals, depending on the type of mixer...

    s
  • Microphone
    Microphone
    A microphone is an acoustic-to-electric transducer or sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal. In 1877, Emile Berliner invented the first microphone used as a telephone voice transmitter...

    s
  • Signal processor
    Signal processor
    A signal processor is an electronic circuit that removes information from an analog signal as quantifiable units for further analysis. Most modern signal processors are either dedicated microprocessor integrated circuits or general-purpose programmable microprocessors. A DSP is an electronic...

    s
  • Analog-to-digital converter
    Analog-to-digital converter
    An analog-to-digital converter is a device that converts a continuous quantity to a discrete time digital representation. An ADC may also provide an isolated measurement...

    s

  • Tape machines
  • Digital audio workstation
    Digital audio workstation
    A digital audio workstation is an electronic system designed solely or primarily for recording, editing and playing back digital audio. DAWs were originally tape-less, microprocessor-based systems such as the Synclavier and Fairlight CMI...

    s
  • Music sequencer
    Music sequencer
    The music sequencer is a device or computer software to record, edit, play back the music, by handling note and performance information in several forms, typically :...

    s
  • Digital-to-analog converter
    Digital-to-analog converter
    In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter is a device that converts a digital code to an analog signal . An analog-to-digital converter performs the reverse operation...

    s

  • Loudspeaker
    Loudspeaker
    A loudspeaker is an electroacoustic transducer that produces sound in response to an electrical audio signal input. Non-electrical loudspeakers were developed as accessories to telephone systems, but electronic amplification by vacuum tube made loudspeakers more generally useful...

    s
  • Preamplifier
    Preamplifier
    A preamplifier is an electronic amplifier that prepares a small electrical signal for further amplification or processing. A preamplifier is often placed close to the sensor to reduce the effects of noise and interference. It is used to boost the signal strength to drive the cable to the main...

    s
  • Amplifiers
  • Dynamic range compression


Recording engineers of note

  • Steve Albini
    Steve Albini
    Steven Frank Albini is an American singer, songwriter, guitarist, audio engineer and music journalist. He was a member of Big Black, Rapeman, and Flour, and is currently a member of Shellac...

  • Billy Anderson
    Billy Anderson (music)
    Billy Anderson is a record producer, engineer and musician. He has worked with hundreds of bands over the past 20 years, including Cormorant, Eyehategod, Mr. Bungle, Red House Painters, Fantômas and Sleep...

  • Jim Anderson
    Jim Anderson (sound engineer)
    Jim Anderson is an internationally recognized recording engineer and producer for acoustic music in the recording, radio, television, and film industries.-Early career:...

  • Michael J. Bishop
    Michael J. Bishop
    Michael Joseph Bishop is a recording engineer and producer. He was born in 1951.He is the recipient of eight Grammy Awards for Best-Engineered Classical Recording and Best Surround Album. He also received the award for Best Surround Mix – Orchestral, 2004 Surround Music Awards.-References:...

  • Bill Bottrell
    Bill Bottrell
    Bill Bottrell is an American record producer, songwriter and musician, probably best known for his Grammy Award-winning collaborations with Michael Jackson, E.L.O. and Sheryl Crow.- Biography :...

  • David Bottrill
    David Bottrill
    David Bottrill is a Canadian record producer. He has won three Grammys. Currently, he owns Rattlebox Studios in Toronto, Ontario with producer Brian Moncarz...

  • Chuck Britz
    Chuck Britz
    Charles "Chuck" Dean Britz was a recording engineer who most famously worked with Jan and Dean, Brian Wilson, and The Beach Boys on numerous albums between 1962 and 1967....

  • Terry Brown
    Terry Brown (record producer)
    Terry Brown is a record producer involved in a variety of work, but most noted for his involvement with the Canadian rock band Rush and the British/Canadian band Cutting Crew. Brown is currently working with emerging Ottawa roots-rockers Ken Workman & The Union. He is referred to fondly by the band...

  • John Burns
    John Burns (audio engineer)
    John Burns is a British recording engineer best known for his credits with noted bands of the 1970s including Jethro Tull, Clouds, Genesis, John Martyn and reggae acts Burning Spear, Jimmy Cliff and Toots & The Maytals....

