Art Nouveau
Overview
Art Nouveau is an international philosophy
Art movement
An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, or, at least, with the heyday of the movement defined within a number of years...

 and style of art, architecture and applied art
Applied art
Applied art is the application of design and aesthetics to objects of function and everyday use. Whereas fine arts serve as intellectual stimulation to the viewer or academic sensibilities, the applied arts incorporate design and creative ideals to objects of utility, such as a cup, magazine or...

—especially the decorative arts—that were most popular during 1890–1910. The name "Art Nouveau" is French for "new art". It is known also as Jugendstil, ˈjuːgn̩tʃtiːl , German for "youth style", named for the magazine Jugend
Jugend (magazine)
Jugend was a German art magazine that was created in the late 19th century. It featured many famous Art Nouveau artists and is the source of the term "Jugendstil" , the German version of Art Nouveau. The magazine was founded by writer Georg Hirth. It was published from 1896 to 1940...

, which promoted it, as Secession in Austria and Hungary after the Viennese group of artists
Vienna Secession
The Vienna Secession was formed in 1897 by a group of Austrian artists who had resigned from the Association of Austrian Artists, housed in the Vienna Künstlerhaus. This movement included painters, sculptors, and architects...

, and in Italy, as Stile Liberty from the department store in London, Liberty & Co., which popularised the style.
Encyclopedia
Art Nouveau is an international philosophy
Art movement
An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, or, at least, with the heyday of the movement defined within a number of years...

 and style of art, architecture and applied art
Applied art
Applied art is the application of design and aesthetics to objects of function and everyday use. Whereas fine arts serve as intellectual stimulation to the viewer or academic sensibilities, the applied arts incorporate design and creative ideals to objects of utility, such as a cup, magazine or...

—especially the decorative arts—that were most popular during 1890–1910. The name "Art Nouveau" is French for "new art". It is known also as Jugendstil, ˈjuːgn̩tʃtiːl , German for "youth style", named for the magazine Jugend
Jugend (magazine)
Jugend was a German art magazine that was created in the late 19th century. It featured many famous Art Nouveau artists and is the source of the term "Jugendstil" , the German version of Art Nouveau. The magazine was founded by writer Georg Hirth. It was published from 1896 to 1940...

, which promoted it, as Secession in Austria and Hungary after the Viennese group of artists
Vienna Secession
The Vienna Secession was formed in 1897 by a group of Austrian artists who had resigned from the Association of Austrian Artists, housed in the Vienna Künstlerhaus. This movement included painters, sculptors, and architects...

, and in Italy, as Stile Liberty from the department store in London, Liberty & Co., which popularised the style. A reaction to academic art
Academic art
Academic art is a style of painting and sculpture produced under the influence of European academies of art. Specifically, academic art is the art and artists influenced by the standards of the French Académie des Beaux-Arts, which practiced under the movements of Neoclassicism and Romanticism,...

 of the 19th century, it was inspired by natural forms and structures, not only in flowers and plants, but also in curved lines. Architects tried to harmonize with the natural environment. It is also considered a philosophy of design of furniture, which was designed according to the whole building and made part of ordinary life.

The style was influenced strongly by Czech artist Alphonse Mucha, when Mucha produced a lithographed
Lithography
Lithography is a method for printing using a stone or a metal plate with a completely smooth surface...

 poster, which appeared on 1 January 1895 in the streets of Paris as an advertisement for the play Gismonda
Gismonda
Gismonda is Greek melodrama in four acts by Victorien Sardou that premiered in 1894 at Renaissance Theatre. Later it would be adapted into the opera Gismonda by Henry Février.-Plot:Act I starts in 1450 in Athens at the foot of the Acropolis....

by Victorien Sardou
Victorien Sardou
Victorien Sardou was a French dramatist. He is best remembered today for his development, along with Eugène Scribe, of the well-made play...

, featuring Sarah Bernhardt
Sarah Bernhardt
Sarah Bernhardt was a French stage and early film actress, and has been referred to as "the most famous actress the world has ever known". Bernhardt made her fame on the stages of France in the 1870s, and was soon in demand in Europe and the Americas...

. It popularised the new artistic style and its creator to the citizens of Paris. Initially named Style Mucha, (Mucha Style), his style soon became known as Art Nouveau.

Art Nouveau was most popular in Europe, but its influence was global. Hence, it is known in various guises with frequent localised tendencies. In France, Hector Guimard
Hector Guimard
Hector Guimard was an architect, who is now the best-known representative of the French Art Nouveau style of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries....

's Paris metro
Paris Métro
The Paris Métro or Métropolitain is the rapid transit metro system in Paris, France. It has become a symbol of the city, noted for its density within the city limits and its uniform architecture influenced by Art Nouveau. The network's sixteen lines are mostly underground and run to 214 km ...

 entrances were of art nouveau style and Emile Gallé
Émile Gallé
Émile Gallé was a French artist who worked in glass, and is considered to be one of the major forces in the French Art Nouveau movement.- Biography :...

 practised the style in Nancy. Victor Horta
Victor Horta
Victor, Baron Horta was a Belgian architect and designer. John Julius Norwich described him as "undoubtedly the key European Art Nouveau architect." Indeed, Horta is one of the most important names in Art Nouveau architecture; the construction of his Hôtel Tassel in Brussels in 1892-3 means that...

 had a decisive effect on architecture in Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

. Magazines like Jugend helped publicise the style in Germany, especially as a graphic artform, while the Vienna Secession
Vienna Secession
The Vienna Secession was formed in 1897 by a group of Austrian artists who had resigned from the Association of Austrian Artists, housed in the Vienna Künstlerhaus. This movement included painters, sculptors, and architects...

ists influenced art and architecture throughout Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary , more formally known as the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen, was a constitutional monarchic union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary in...

. Art Nouveau was also a style of distinct individuals such as Gustav Klimt
Gustav Klimt
Gustav Klimt was an Austrian Symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. His major works include paintings, murals, sketches, and other art objects...

, Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Charles Rennie Mackintosh was a Scottish architect, designer, watercolourist and artist. He was a designer in the Arts and Crafts movement and also the main representative of Art Nouveau in the United Kingdom. He had a considerable influence on European design...

, Alphonse Mucha, René Lalique
René Lalique
René Jules Lalique was a French glass designer known for his creations of perfume bottles, vases, jewellery, chandeliers, clocks and automobile hood ornaments. He was born in the French village of Ay on 6 April 1860 and died 5 May 1945...

, Antoni Gaudí
Antoni Gaudí
Antoni Gaudí i Cornet was a Spanish Catalan architect and figurehead of Catalan Modernism. Gaudí's works reflect his highly individual and distinctive style and are largely concentrated in the Catalan capital of Barcelona, notably his magnum opus, the Sagrada Família.Much of Gaudí's work was...

 and Louis Comfort Tiffany
Louis Comfort Tiffany
Louis Comfort Tiffany was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass. He is the American artist most associated with the Art Nouveau  and Aesthetic movements...

, each of whom interpreted it in their own manner.

