Arthur Tansley
Sir Arthur George Tansley FRS (15 August 1871 - 25 November 1955) was an English
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

 botanist who was a pioneer in the science of ecology
Ecology is the scientific study of the relations that living organisms have with respect to each other and their natural environment. Variables of interest to ecologists include the composition, distribution, amount , number, and changing states of organisms within and among ecosystems...

. He obtained his degree in Biological Science in 1896, with specialization in botany and zoology. From the start, he was much influenced by the Danish plant ecologist Eugenius Warming
Eugenius Warming
Johannes Eugenius Bülow Warming , known as Eugen Warming, was a Danish botanist and a main founding figure of the scientific discipline of ecology...

. He championed the term ecosystem
An ecosystem is a biological environment consisting of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as all the nonliving , physical components of the environment with which the organisms interact, such as air, soil, water and sunlight....

in 1935 and ecotope
Ecotopes are the smallest ecologically-distinct landscape features in a landscape mapping and classification system. As such, they represent relatively homogeneous, spatially-explicit landscape functional units that are useful for stratifying landscapes into ecologically distinct features for the...

in 1939. He was one of the founders of the British Ecological Society
British Ecological Society
The British Ecological Society is a learned society in the field of ecology that was founded in 1913. It was the first ecological society in the world. The society's original objective was "to promote and foster the study of Ecology in its widest sense" and this remains the central theme guiding...

, and editor of the Journal of Ecology
Journal of Ecology
The Journal of Ecology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of the ecology of plants. It was established in 1913 and is published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the British Ecological Society....

for twenty years.

The botany journal New Phytologist, which Tansley founded in 1902, publishes a special paper in each issue called the "Tansley Review". This series, featuring articles that synthesize current trends in botanical thought, was named after Tansley in recognition of his wide interests and importance to the discipline as a whole. The Tansley Medal is awarded annually and named in his honour.

The 1926 Aims and methods in the study of vegetation which Tansley and Thomas Ford Chipp edited for the British Empire vegetation committee was extremely influential not just in defining ecological methods but in highlighting the need for a complete inventory of the empire's "vegetational assets". With this information, it would be possible to efficiently manage the vast natural resources of the empire.
Arthur Tansley also theorised about psychology
Psychology is the study of the mind and behavior. Its immediate goal is to understand individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases. For many, the ultimate goal of psychology is to benefit society...

, with a psychoanalytic emphasis, and wrote an obituary of Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud , born Sigismund Schlomo Freud , was an Austrian neurologist who founded the discipline of psychoanalysis...

. His The New Psychology and its Relation to Life (1920) was his first book to attract a broad readership. Recent research by Peder Anker has asserted a close theoretical relationship between Tansley's ecology and his psychology.

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