  • Dru Castro
    Dru Castro
    Dru Castro is a Grammy Award Winning recording engineer, producer and songwriter in Atlanta, Georgia. He has produced or engineered songs for artists such as Ciara, Keyshia Cole, Usher, R.Kelly, T-Pain, Trina, Jamie Foxx and India.Arie...

  • Fred Catero
    Fred Catero
    Fred Catero is an American record producer and engineer. Originally from New York, where he worked for CBS Records/Columbia, in the mid-1960s Catero moved to San Francisco to work for Columbia Records there. In San Francisco Catero worked on many albums by top artists, including Bob Dylan and...

  • Roy Cicala
    Roy Cicala
    Roy Cicala is an American producer, engineer, song-writer and musician. His body of work includes over 10 Platinum Records for producing, writing, engineering and management for talent from the 70’s through today...

  • Bob Clearmountain
    Bob Clearmountain
    Bob Clearmountain is an award-winning American music engineer, mixer and producer. He has worked with many prominent names in music including Bruce Springsteen , The Rolling Stones , Bryan Adams , Robbie Williams Bob Clearmountain is an award-winning American music engineer, mixer and producer. He...

  • Terry Date
    Terry Date
    Terry Date is an American record producer and engineer, specializing in the rock and metal genres...

  • Rhett Davies
    Rhett Davies
    Rhett Davies is an English record producer and engineer.Rhett Davies' father was trumpet player Ray Davies; they are no relation to Ray Davies of The Kinks. Davies became a studio engineer at Island Records studios in the early 1970s, and his first session was the recording process for Brian Eno's...

  • Nick Davis
  • Tom Dowd
    Tom Dowd
    Tom Dowd was an American recording engineer and producer for Atlantic Records. He was credited with innovating the multi-track recording method. Dowd worked on a virtual "who's who" of recordings that encompassed blues, jazz, pop, rock and soul records.- Early years :Born in Manhattan, Dowd grew...

  • Geoff Emerick
    Geoff Emerick
    Geoffrey Emerick is an English recording studio audio engineer, who is best known for his work with The Beatles' albums Revolver, Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, The Beatles and Abbey Road...

  • Jack Endino
    Jack Endino
    Jack Endino is a producer and musician based in Seattle. Long associated with Seattle label Sub Pop and the grunge movement, Endino worked on seminal albums from bands such as Mudhoney, Soundgarden, and Nirvana...

  • Dave Fridmann
    Dave Fridmann
    Dave Fridmann is an American record producer and musician. From 1990 onwards he co-produced all releases by Mercury Rev and The Flaming Lips...

  • Rudy Van Gelder
    Rudy Van Gelder
    Rudy Van Gelder is an American recording engineer specializing in jazz.Often regarded as one of the most important recording engineers in music history, Van Gelder has recorded several thousand jazz sessions, including many widely recognized as classics, in a career spanning more than half a century...

  • Nigel Godrich
    Nigel Godrich
    Nigel Godrich, , is a recording engineer, record producer and musician. He is best known for his work with the English rock band Radiohead and is sometimes referred to as the "sixth member" of the band...

  • Doug Grean
    Doug Grean
    Doug Grean is an American record producer, audio engineer, and guitarist based in Los Angeles. He has worked with many major artists, including Sheryl Crow, Ricki Lee Jones, Glen Campbell, Scott Weiland, Slash, Velvet Revolver, Stone Temple Pilots, The Crystal Method, Tim McGraw, Cyndi Lauper,...

  • James Guthrie
    James Guthrie (record producer)
    James K.A. Guthrie is a British recording engineer and record producer best known for his work with the progressive rock band Pink Floyd, having served as a producer and engineer for the band since 1978...

  • Mick Guzauski
    Mick Guzauski
    Mick Guzauski is a multi-platinum Mixing Engineer and sound engineer.Guzauski's work spans a wide range of styles, including jazz, R&B, Latin, rock, pop, and easy listening...

  • Roy Halee
    Roy Halee
    Roy Halee is an American record producer and engineer, best known for working with Simon and Garfunkel.Halee grew up on Long Island, New York. His father, also named Roy Halee, provided the singing voice for Mighty Mouse in late 1940s Terrytoons cartoons, as well as the voices of Heckle and Jeckle...