Although Art Nouveau was replaced by 20th-century modernist
Modernism
Modernism, in its broadest definition, is modern thought, character, or practice. More specifically, the term describes the modernist movement, its set of cultural tendencies and array of associated cultural movements, originally arising from wide-scale and far-reaching changes to Western society...

 styles, it is considered now as an important transition between the historicism
Historicism
Historicism is a mode of thinking that assigns a central and basic significance to a specific context, such as historical period, geographical place and local culture. As such it is in contrast to individualist theories of knowledges such as empiricism and rationalism, which neglect the role of...

 of Neoclassicism
Neoclassicism
Neoclassicism is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome...

 and modernism. Furthermore, Art Nouveau monuments are now recognised by UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 with their World Heritage List as significant contributions to cultural heritage. The historic center of Riga
Riga
Riga is the capital and largest city of Latvia. With 702,891 inhabitants Riga is the largest city of the Baltic states, one of the largest cities in Northern Europe and home to more than one third of Latvia's population. The city is an important seaport and a major industrial, commercial,...

, Latvia, with "the finest collection of art nouveau buildings in Europe", was included on the list during 1997 in part because of the "quality and the quantity of its Art Nouveau/Jugendstil architecture", and four Brussels
Brussels
Brussels , officially the Brussels Region or Brussels-Capital Region , is the capital of Belgium and the de facto capital of the European Union...

 town houses by Victor Horta were included during 2000 as "works of human creative genius" that are "outstanding examples of Art Nouveau architecture brilliantly illustrating the transition from the 19th to the 20th century in art, thought, and society".

Naming the style

At its beginning, neither Art Nouveau nor Jugendstil was the common name of the style but was known as this in some locations, and the style had different names as it was spread. Those two names came from, respectively, Samuel Bing
Samuel Bing
Siegfried Bing , often referenced erroneously as "Samuel Bing", was a German art dealer who lived in Paris as an adult, and who helped introduce Japanese art and artworks to the West and was a factor in the development of the Art Nouveau style during the late nineteenth century.-Biography:Bing was...

's gallery Maison de l'Art Nouveau
Maison de l'Art Nouveau
The Maison de l'Art Nouveau , abbreviated often as L'Art Nouveau, and known also as Maison Bing for the owner, was a gallery opened on on 26 December 1895, by Siegfried Bing at 22 rue de Provence, Paris....

 in Paris and the magazine Jugend in Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

, both of which promoted and popularised the style.

Bing's Maison de l'Art Nouveau

Maison de l'Art Nouveau (House of New Art) was the name of the gallery initiated during 1895 by the German art dealer
Art dealer
An art dealer is a person or company that buys and sells works of art. Art dealers' professional associations serve to set high standards for accreditation or membership and to support art exhibitions and shows.-Role:...

 Samuel Bing
Samuel Bing
Siegfried Bing , often referenced erroneously as "Samuel Bing", was a German art dealer who lived in Paris as an adult, and who helped introduce Japanese art and artworks to the West and was a factor in the development of the Art Nouveau style during the late nineteenth century.-Biography:Bing was...

 in Paris that featured exclusively modern art
Modern art
Modern art includes artistic works produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the style and philosophy of the art produced during that era. The term is usually associated with art in which the traditions of the past have been thrown aside in a spirit of...

. The fame of his gallery was increased at the 1900 Exposition Universelle
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The Exposition Universelle of 1900 was a world's fair held in Paris, France, from April 15 to November 12, 1900, to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next...

, where he presented coordinated—- in design and color—- installations of modern furniture, tapestries and objets d'art. These decorative displays became so strongly associated with the style that the name of his gallery subsequently provided a commonly used term for the entire style.

Jugend and Jugendstil

Jugend: Münchner illustrierte Wochenschrift für Kunst und Leben (Youth: the illustrated weekly magazine of art and lifestyle of Munich) was a magazine initiated during 1896 by Georg Hirth
Georg Hirth
Georg Hirth was a German writer, journalist and publisher. He is best-known for founding the cultural magazine Jugend in 1896, which was instrumental in popularizing Art Nouveau.- Biography :...

 (Hirth remained editor until his death during 1916, and the magazine continued to be published until 1940). The magazine was instrumental in promoting the style in Germany. As a result, its name was adopted as the most common German-language term for the style: Jugendstil ("Jugend-style"), although, during the early 20th century, the word was applied to only two-dimensional examples of the graphic arts, especially the forms of organic typography
Typography
Typography is the art and technique of arranging type in order to make language visible. The arrangement of type involves the selection of typefaces, point size, line length, leading , adjusting the spaces between groups of letters and adjusting the space between pairs of letters...

 and graphic design
Graphic design
Graphic design is a creative process – most often involving a client and a designer and usually completed in conjunction with producers of form – undertaken in order to convey a specific message to a targeted audience...

 found in and influenced by German magazines like Jugend, Pan
Pan (magazine)
Pan was an arts and literary magazine, published from 1895 to 1900 in Berlin by Julius Otto Bierbaum and Julius Meier-Graefe. The magazine was revived by Paul Cassirer in 1910, published by his Pan-Presse....

, and Simplicissimus
Simplicissimus
Simplicissimus was a satirical German weekly magazine started by Albert Langen in April 1896 and published through 1967, with a hiatus from 1944-1954. It became a biweekly in 1964...

. It is now applied to more general manifestations of Art Nouveau visual arts in Germany, the Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

, the Baltic states
Baltic states
The term Baltic states refers to the Baltic territories which gained independence from the Russian Empire in the wake of World War I: primarily the contiguous trio of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania ; Finland also fell within the scope of the term after initially gaining independence in the 1920s.The...

, and Nordic countries
Nordic countries
The Nordic countries make up a region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic which consists of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden and their associated territories, the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Åland...

.

Other names

Other local names were associated with the characteristics of its forms, its practitioners and their works, and schools of thought or study where it was popular. Many of these terms refer to the idea of "newness". Before the term "Art Nouveau" became common in France, le style moderne ("the modern style") was the more frequent designation. Arte joven ("young art") in Spain (Modernisme
Modernisme
Modernisme was a cultural movement associated with the search for Catalan national identity. It is often understood as an equivalent to a number of fin-de-siècle art movements, such as Art Nouveau, Jugendstil, Secessionism, and Liberty style, and was active from roughly 1888 to 1911 Modernisme ...

in Catalonia
Catalonia
Catalonia is an autonomous community in northeastern Spain, with the official status of a "nationality" of Spain. Catalonia comprises four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona. Its capital and largest city is Barcelona. Catalonia covers an area of 32,114 km² and has an...

), Arte nova in Portugal ("new art"), Arte nuova in Italy (also "new arte"), and Nieuwe kunst ("new art") in the Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

, модерн ("new", "contemporary") in Russia – all continue this theme. Many names refer specifically to the organic forms that were popular with the Art Nouveau artists: Stile Floreal ("floral style"), Lilienstil ("lily style"), Style Nouille ("noodle style"), Paling Stijl ("eel style"), and Wellenstil ("wave style").

In other cases, important examples, well-known artists, and associated locations influenced the names. Hector Guimard
Hector Guimard
Hector Guimard was an architect, who is now the best-known representative of the French Art Nouveau style of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries....