  • David Hentschel
    David Hentschel
    David Hentschel is an English recording engineer, writer and music producer who engineered on George Harrison's All Things Must Pass and Elton John's Goodbye Yellow Brick Road, as well as with artists including Genesis, Elton John, Ringo Starr, Queen, Marti Webb, Andy Summers, Mike Oldfield, Peter...


  • Andrew Jackson
    Andrew Jackson (recording engineer)
    Andrew Jackson is a British recording engineer famous for his work with the British band Pink Floyd. He first helped out on the film soundtrack to Pink Floyd The Wall in 1982...

  • Andy Johns
    Andy Johns
    Andy Johns is an engineer and producer who worked on well-known rock albums such as Led Zeppelin's IV and The Rolling Stones' Exile on Main Street. His sound is exemplified by Free's album Highway, which he engineered and produced....

  • Glyn Johns
    Glyn Johns
    Glyn Johns is a musician, recording engineer and record producer.-Career:He has worked with such artists as Bob Dylan, The Beatles, The Easybeats, The Band, The Rolling Stones, The Who, Led Zeppelin, Eagles, Eric Clapton, The Clash, The Steve Miller Band, Small Faces, Spooky Tooth, The Ozark...

  • Leslie Ann Jones
    Leslie Ann Jones
    Leslie Ann Jones is a multiple Grammy Award-winning recording engineer working as Director of Music Recording and Scoring at Skywalker Sound, a Lucasfilm, Ltd. company. She is a past Chair of the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences Board of Trustees, the organization that awards Grammys...

  • Neil Kernon
    Neil Kernon
    Neil Kernon is a musician/record producer/mixer/recording engineer - from London, England.He has worked with a number of artists over the last 30 years, but may be best known for his work with Hall & Oates on three of their most important albums - 1980's Voices, 1981's Private Eyes, and 1982's H2O...

  • Eddie Kramer
    Eddie Kramer
    Edwin H. Kramer is an audio engineer and producer who has worked with, among others, Led Zeppelin, Triumph, Kiss , Jimi Hendrix, The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, David Bowie, Spooky Tooth, Peter Frampton, Curtis Mayfield, Santana, Anthrax, Carly Simon, Loudness, and Robin Trower.-1960s:Eddie...

  • Greg Ladanyi
    Greg Ladanyi
    Greg Ladanyi was an American record producer and recording engineer, known for his work with many musicians, including Jackson Browne, Warren Zevon, Type O Negative, The Church, Anna Vissi, Toto, Fleetwood Mac, Hollywood Undead, Don Henley and Jeff Healey.-Biography:Ladanyi co-produced the Behind...

  • James Lock
    James Lock
    James Lock was a sound engineer who worked on recordings by many of the most celebrated and demanding figures in classical music. Most of his life he worked for Decca...

  • Chris Lord-Alge
    Chris Lord-Alge
    Chris Lord-Alge is a mixer who has worked on various albums. He is the brother of Tom Lord-Alge, another audio engineer. Chris Lord-Alge is known for his extreme use of dynamic range compression in both hardware and software plug-in versions....

  • Tom Lord-Alge
    Tom Lord-Alge
    Tom Lord-Alge is a four-time Grammy Award–winning record producer and mixer. He is the youngest of Vivian Lord's five children, Mark Lord-Alge, Lisa Lord-Alge, Chris Lord-Alge, Jeff Lord-Alge and Tom Lord-Alge...

  • Tony Maserati
    Tony Maserati
    Tony Maserati is an American record producer and studio audio engineer who has worked with many mainstream artists including Lady Gaga, Beyonce, Jason Mraz, James Brown, Mariah Carey, Destiny's Child, R...

  • George Massenburg
    George Massenburg
    George Y. Massenburg is a recording engineer and inventor. Working principally in Baltimore, Los Angeles, Nashville, and Macon, Georgia, Massenburg is widely known for his 1972 paper on the parametric equalizer.-Background:...

  • Yuri Morozov
  • Jack Mullin
    Jack Mullin
    John T. "Jack" Mullin was an American pioneer in the field of magnetic tape sound recording and made significant contributions to many other related fields. From his days at Santa Clara University to his death, he displayed a deep appreciation for classical music and an aptitude for electronics...