's Paris Métro entrances, for example, provided the term Style Métro, the popularity in Italy of Art Nouveau designs from London's Liberty & Co
Liberty (department store)
Liberty is a long-established department store in Regent Street in Central London, England, in the West End shopping district.-Early years:...

 department store resulted in its being known as the Stile Liberty ("Liberty style"), and, in the United States, it became known as the "Tiffany style" due to its association with Louis Comfort Tiffany
Louis Comfort Tiffany
Louis Comfort Tiffany was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass. He is the American artist most associated with the Art Nouveau  and Aesthetic movements...

. In Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

, a localised form of Art Nouveau was practised by artists of the Vienna Secession
Vienna Secession
The Vienna Secession was formed in 1897 by a group of Austrian artists who had resigned from the Association of Austrian Artists, housed in the Vienna Künstlerhaus. This movement included painters, sculptors, and architects...

, and it is, therefore, known as the Sezessionstil ("Secession style"). As a stand-alone term, however, "Secession" is used frequently to describe the general characteristics of Art Nouveau style outside Vienna, but mostly in areas of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary , more formally known as the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen, was a constitutional monarchic union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary in...

 at the beginning of the 20th century. In the United Kingdom, it is associated with the activities of Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Charles Rennie Mackintosh was a Scottish architect, designer, watercolourist and artist. He was a designer in the Arts and Crafts movement and also the main representative of Art Nouveau in the United Kingdom. He had a considerable influence on European design...

 in Glasgow, and is often known as the "Glasgow" style
Glasgow School
The Glasgow School was a circle of influential modern artists and designers who began to coalesce in Glasgow, Scotland in the 1870s, and flourished from the 1890s to sometime around 1910. Representative groups were: The Four , the Glasgow Girls and the Glasgow Boys...

.

Art Nouveau tendencies were also used by local styles. In Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

, for example, it was one aspect of Skønvirke ("aesthetic work"), which itself more closely relates to the Arts and Crafts style. Likewise, artists adopted many of the floral and organic motifs of Art Nouveau into the Młoda Polska ("Young Poland") style in Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

. Młoda Polska, however, was also inclusive of other artistic styles and encompassed a style of art, literature and lifestyle.

Origins

The origins of Art Nouveau are found in the resistance of the artist William Morris
William Morris
William Morris 24 March 18343 October 1896 was an English textile designer, artist, writer, and socialist associated with the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and the English Arts and Crafts Movement...

 to the cluttered compositions and the revival tendencies of the 19th century and his theories that helped initiate the Arts and crafts movement
Arts and Crafts movement
Arts and Crafts was an international design philosophy that originated in England and flourished between 1860 and 1910 , continuing its influence until the 1930s...

. However, Arthur Mackmurdo's book-cover for Wren
Christopher Wren
Sir Christopher Wren FRS is one of the most highly acclaimed English architects in history.He used to be accorded responsibility for rebuilding 51 churches in the City of London after the Great Fire in 1666, including his masterpiece, St. Paul's Cathedral, on Ludgate Hill, completed in 1710...

's City Churches
(1883), with its rhythmic floral patterns, is often considered the first realisation of Art Nouveau. About the same time, the flat perspective and strong colors of Japanese wood block prints, especially those of Katsushika Hokusai, had a strong effect on the formulation of Art Nouveau. The Japonisme that was popular in Europe during the 1880s and 1890s was particularly influential on many artists with its organic forms and references to the natural world. Besides being adopted by artists like Emile Gallé
Émile Gallé
Émile Gallé was a French artist who worked in glass, and is considered to be one of the major forces in the French Art Nouveau movement.- Biography :...

 and James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Japanese-inspired art and design was championed by the businessmen Siegfried Bing and Arthur Lasenby Liberty
Arthur Lasenby Liberty
Sir Arthur Lasenby Liberty was a London merchant, and the founder of Liberty & Co.Born in Chesham, Buckinghamshire, England, the son of a draper, he began work at sixteen with his uncle who sold lace, and later, another uncle who sold wine...

 at their stores in Paris and London, respectively.

Character

Although Art Nouveau acquired distinctly localised tendencies as its geographic spread increased, some general characteristics are indicative of the form. A description published in Pan magazine of Hermann Obrist
Hermann Obrist
Hermann Obrist was a German sculptor of the Jugendstil movement. He studied Botany and History in his youth whose influence one can perceive in his later work in the field of applied arts...

's wall hanging Cyclamen (1894) described it as "sudden violent curves generated by the crack of a whip", which became well known during the early spread of Art Nouveau. Subsequently, not only did the work itself become known better as The Whiplash, but the term "whiplash" is frequently applied to the characteristic curves employed by Art Nouveau artists. Such decorative "whiplash" motifs, formed by dynamic, undulating, and flowing lines in a syncopated rhythm, are found throughout the architecture, painting, sculpture, and other forms of Art Nouveau design.

Philosophy and geography

Art Nouveau is now considered a 'total' style, meaning that it includes a hierarchy
Hierarchy
A hierarchy is an arrangement of items in which the items are represented as being "above," "below," or "at the same level as" one another...

 of scales of design — architecture; interior design; decorative arts including jewellery
Jewellery
Jewellery or jewelry is a form of personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets.With some exceptions, such as medical alert bracelets or military dog tags, jewellery normally differs from other items of personal adornment in that it has no other purpose than to...

, furniture, textiles, household silver and other utensils and lighting
Light fixture
A light fixture, light fitting, or luminaire is an electrical device used to create artificial light and/or illumination, by use of an electric lamp...

; and the visual arts
Visual arts
The visual arts are art forms that create works which are primarily visual in nature, such as ceramics, drawing, painting, sculpture, printmaking, design, crafts, and often modern visual arts and architecture...

 (see Hierarchy of genres
Hierarchy of genres
A hierarchy of genres is any formalization which ranks different genres in an art form in terms of their prestige and cultural value....

.) According to the philosophy of the style, art should be a way of life. For many Europeans, it was possible to live in an art nouveau-inspired house with art nouveau furniture, silverware, crockery, jewellery, cigarette cases, etc. Artists desired to combine the fine arts and applied arts, even for utilitarian objects.

International expos

Part of the evolution of Art Nouveau was the Exposition Universelle
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The Exposition Universelle of 1900 was a world's fair held in Paris, France, from April 15 to November 12, 1900, to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next...

 of 1900 in Paris, which presented an overview of the 'modern style' in every medium. It achieved further recognition at the Esposizione Internazionale d'Arte Decorativa Moderna of 1902 in Turin
Turin
Turin is a city and major business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region, located mainly on the left bank of the Po River and surrounded by the Alpine arch. The population of the city proper is 909,193 while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat...

, Italy, where designers exhibited from almost every European country where Art Nouveau was practised.

Belgium, Switzerland and France

In Paris, the Maison de l'Art Nouveau
Maison de l'Art Nouveau
The Maison de l'Art Nouveau , abbreviated often as L'Art Nouveau, and known also as Maison Bing for the owner, was a gallery opened on on 26 December 1895, by Siegfried Bing at 22 rue de Provence, Paris....