  • James Munro
    James Munro
    James Munro may refer to:*James Munro , Australian politician*James Wright Munro, New Zealand politician*James Munro , Scottish soldier* James Munro, pseudonym of British thriller writer James Mitchell...

  • Evgeny Murzin
    Evgeny Murzin
    Yevgeny Murzin was a Russian audio engineer and inventor of the ANS synthesizer.-Murzin's synthesizer:In 1938, invented a design for composers based on synthesizing complex musical sounds from a limited number of pure tones; this proposed system was to perform music without musicians or musical...

  • Roger Nichols
  • Gary Paczosa
    Gary Paczosa
    Gary Paczosa is a nine-time Grammy Award winning audio engineer. He has also been nominated 5 times for the Grammy Award for Best Engineered Album, Non-Classical. He is best known for working with Alison Krauss and Dolly Parton numerous times....

  • Hugh Padgham
    Hugh Padgham
    Hugh Padgham is a British record producer. He has won many awards, including four Grammys, with Producer of the Year and Engineer of the Year. A 1992 poll in Mix magazine voted him one of the world's Top Ten Most Influential Producers....

  • Robert Parker
    Robert Parker (sound engineer)
    Robert Noel Parker was an Australian sound engineer, jazz expert and broadcaster, well known for his radio series Jazz Classics in Digital Stereo....

  • Alan Parsons
    Alan Parsons
    Alan Parsons is a British audio engineer, musician, and record producer. He was involved with the production of several significant albums, including The Beatles' Abbey Road and Let It Be, as well as Pink Floyd's The Dark Side of the Moon for which Pink Floyd credit him as an important contributor...

  • Les Paul
    Les Paul
    Lester William Polsfuss —known as Les Paul—was an American jazz and country guitarist, songwriter and inventor. He was a pioneer in the development of the solid-body electric guitar which made the sound of rock and roll possible. He is credited with many recording innovations...

  • Lynn Peterzell
    Lynn Peterzell
    Lynn Meyer Peterzell was a country music audio engineer from Nashville, Tennessee.Lynn Peterzell was raised in Pascagoula, Mississippi by Frances and Milton Peterzell. He was the third of five children....

  • Tony Platt
    Tony Platt
    Tony Platt is a music producer/engineer best known for his work with a diverse mix of artists including AC/DC, Cheap Trick, Bob Marley, Iron Maiden, Shy, Buddy Guy, Foreigner, Sparks, Jazz Jamaica All Stars and Motörhead. He has recently completed an album with Jazz trio The Bad Plus and is...

  • Resul Pookutty
    Resul Pookutty
    Resul Pookutty is an Indian film sound designer, sound editor and mixer. He, along with Richard Pryke and Ian Tapp won the Academy Award for Best Sound Mixing for the film Slumdog Millionaire...

  • Bill Porter

  • Bill Putnam
    Bill Putnam
    Milton Tasker "Bill" Putnam was a renowned American audio engineer, songwriter, producer, studio designer and businessman who has been described as "the father of modern recording"...

  • Phil Ramone
    Phil Ramone
    Phil Ramone is a South-African violinist, composer, recording engineer, and record producer.-Biography:As a young child in South Africa, Ramone was a musical prodigy, beginning to play the violin at age three and performing for Queen Elizabeth II at age ten...

  • Emitt Rhodes
    Emitt Rhodes
    Emitt Lynn Rhodes is an American singer/songwriter, multi-instrumentalist and recording engineer born February 25, 1950 in Decatur, Illinois. When he was five his family moved to Hawthorne, California. Considered by many as "the one man Beatles," his solo recordings of the early 1970s show a clear...

  • Paul Richards
    Paul Richards
    Paul Richards may refer to:* Paul Richards * Paul Richards , baseball player, manager, scout and executive* Paul Richards , American actor who starred in the ABC-TV 1963-64 series Breaking Point...

  • Bruce Robb (producer)
    Bruce Robb (producer)
    Bruce Robb is an American musician, record producer, engineer, and music supervisor. He is most recognized for his active role in the formative years of the music industry: first as a member of “The Robbs” during the music revolution of the 1960s, then as a founder of Cherokee Studios in the...