, at the time managed by Siegfried Bing, showcased art nouveau objects. Artists such as Émile Gallé, Louis Majorelle
Louis Majorelle
Louis-Jean-Sylvestre Majorelle, usually known simply as Louis Majorelle, was a French decorator and furniture designer who manufactured his own designs, in the French tradition of the ébéniste...

 and Victor Prouvé in Nancy, France, initiated the École de Nancy
Musée de l'École de Nancy
The Musée de l'École de Nancy is a museum devoted to the École de Nancy, an Art Nouveau movement founded in 1901 by Émile Gallé, Victor Prouvé, Louis Majorelle, Antonin Daum and Eugène Vallin in the city of Nancy in Lorraine...

, giving Art Nouveau a new influence. In Brussels
Brussels
Brussels , officially the Brussels Region or Brussels-Capital Region , is the capital of Belgium and the de facto capital of the European Union...

, Belgium the style was developed with the help of the architects Victor Horta
Victor Horta
Victor, Baron Horta was a Belgian architect and designer. John Julius Norwich described him as "undoubtedly the key European Art Nouveau architect." Indeed, Horta is one of the most important names in Art Nouveau architecture; the construction of his Hôtel Tassel in Brussels in 1892-3 means that...

 and Henry Van de Velde
Henry van de Velde
Henry Clemens Van de Velde was a Belgian Flemish painter, architect and interior designer. Together with Victor Horta and Paul Hankar he could be considered one of the main founders and representatives of Art Nouveau in Belgium...

. Other Art Nouveau designers in Belgium, Switzerland and France include Theophile Alexandre Steinlen, Hector Guimard
Hector Guimard
Hector Guimard was an architect, who is now the best-known representative of the French Art Nouveau style of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries....

 and Jules Lavirotte
Jules Lavirotte
Jules Aimé Lavirotte was a French architect who designed no fewer than nine buildings still standing in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, or in immediately surrounding arrondissements...

. The Czech artist Alphonse Mucha worked in Paris for a number of years.

Germany

German Art Nouveau is known commonly by its German name, Jugendstil. Drawing from traditional German printmaking
Printmaking
Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. Printmaking normally covers only the process of creating prints with an element of originality, rather than just being a photographic reproduction of a painting. Except in the case of monotyping, the process is capable...

, the style uses precise and hard edges, an element that was rather different from the naturalistic style of the time. The style was used mainly in Hamburg
Hamburg
-History:The first historic name for the city was, according to Claudius Ptolemy's reports, Treva.But the city takes its modern name, Hamburg, from the first permanent building on the site, a castle whose construction was ordered by the Emperor Charlemagne in AD 808...

. Jugendstil art includes a variety of different methods, applied by the various individual artists. Methods range from classic to romantic. One feature of Jugendstil is the typography
Typography
Typography is the art and technique of arranging type in order to make language visible. The arrangement of type involves the selection of typefaces, point size, line length, leading , adjusting the spaces between groups of letters and adjusting the space between pairs of letters...

 used, the letter and image combination of which is unmistakable. The combination was used for covers of novels, advertisements, and exhibition
Art exhibition
Art exhibitions are traditionally the space in which art objects meet an audience. The exhibit is universally understood to be for some temporary period unless, as is rarely true, it is stated to be a "permanent exhibition". In American English, they may be called "exhibit", "exposition" or...

 poster
Poster
A poster is any piece of printed paper designed to be attached to a wall or vertical surface. Typically posters include both textual and graphic elements, although a poster may be either wholly graphical or wholly text. Posters are designed to be both eye-catching and informative. Posters may be...

s. Designers often used unique display typeface
Typeface
In typography, a typeface is the artistic representation or interpretation of characters; it is the way the type looks. Each type is designed and there are thousands of different typefaces in existence, with new ones being developed constantly....

s that worked harmoniously with the image.

Henry Van de Velde
Henry van de Velde
Henry Clemens Van de Velde was a Belgian Flemish painter, architect and interior designer. Together with Victor Horta and Paul Hankar he could be considered one of the main founders and representatives of Art Nouveau in Belgium...

, who worked most of his career in Germany, was a Belgian theorist who influenced many others to continue this style of graphic art including Peter Behrens
Peter Behrens
Peter Behrens was a German architect and designer. He was important for the modernist movement, as several of the movements leading names worked for him when they were young.-Biography:Behrens attended the Christianeum Hamburg from September 1877 until Easter 1882...

, Hermann Obrist
Hermann Obrist
Hermann Obrist was a German sculptor of the Jugendstil movement. He studied Botany and History in his youth whose influence one can perceive in his later work in the field of applied arts...

 and Richard Riemerschmid
Richard Riemerschmid
Richard Riemerschmid was a German architect, painter, designer and city planner from Munich. He was a major figure in Jugendstil, the German form of Art Nouveau, and a founder of architecture in the style...

. August Endell
August Endell
August Endell was a German Jugendstil architect.Endell is noted for many designs, including the Atelier Elvira in München by commission of his friend Hermann Obrist, built in 1897 and destroyed in 1944. It had an imaginative motif evocative of a breaking wave or a dragon that dominated the facade...

, Henri Privat-Livemont is another notable Art Nouveau designer.

Magazines were important for spreading the visual idiom of Jugendstil, especially the graphical qualities. Besides Jugend, other important magazines were the satirical Simplicissimus
Simplicissimus
Simplicissimus was a satirical German weekly magazine started by Albert Langen in April 1896 and published through 1967, with a hiatus from 1944-1954. It became a biweekly in 1964...

and Pan
Pan (magazine)
Pan was an arts and literary magazine, published from 1895 to 1900 in Berlin by Julius Otto Bierbaum and Julius Meier-Graefe. The magazine was revived by Paul Cassirer in 1910, published by his Pan-Presse....

.

Austria

A localised approach to Art Nouveau is represented by the artists of the Vienna Secession
Vienna Secession
The Vienna Secession was formed in 1897 by a group of Austrian artists who had resigned from the Association of Austrian Artists, housed in the Vienna Künstlerhaus. This movement included painters, sculptors, and architects...

, a secession that was initiated on 3 April 1897 by Gustav Klimt
Gustav Klimt
Gustav Klimt was an Austrian Symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. His major works include paintings, murals, sketches, and other art objects...

, Koloman Moser
Koloman Moser
Koloman Moser was an Austrian artist who exerted considerable influence on twentieth-century graphic art and one of the foremost artists of the Vienna Secession movement and a co-founder of Wiener Werkstätte....

, Josef Hoffmann
Josef Hoffmann
Josef Hoffmann was an Austrian architect and designer of consumer goods.- Biography :...

, Joseph Maria Olbrich
Joseph Maria Olbrich
Joseph Maria Olbrich was an Austrian architect and co-founder of the Vienna Secession.-Life:Olbrich was born in Opava, Austrian Silesia .He was the third child of Edmund and Aloisia Olbrich. He had two sisters who died before he was born, and two younger brothers John and Edmund...

, Max Kurzweil
Max Kurzweil
Maximilian Franz Viktor Zdenko Marie Kurzweil was an Austrian painter and printmaker. He moved near Vienna in 1879....

, Otto Wagner
Otto Wagner
Otto Koloman Wagner was an Austrian architect and urban planner, known for his lasting impact on the appearance of his home town Vienna, to which he contributed many landmarks.-Life:...

 and others. They objected to the conservative orientation toward historicism
Historicism
Historicism is a mode of thinking that assigns a central and basic significance to a specific context, such as historical period, geographical place and local culture. As such it is in contrast to individualist theories of knowledges such as empiricism and rationalism, which neglect the role of...

 expressed by the Vienna Künstlerhaus
Vienna Künstlerhaus
The Vienna Künstlerhaus is an art exhibition building in Vienna. It is located on Karlsplatz near the Ringstraße, next to the Musikverein....

.

Malta

The art nouveau
Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau is an international philosophy and style of art, architecture and applied art—especially the decorative arts—that were most popular during 1890–1910. The name "Art Nouveau" is French for "new art"...

 Balluta Buildings are apartment buildings on the eastern shore of Balluta Bay
Balluta Bay
Balluta Bay is a bay on the northeast coast of Malta within St. Julian's. It is a popular recreation spot used for swimming, diving, and water sports, with a triangular pjazza surrounded by cafés and shaded by Judas trees...

, on the northeast coast of Malta
Malta
Malta , officially known as the Republic of Malta , is a Southern European country consisting of an archipelago situated in the centre of the Mediterranean, south of Sicily, east of Tunisia and north of Libya, with Gibraltar to the west and Alexandria to the east.Malta covers just over in...

 within the district St. Julian's.

Britain

In the United Kingdom, Art Nouveau developed out of the Arts and Crafts Movement
Arts and Crafts movement
Arts and Crafts was an international design philosophy that originated in England and flourished between 1860 and 1910 , continuing its influence until the 1930s...

. The beginning of an Art Nouveau style can be recognized during the 1880s, in a few progressive designs such as the architect-designer Arthur Mackmurdo's book cover
Book cover
A book cover is any protective covering used to bind together the pages of a book. Beyond the familiar distinction between hardcovers and paperbacks, there are further alternatives and additions, such as dust jackets, ring-binding, and older forms such as the nineteenth-century "paper-boards" and...

 design for his essay on the city churches of Sir Christopher Wren, published during 1883. Some free-flowing wrought iron
Wrought iron
thumb|The [[Eiffel tower]] is constructed from [[puddle iron]], a form of wrought ironWrought iron is an iron alloy with a very low carbon...

 from the 1880s could also be adduced, or some flat floral textile designs, most of which owed some impetus to patterns of 19th century design. The most important location in Britain eventually became Glasgow, with the creations of Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Charles Rennie Mackintosh was a Scottish architect, designer, watercolourist and artist. He was a designer in the Arts and Crafts movement and also the main representative of Art Nouveau in the United Kingdom. He had a considerable influence on European design...

 and his colleagues.

Other notable British Art Nouveau designers include Walter Crane
Walter Crane
Walter Crane was an English artist and book illustrator. He is considered to be the most prolific and influential children’s book creator of his generation and, along with Randolph Caldecott and Kate Greenaway, one of the strongest contributors to the child's nursery motif that the genre of...

, Arthur Lasenby Liberty
Arthur Lasenby Liberty
Sir Arthur Lasenby Liberty was a London merchant, and the founder of Liberty & Co.Born in Chesham, Buckinghamshire, England, the son of a draper, he began work at sixteen with his uncle who sold lace, and later, another uncle who sold wine...

, Charles Ashbee
Charles Robert Ashbee
Charles Robert Ashbee was an English designer and entrepreneur who was a prime mover of the Arts and Crafts movement that took its craft ethic from the works of John Ruskin and its co-operative structure from the socialism of William Morris.-Early life:He was the son of businessman and erotic...

 and Aubrey Beardsley
Aubrey Beardsley
Aubrey Vincent Beardsley was an English illustrator and author. His drawings, done in black ink and influenced by the style of Japanese woodcuts, emphasized the grotesque, the decadent, and the erotic. He was a leading figure in the Aesthetic movement which also included Oscar Wilde and James A....

.

The Edward Everard building in Bristol, built during 1900–01 to house the printing works of Edward Everard, features an Art Nouveau façade. The figures depicted are of Johannes Gutenberg and William Morris
William Morris
William Morris 24 March 18343 October 1896 was an English textile designer, artist, writer, and socialist associated with the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and the English Arts and Crafts Movement...

, both eminent in the field of printing. A winged figure symbolises the Spirit of Light, while a figure holding a lamp and mirror symbolises light and truth.

Italy

The Art Nouveau European Route www.coupDefouet.eu provides details of the heritage in Europe and worldwide of the Art Nouveau style featuring considerable information about Italy's Stile Liberty. This represented the modern designs from the Liberty & Co store of London, indicating both Art Nouveau's commercial aspect and the 'imported' character that it retained in some parts of Italy, though not in Palermo, isolated from developments in the north and evolving an independent character largely due to designers such as architect Ernesto Basile and Vittorio Ducrot who specialised as a cabinetmaker. According to the Art Nouveau European Route, Basile and Ducrot were responsible for the idea of the complete work of art in Italy. Important Italian Liberty cities or sites are the spa centres of Salsomaggiore Terme, in the Emilia Romagna region, and San Pellegrino Terme in Lombardia, as well as Cernobbio on Lake Como also in Lombardia. Some large cities have a considerable number of Liberty-style decorations and buildings, especially Turin, Milan, Naples and large sections of the sea-side town of Viareggio in Tuscany. The Liberty Style was used by Italian designers and architects in many overseas areas, especially in Argentina and Chile, such as at Valparaiso in Chile where architects Renato Schiavon and Arnaldo Barison, trained in Trieste, arrived after the earthquake of 1906. Here they built outstanding structures such as the Palace Barburizza (1915), now the city's Museum of Fine Arts. Other important Italian art nouveau designers were the Bugatti family (Carlo, Ettore, Jean and Rembrandt) most well known for their cars built in France, and furniture and art constructed in their native Milan. Carlo Bugatti, born February 1856 in Milan was himself the son of an architect and sculptor Giovanni Luigi Bugatti. Carlo received his training at the renown Milan Academy, Brera and later the Paris Académie des Beaux Arts in Paris. His work was wide-ranging including silverware, textiles, ceramics and musical instruments but he is best remembered for his innovative furniture designs, shown first first in the 1888 Milan Fine Arts Fair.

Hungary

In contrast to Historicism, Hungarian
Hungary
Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

 Art Nouveau is based on supposed national architectural characteristics. Ödön Lechner
Ödön Lechner
Ödön Lechner was a Hungarian architect, nicknamed the "Hungarian Gaudí".Lechner was one of the early representatives of the Hungarian Secession movement, called szecesszió in Hungarian, which was related to Art Nouveau and Jugendstil in the rest of Europe...

 (1845–1914), the most important person of Hungarian Art Nouveau, was inspired initially by Indian and Syrian architecture, and later by traditional Hungarian decorative designs. In this manner, he created an original synthesis of architectural styles. Disusing the style of Lechner, yet being inspired by his method, the group of 'Young People' (Fiatalok), which included Károly Kós
Károly Kós
Károly Kós was a Hungarian architect, writer, illustrator, ethnologist and politician of Austria-Hungary and Romania.- Biography :...

 and Dezső Zrumeczky, applied the characteristic structures and forms of traditional Hungarian architecture, especially the Transylvanian vernacular.
Besides the two principal styles, Hungarian architecture also displays local versions of trends originating from other European countries. The Vienna Secession
Vienna Secession
The Vienna Secession was formed in 1897 by a group of Austrian artists who had resigned from the Association of Austrian Artists, housed in the Vienna Künstlerhaus. This movement included painters, sculptors, and architects...