  • Susan Rogers
    Susan Rogers
    Susan Rogers is an American scientist who worked as a sound engineer for several musical artists such as David Byrne, Barenaked Ladies and most famously alongside Prince on albums such as Purple Rain and Sign o' the Times.-References:...

  • Scott Salem
  • Elliot Scheiner
    Elliot Scheiner
    Elliot Scheiner is a record producer and record engineer. Scheiner has received 23 Grammy Award nominations, 6 of which he won, and he has been awarded four Emmy nominations, one Emmy award for his work with the Eagles on their farewell tour broadcast, three TEC Awards nominations, a TEC Hall of...

  • Al Schmitt
    Al Schmitt
    Al Schmitt is a recording engineer and record producer.-Early career:Schmitt grew up in New York City. After serving in the U.S. Navy he began working at Apex Recording Studios at the age of 19. In the late 1950's Schmitt moved to Los Angeles and became a staff engineer at Radio Recorders on Santa...

  • Ken Scott
    Ken Scott
    Ken Scott is an English record producer and recording engineer.-Career:Scott started at the age of 16 working in the tape library at Abbey Road Studios. He became a recording engineer working with such acts as The Beatles, Jeff Beck, Pink Floyd, The Rolling Stones and Procol Harum...

  • Eberhard Sengpiel
    Eberhard Sengpiel
    Eberhard Sengpiel is a multiple Grammy award-winning sound engineer. He is also a musician in his own right and a lecturer at the Berlin University of the Arts, UdK-Berlin.- Career :...

  • Norman Smith
  • Andy Sneap
    Andy Sneap
    Andy "Undie" Sneap is an English record producer, recording engineer, mixer, guitarist, and songwriter. He is best known for producing and mixing many acclaimed heavy metal albums.-Musician:...

  • H. Sridhar
    H. Sridhar
    H. Sridhar, was a sound engineer from India and known for his work with the Indian Musician A R Rahman.Sridhar was the Chief Audio Engineer at Media Artists. A mathematics graduate, with keen interest in electronics and formal music training, he started a professional sound engineering career in...

  • Neil Strauch
    Neil Strauch
    Neil Strauch is an American music producer and engineer. Neil is a graduate of the Columbia College Chicago Audio Program. As engineer for Brian Deck and as a producer himself, Neil has worked on a number of recordings for local, national and international musicians...

  • Stephen Street
    Stephen Street
    Stephen Street is an English music producer best known for his work with The Smiths in the 1980s, as well as Blur and The Cranberries in the 1990s. Street also collaborated with Morrissey on some of his most popular work after The Smiths broke up, playing instruments and co-writing songs...

  • Bruce Swedien
    Bruce Swedien
    Bruce Swedien is a Grammy Award-winning audio engineer and music producer. He is known for his work with Quincy Jones.Swedien is a five-time Grammy winner and has been nominated 13 times. He recorded, mixed, and assisted in producing the best-sold album in the world, Thriller by Michael Jackson...

  • Bill Szymczyk
    Bill Szymczyk
    Bill Szymczyk is an American music producer and technical engineer best known for working with rock and blues musicians, most notably the Eagles in the 1970s. He produced many top albums and singles of the 1970s, though he retired from the music business by 1990...

  • Mike Terry
    Mike Terry
    Mike Terry is a music producer, recording engineer, and mixer residing in Los Angeles, California. Terry grew up in Kalamazoo, Michigan. Terry eventually moved west in the mid 90's and landed his first jobs at L.A.'s The Village, and Sound City recording studios as an assistant...

  • Devin Townsend
    Devin Townsend
    Devin Garret Townsend is a Canadian musician and record producer. He was the founder, songwriter, vocalist, and guitarist in extreme metal band Strapping Young Lad from 1994 to 2007 and has had an extensive career as a solo artist....

  • Ken Townshend
    Ken Townshend
    Ken Townsend MBE is a renowned English sound engineer who played an important role at Abbey Road Studios. He worked on several Beatles albums, such as Rubber Soul, Revolver and Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. In 1966 he invented automatic double tracking...

  • Phil Thornalley
    Phil Thornalley
    Phil Thornalley is a songwriter-producer who has worked in the music industry since 1978. He is perhaps best known for co-writing the song "Torn" which Natalie Imbruglia later covered to great success for her 1997 debut album, Left of the Middle...