, the German Jugendstil, Art Nouveau from Belgium and France, and the influence of English and Finnish architecture are all represented in the buildings constructed at the beginning of the 20th century. Béla Lajta
Béla Lajta
Béla Lajta was a prominent Hungarian architect.-Career:...

 initially adopted Lechner's style, subsequently adopting English and Finnish trends; after developing an interest in the Egyptian style, he finally developed a modern architectural style. Aladár Árkay
Aladar Arkay
Aladár Árkay was a Hungarian architect, craftsman, and painter.-Career:Árkay gained his degree at the Budapest Technical University where he studied under Ede Balló. Initially he worked in the firm of Fellner and Hellmer, then with Alajos Hauszmann in the works on Buda Castle...

 did almost the same. István Medgyaszay
Istvan Medgyaszay
Istvan Medgyaszy was a Hungarian architect and writer. He was one of the first to employ Hungarian folk idioms, particularly from Transylvania, and combine them with influences ranging from the far east to organic architecture.Medgyaszay studied at the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts and also at the...

 developed his own style, which differed from Lechner's, using stylised traditional motifs to create decorative designs in concrete. For applied arts, those mainly responsible for promoting the spread of Art Nouveau were the School and Museum of Applied Arts
Museum of Applied Arts (Budapest)
The Museum of Applied Arts is a museum in Budapest, Hungary. This Art Nouveau building was built between 1893 and 1896 to the plans of Ödön Lechner and Gyula Pártos...

, which opened during 1896.

Spain

In Spain, the style was based mainly in Barcelona
Barcelona
Barcelona is the second largest city in Spain after Madrid, and the capital of Catalonia, with a population of 1,621,537 within its administrative limits on a land area of...

 and was an essential element of the Catalan Modernisme
Modernisme
Modernisme was a cultural movement associated with the search for Catalan national identity. It is often understood as an equivalent to a number of fin-de-siècle art movements, such as Art Nouveau, Jugendstil, Secessionism, and Liberty style, and was active from roughly 1888 to 1911 Modernisme ...

. Architect Antoni Gaudí
Antoni Gaudí
Antoni Gaudí i Cornet was a Spanish Catalan architect and figurehead of Catalan Modernism. Gaudí's works reflect his highly individual and distinctive style and are largely concentrated in the Catalan capital of Barcelona, notably his magnum opus, the Sagrada Família.Much of Gaudí's work was...

, whose decorative architectural style is so personal that he is sometimes considered as practising an artistic style different from Art Nouveau, nonetheless uses Art Nouveau's floral and organic forms. His designs from about 1903, the Casa Batlló
Casa Batlló
Casa Batlló is a building restored by Antoni Gaudí and Josep Maria Jujol, built in the year 1877 and remodelled in the years 1904–1906; located at 43, Passeig de Gràcia , part of the Illa de la Discòrdia in the Eixample district of Barcelona, Spain...

(1904–1906) and Casa Milà
Casa Milà
Casa Milà , better known as La Pedrera , is a building designed by the Catalan architect Antoni Gaudí and built during the years 1905–1910, being considered officially completed in 1912...

(1906–1908), are most closely related to the stylistic elements of Art Nouveau. However, famous structures such as the Sagrada Familia
Sagrada Familia
The ' , commonly known as the Sagrada Família, is a large Roman Catholic church in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, designed by Catalan architect Antoni Gaudí...

characteristically contrast the modernising Art Nouveau tendencies with revivalist Neo-Gothic. Besides the dominating presence of Gaudí, Lluís Domènech i Montaner
Lluís Domènech i Montaner
Lluís Domènech i Montaner was a Spanish Catalan architect who was highly influential on Modernisme català, the Catalan Art Nouveau / Jugendstil movement. He was also a Catalan politician....

 also used Art Nouveau in Barcelona in buildings such as the Casa Lleó Morera
Casa Lleó Morera
The Casa Lleó Morera is a building designed by noted modernisme architect Lluís Domènech i Montaner, located at Passeig de Gràcia 35 in the Eixample district of Barcelona. The building is located on the corner of Carrer del Consell de Cent, and is one of the three important buildings of...

 (1905). Another major art nouveauist was Josep Maria Jujol
Josep Maria Jujol
Josep Maria Jujol Gibert was a Catalan architect.Jujol's wide field of activity ranged from furniture designs and painting, to architecture. He worked with Antoni Gaudí on many of his most famous works.-Biography:...

.

Prague and the Czech lands

Alphonse Mucha used the style in Prague
Prague
Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of over 2.3 million...

 and Moravia
Moravia
Moravia is a historical region in Central Europe in the east of the Czech Republic, and one of the former Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Silesia. It takes its name from the Morava River which rises in the northwest of the region...

 (part of the modern Czech Republic
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

); his style of Art Nouveau became associated with the so-called Czech National Revival
Czech National Revival
Czech National Revival was a cultural movement, which took part in the Czech lands during the 18th and 19th century. The purpose of this movement was to revive Czech language, culture and national identity...

. Fin de siècle
Fin de siècle
Fin de siècle is French for "end of the century". The term sometimes encompasses both the closing and onset of an era, as it was felt to be a period of degeneration, but at the same time a period of hope for a new beginning...

sections of Prague reveal modest buildings encrusted with images of leaves and women that curve and swirl across the façades. Examples of Art Nouveau in the city, along with the exteriors of any number of private apartment and commercial buildings, are the Municipal House
Municipal House
The Municipal House is a major civic landmark and concert hall in Prague, and an important building in architectural and political history in the Czech Republic. It stands on the Náměstí Republiky....

, the Hotel Pariz, Smíchov Market Hall, Hotel Central, the windows in the St. Wenceslas Chapel at St. Vitus Cathedral
St. Vitus Cathedral
Saint Vitus' Cathedral is as a Roman Catholic cathedral in Prague, and the seat of the Archbishop of Prague. The full name of the cathedral is St. Vitus, St. Wenceslas and St. Adalbert Cathedral...

, the main railway station
Praha hlavní nádraží
Praha hlavní nádraží is the largest and most important railway station in Prague in the Czech Republic. It was originally opened in 1871 and named Franz Joseph I after Franz Joseph I of Austria. During the First Republic and from 1945 to 1953 the station was called Wilson station after former...

, the Grand Hotel and the Jubilee Synagogue
Jubilee Synagogue
Jubilee Synagogue , also known as the Jerusalem Synagogue, is a synagogue in Prague, Czech Republic. It also known as the Jerusalem Synagogue because of its location on Jerusalem Street. It was built in 1906, designed by Wilhelm Stiassny and named in honor of the silver Jubilee of Emperor Franz...

. The Olsany Cemetery
Olšany Cemetery
Olšany Cemetery is the largest graveyard in Prague, Czech Republic, once having as many as two million burials. The cemetery is particularly noted for its many remarkable art nouveau monuments.- History :...

 and the New Jewish Cemetery
New Jewish Cemetery
The New Jewish Cemetery in Prague was established in 1891 to relieve the space problem at the Old Jewish Cemetery, Prague. It is about 10 times bigger than the Old Jewish Cemetery and provides space for approximately 100 000 graves, therefore having the capacity to serve for a whole century...

 are also important examples of Art Nouveau. In Czech, Art Nouveau is known as Secese,
a name adopted from the Austrian term "Secessionism".

Latvia

Art Nouveau architecture was popular in Riga
Riga
Riga is the capital and largest city of Latvia. With 702,891 inhabitants Riga is the largest city of the Baltic states, one of the largest cities in Northern Europe and home to more than one third of Latvia's population. The city is an important seaport and a major industrial, commercial,...

, the capital of Latvia
Latvia
Latvia , officially the Republic of Latvia , is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by Estonia , to the south by Lithuania , to the east by the Russian Federation , to the southeast by Belarus and shares maritime borders to the west with Sweden...

, during the late 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century – about 40% of the buildings from this time were built in this style. Several substyles formed during this period. Early elements of the new style were added to Eclectic
Eclecticism
Eclecticism is a conceptual approach that does not hold rigidly to a single paradigm or set of assumptions, but instead draws upon multiple theories, styles, or ideas to gain complementary insights into a subject, or applies different theories in particular cases.It can sometimes seem inelegant or...

 architecture forming "Eclectic" Art Nouveau. "Decorative" Art Nouveau refers to style using only decorative elements of the Art Nouveau; the first such building was built during 1899, however by 1906 decorative styles had become unfashionable. Therefore the decorative style is not very widespread in Riga. Most popular style in Riga is known as "Romantic" Art Nouveau – simplistic and modern in form, these buildings were decorated with elements from other historic styles and constitute about one third of all buildings in central Riga. From 1905–1911 Latvian National Romantism maximised – while being a substyle of Art Nouveau it copied forms of traditional architecture and incorporated traditional decorative elements. As Art Nouveau matured. emphasis on vertical lines became more popular, known as "Vertical" Art Nouveau, this style was most popular soon before World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

. The center of Riga is now designated as a UNESCO World Heritage site in part for its Art Nouveau architecture.

Significant number of Art Nouveau structures is located also in other cities and towns of Latvia, including Liepāja
Liepaja
Liepāja ; ), is a republican city in western Latvia, located on the Baltic Sea directly at 21°E. It is the largest city in the Kurzeme Region of Latvia, the third largest city in Latvia after Riga and Daugavpils and an important ice-free port...

 (hundreds of buildings), Jūrmala
Jurmala
Jūrmala is a city in Latvia, about 25 kilometers west of Riga. Jūrmala is a resort town stretching and sandwiched between the Gulf of Riga and the Lielupe River...

 (notable example – Dubulti Lutheran Church, 1907), Daugavpils
Daugavpils
Daugavpils is a city in southeastern Latvia, located on the banks of the Daugava River, from which the city gets its name. Daugavpils literally means "Daugava Castle". With a population of over 100,000, it is the second largest city in the country after the capital Riga, which is located some...

 and others. The use of Art Nouveau outside urban centres has been rare, but there some exquisite examples such as Luznava manor house (eastern Latvia).

Central and Eastern Europe

In Russia, the style was promoted by the art magazine Mir iskusstva
Mir iskusstva
Mir iskusstva was a Russian magazine and the artistic movement it inspired and embodied, which was a major influence on the Russians who helped revolutionize European art during the first decade of the 20th century. From 1909, many of the miriskusniki also contributed to the Ballets Russes...

('World of Art'), which spawned the revolutionary Ballets Russes
Ballets Russes
The Ballets Russes was an itinerant ballet company from Russia which performed between 1909 and 1929 in many countries. Directed by Sergei Diaghilev, it is regarded as the greatest ballet company of the 20th century. Many of its dancers originated from the Imperial Ballet of Saint Petersburg...

.

The Polish style was centred in Krakow
Kraków
Kraków also Krakow, or Cracow , is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, cultural, and artistic life...

 and was part of the Mloda Polska style. Stanisław Wyspiański was the main Art Nouveau artist in Poland; his paintings, theatrical designs, stained glass, and building interiors are widely admired and celebrated in the National Museum in Kraków. Art Nouveau buildings survive in most Polish cities (Łódź, Kraków), with the exception of Warsaw, where Communist authorities destroyed the few examples that survived the Nazi razing of the city on the grounds that the buildings were decadent.

The Slovene Lands
Slovene Lands
Slovene Lands or Slovenian Lands is the historical denomination for the whole of the Slovene-inhabited territories in Central Europe. It more or less corresponds to modern Slovenia and the adjacent territories in Italy, Austria and Hungary in which autochthonous Slovene minorities live.-...

 were another area influenced by Art Nouveau. At its beginning, Slovenia
Slovenia
Slovenia , officially the Republic of Slovenia , is a country in Central and Southeastern Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. Slovenia borders Italy to the west, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north, and also has a small portion of...

n Art Nouveau was influenced strongly by the Viennese Secession, but it later developed an individual style. Important architects of this style include Max Fabiani
Max Fabiani
Max Fabiani, was a Slovene-Italian architect from the Gorizia region. Together with Ciril Metod Koch, he introduced the Vienna Secession style of architecture in the Slovene Lands.-Life:...

, Ciril Metod Koch
Ciril Metod Koch
Ciril Metod Koch was a Slovene architect. Together with Max Fabiani, he introduced the Vienna Secession style in the Slovene Lands....

, Jože Plečnik
Jože Plecnik
Jože Plečnik , was a Slovene architect who practised in Vienna, Belgrade, Prague and Ljubljana.-Biography:...

, Ivan Vurnik
Ivan Vurnik
Ivan Vurnik, was a Slovene architect. Together with, Ciril Metod Koch and Jože Plečnik, Vurnik is considered one of the initiators of Slovenian modernist architecture.-Early years:...

 and a Croatian Josip Vancaš, with the vast majority of the architecture to be found in Ljubljana
Ljubljana
Ljubljana is the capital of Slovenia and its largest city. It is the centre of the City Municipality of Ljubljana. It is located in the centre of the country in the Ljubljana Basin, and is a mid-sized city of some 270,000 inhabitants...

.

Croatia
Croatia
Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

 was an area of secessionist architecture as well. Architects like Vjekoslav Bastl
Vjekoslav Bastl
Vjekoslav "Alojz" Bastl was a Croatian architect known for his diverse secessionist architectural style. His work circulated mostly within the boundaries of Zagreb, where he resided. Later in life, he got heavily influenced by modernism....

 and Baranyai developed a mixture between modernism
Modernism
Modernism, in its broadest definition, is modern thought, character, or practice. More specifically, the term describes the modernist movement, its set of cultural tendencies and array of associated cultural movements, originally arising from wide-scale and far-reaching changes to Western society...

 and classical Art Nouveau.

Other areas

The spread of Art Nouveau (Arte nova) in Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

, although delayed due to slowly developing industry, flourished in cities like Oporto and Aveiro, in which can be found numerous buildings influenced by European models, particularly by French architecture.

Art Nouveau was also popular in the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
The Nordic countries make up a region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic which consists of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden and their associated territories, the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Åland...

, where it became integrated with the National Romantic Style
National Romantic Style
The National Romantic style was a Nordic architectural style that was part of the national romantic movement during the late 19th and early 20th century. Designers turned to early Medieval and even prehistoric precedents to construct a style appropriate to the perceived character of a people...