  • John Travis
    John Travis (producer)
    John Travis is a London born producer, audio engineer, mixer and songwriter whose work has been primarily based in Los Angeles, California since 1998. His history includes work with such artists as Kid Rock, Social Distortion, Static-X, Buckcherry, Suicide Silence, the Answer, Twin Atlantic, No...

  • Robert Venable
    Robert Venable
    Robert Venable is a GMA Dove Award-winning producer, mixer, and engineer, currently based in Nashville, TN.-Biography:Growing up in Springdale, AR, Robert Venable performed in several bands and eventually made the decision that he wanted to pursue a career in music. He attended the Conservatory of...

  • Paul PDub Walton
  • Andy Wallace
    Andy Wallace (producer)
    Andy Wallace is a Grammy Award-winning music studio engineer with a long track record of successful productions, beginning with the 1986 production of the Run-DMC/Aerosmith collaboration on "Walk This Way" with Rick Rubin...

  • Kenneth Wilkinson
    Kenneth Wilkinson
    Kenneth Ernest Wilkinson was an audio engineer for Decca Records, known for engineering classical recordings with superb sound quality....


Mastering engineers of note

  • Kevin Gray
    Kevin Gray
    Kevin John Gray is an English footballer, playing as a defender for Workington.-Football career:He started his career at Mansfield Town signing as a trainee in July 1990 and had a successful four year period at Mansfiled...

  • Bernie Grundman
    Bernie Grundman
    -Biography:He is most known for his mastering work and his studio, Bernie Grundman Mastering, which he opened in 1983 in Hollywood. The studio, which includes engineers Chris Bellman, Patricia Sullivan and Brian Gardner, mastered 37 projects which received Grammy Award nominations in 2005.Grundman...

  • Steve Hall
    Steve Hall
    Steve Hall born 10 July 1979 in St Helens, Merseyside, England is a rugby league player.Hall's position of choice is on the wing. He played for London Broncos, St. Helens and Widnes Vikings in the Super League and also French club Saint-Gaudens Bears....

  • Steve Hoffman
  • Ted Jensen
    Ted Jensen
    Ted Jensen is an American recording engineer. Jensen is the chief mastering engineer at Sterling Sound. He started his career as a mastering engineer in 1976 and is currently the most active Mastering Engineer in the industry...


  • Bob Katz
    Bob Katz
    Bob Katz is an audio mastering engineer who is known for his book on audio mastering. Katz has mastered three Grammy award-winning albums and one nominated album. He has received acclaim from audiophiles and his book on mastering has received acclaim, and some reviewers consider it the "definitive...

  • Bob Ludwig
    Bob Ludwig
    Bob Ludwig is an American mastering engineer.He is a well known and respected figure within the music industry. His name is credited on the covers of albums released across the world, and he has won numerous awards....

  • Rodney Mills
    Rodney Mills
    Rodney Mills is an American mastering engineer in Atlanta, Georgia.He has been involved in the music industry for over 40 years and has earned over 50 gold and platinum records for engineering, producing, and mastering.- Biography :...

  • George Peckham
    George Peckham
    George "Porky" Peckham is an English record cutting engineer, widely recognised as among the most accomplished in the business. He has been responsible for producing the master discs from which countless vinyl records have been pressed over the last 40 years....


Live sound engineers of note

  • Dan Healy
    Dan Healy (soundman)
    Dan Healy is an audio engineer most famous for his work with the American rock band the Grateful Dead. He succeeded Owsley "Bear" Stanley as the group's chief sound man...

  • "Big Mick" Hughes
    Big Mick
    "Big" Mick Hughes is the live audio engineer for Metallica, a position he has held since 1984.He was born in 1960 and grew up in Birmingham, England. While an apprentice at British Steel, he studied electronics at a local technical college and also gained experience on the thriving Midlands music...

  • Hutch
    Hutch (sound engineer)
    Patrick Hutchinson , better known as Hutch, is a sound engineer and member of the band Queens of the Stone Age, specifically its live incarnation...


  • Bruce Jackson
    Bruce Jackson (audio engineer)
    Bruce Jackson was an Australian audio engineer who co-founded JANDS, an Australian audio, lighting and staging company. He joined American touring audio engineer Roy Clair and mixed concert stage monitors for Elvis Presley in the 1970s. With Clair Brothers, a concert sound company, Jackson...

  • Bill Porter
  • Dave Rat
    Dave Rat
    Dave Rat is the founder of Rat Sound Systems Inc., a sound system designer, sound consultant and live sound engineer for many well known artists such as the Red Hot Chili Peppers, Rage Against the Machine, The Offspring, and Blink 182.Dave Rat writes articles for various professional sound...


  • Charlie Richmond
  • Owsley Stanley
    Owsley Stanley
    Owsley Stanley also known as Bear, was an essential and transitional personality in the development of the San Francisco Bay counter-culture. Spanning the Beat-era years of Ken Kesey's Merry Pranksters scenes, he was equally pivotal to the explosion of 1960's Psychedelia culture...


See also

  • Audiography
    Audiography
    Audiography in the context of filmmaking is a term commonly used in India to mean the audio engineering performed by the sound department of a film or TV production; this includes sound recording, editing, mixing and sound design but excludes musical composition, songwriting and choreography.An...

  • Sound recording
  • History of sound recording
    History of sound recording
    Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now.- Acoustical recording :...

  • Audio Engineering Society
    Audio Engineering Society
    Established in 1948, the Audio Engineering Society draws its membership from amongst engineers, scientists, other individuals with an interest or involvement in the professional audio industry. The membership largely comprises engineers developing devices or products for audio, and persons working...

  • Institute of Broadcast Sound
    Institute of Broadcast Sound
    The Institute of Broadcast Sound is the only organisation in the UK dedicated to the maintenance of the highest standards of professional audio for broadcasting, and was founded in 1977 by sound balancers in BBC Television and Radio and Independent TV...

  • Sound designer

  • Sound operator
    Sound operator
    The sound operator is the person responsible for the overall and total execution of all sound-related aspects of a theatrical performance...

  • Recording studio
    Recording studio
    A recording studio is a facility for sound recording and mixing. Ideally both the recording and monitoring spaces are specially designed by an acoustician to achieve optimum acoustic properties...

  • Electrical engineering
    Electrical engineering
    Electrical engineering is a field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics and electromagnetism. The field first became an identifiable occupation in the late nineteenth century after commercialization of the electric telegraph and electrical...

  • Acoustical engineering
    Acoustical engineering
    Acoustical engineering is the branch of engineering dealing with sound and vibration. It is the application of acoustics, the science of sound and vibration, in technology. Acoustical engineers are typically concerned with the manipulation and control of sound....

  • Broadcast engineering
    Broadcast engineering
    Broadcast engineering is the field of electrical engineering, and now to some extent computer engineering and information technology, which deals with radio and television broadcasting...

  • Live sound mixing
    Live sound mixing
    Live sound mixing is the art of combining and processing a number of audio signals together to create a "mix" that the audience or performers at a live show hear. There can be a variety of different mixes required, depending on the performance requirements...


  • Record producer
    Record producer
    A record producer is an individual working within the music industry, whose job is to oversee and manage the recording of an artist's music...

  • Professional audio
    Professional audio
    Professional audio, also 'pro audio', refers to both an activity and a type of audio equipment. Typically it encompasses the production or reproduction of sound for an audience, by individuals who do such work as an occupation like live event support, using sound reinforcement systems designed for...

  • Audio restoration
    Audio restoration
    Audio restoration is a generalized term for the process of removing imperfections from sound recordings. Audio restoration can be performed directly on the recording medium , or on a digital representation of the recording using a computer...

  • Needle drop
    Needle drop (audio)
    A needle drop is a common term used to describe a version of a music album that has been transferred from a vinyl record to digital audio or other formats...

  • PLASA
    Plasa
    The Professional Lighting And Sound Association or PLASA is a UK-based trade organisation representing over 500 members worldwide.In addition to providing members with expert advice on a wide range of business and technical issues, PLASA also monitors legislative developments, alerting members to...

  • Enhanced Acoustic Simulator for Engineers
    Enhanced Acoustic Simulator for Engineers
    Enhanced Acoustic Simulator for Engineers or EASE is an engineering design and analysis software for optimizing acoustics.The full product is licensed and copy protected, it can perform complex analysis in 3D space. There is a free to use web based version available for 2D analysis with limited...



External resources

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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