. Good examples are the neighbourhoods of Katajanokka
Katajanokka
Katajanokka is a neighbourhood of Helsinki, Finland, with around 4000 inhabitants in 2005. The district is located adjacent to the immediate downtown area, though in the first major town plan for Helsinki from the mid-18th century, the area fell outside the fortifications planned to encircle the...

 and Ullanlinna
Ullanlinna
' is the southern-most city district of Helsinki, in Finland. The name Ullanlinna refers to the fortification line that was built at the southern edge of the area during the 18th century , as part of the town fortifications, which also included the fortress of . The name refers to the Swedish...

 in Helsinki, Finland, as well as the Helsinki Central railway station
Helsinki Central railway station
Helsinki Central railway station is a widely recognised landmark in central Helsinki, Finland, and the focal point of public transport in the Greater Helsinki area. The station is used by approximately 200,000 passengers per day, making it Finland's most-visited building...

, designed by the architect Eliel Saarinen
Eliel Saarinen
Gottlieb Eliel Saarinen was a Finnish architect who became famous for his art nouveau buildings in the early years of the 20th century....

. As in Germany, Jugendstil is the prevailing term used for the style. The Norwegian coastal town of Ålesund
Ålesund
is a town and municipality in Møre og Romsdal county, Norway. It is part of the traditional district of Sunnmøre, and the center of the Ålesund Region. It is a sea port, and is noted for its unique concentration of Art Nouveau architecture....

 burned during 1904, and was rebuilt in a uniform Jugendstil architecture, kept more or less intact to the present.

Although no significant artists in Australia are associated with Art Nouveau, many buildings in Australia were designed in the Art Nouveau style. In Melbourne, the Victorian Arts Society, Milton House, Melbourne Sports Depot, Melbourne City Baths, Conservatorium of Music and Melba Hall
Melba Memorial Conservatorium of Music
The Melba Memorial Conservatorium of Music was a school of music located in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. During its early days it was closely associated with opera diva Dame Nellie Melba, after whom it was later named. In 1994 it became affiliated with Victoria University...

, Paston Building, and Empire Works Building all represent the Art Nouveau style.
Montevideo
Montevideo
Montevideo is the largest city, the capital, and the chief port of Uruguay. The settlement was established in 1726 by Bruno Mauricio de Zabala, as a strategic move amidst a Spanish-Portuguese dispute over the platine region, and as a counter to the Portuguese colony at Colonia del Sacramento...

, in South America's Rio de la Plata
Río de la Plata
The Río de la Plata —sometimes rendered River Plate in British English and the Commonwealth, and occasionally rendered [La] Plata River in other English-speaking countries—is the river and estuary formed by the confluence of the Uruguay River and the Paraná River on the border between Argentina and...

, offers a good example of the influence of the Art Nouveau style across the Atlantic. The style is very apparent in the architecture both of downtown and of the periphery of the city. Montevideo maintained intense communication with Paris, London and Barcelona during Art Nouveau's heyday, when the city was also receiving massive immigration, especially from Italy and Spain. Those were also the years Montevideo developed the structure of its urban spaces, all of which factors help explain the widespread presence of Art Nouveau there.

In the other side of the Rio de la Plata
Río de la Plata
The Río de la Plata —sometimes rendered River Plate in British English and the Commonwealth, and occasionally rendered [La] Plata River in other English-speaking countries—is the river and estuary formed by the confluence of the Uruguay River and the Paraná River on the border between Argentina and...

, Buenos Aires still conserves some of its art nouveau architecture, also brought by Italian and Spanish immigrants, which developed the jugendstil (Edificio Otto Wulff, by Morten Ronnow, Danish), liberty (Casa de los Pavos Reales, by Virginio Colombo, Italian), modernisme (various buildings by Julián García Núñez, Spanish-Argentine) and art nouveau (Chile Hotel by Louis Dubois, French) varieties. Another Argentinean city where this architecture has been recently protected is Rosario, an important port on the Paraná River
Paraná River
The Paraná River is a river in south Central South America, running through Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina for some . It is second in length only to the Amazon River among South American rivers. The name Paraná is an abbreviation of the phrase "para rehe onáva", which comes from the Tupi language...

.

Architecture

In architecture, hyperbola
Hyperbola
In mathematics a hyperbola is a curve, specifically a smooth curve that lies in a plane, which can be defined either by its geometric properties or by the kinds of equations for which it is the solution set. A hyperbola has two pieces, called connected components or branches, which are mirror...

s and parabola
Parabola
In mathematics, the parabola is a conic section, the intersection of a right circular conical surface and a plane parallel to a generating straight line of that surface...

s in windows, arches and doors are common, and decorative mouldings 'grow' into plant-derived forms. Like most design styles, Art Nouveau sought to harmonise its forms. The text above the Paris Metro entrance uses the qualities of the rest of the iron work in the structure.

Art Nouveau in architecture and interior design eschewed the eclectic revival styles of the 19th century. Though Art Nouveau designers selected and 'modernised' some of the more abstract elements of Rococo
Rococo
Rococo , also referred to as "Late Baroque", is an 18th-century style which developed as Baroque artists gave up their symmetry and became increasingly ornate, florid, and playful...

 style, such as flame
Flame
A flame is the visible , gaseous part of a fire. It is caused by a highly exothermic reaction taking place in a thin zone...

 and shell textures, they also advocated the use of very stylised organic forms as a source of inspiration, expanding the 'natural' repertoire to use seaweed
Seaweed
Seaweed is a loose, colloquial term encompassing macroscopic, multicellular, benthic marine algae. The term includes some members of the red, brown and green algae...

, grass
Grass
Grasses, or more technically graminoids, are monocotyledonous, usually herbaceous plants with narrow leaves growing from the base. They include the "true grasses", of the Poaceae family, as well as the sedges and the rushes . The true grasses include cereals, bamboo and the grasses of lawns ...

es, and insects.

Painting and graphic arts

Two-dimensional Art Nouveau pieces were painted, drawn, and printed in popular forms such as advertisements
Advertising
Advertising is a form of communication used to persuade an audience to take some action with respect to products, ideas, or services. Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common...

, poster
Poster
A poster is any piece of printed paper designed to be attached to a wall or vertical surface. Typically posters include both textual and graphic elements, although a poster may be either wholly graphical or wholly text. Posters are designed to be both eye-catching and informative. Posters may be...

s, label
Label
A label is a piece of paper, polymer, cloth, metal, or other material affixed to a container or article, on which is printed a legend, information concerning the product, addresses, etc. A label may also be printed directly on the container or article....

s, magazines and the like. Japanese wood-block prints
Ukiyo-e
' is a genre of Japanese woodblock prints and paintings produced between the 17th and the 20th centuries, featuring motifs of landscapes, tales from history, the theatre, and pleasure quarters...

, with their curved lines, pattern
Pattern
A pattern, from the French patron, is a type of theme of recurring events or objects, sometimes referred to as elements of a set of objects.These elements repeat in a predictable manner...

ed surfaces, contrasting voids, and flatness of visual plane, also inspired Art Nouveau. Some line and curve patterns became graphic cliché
Cliché
A cliché or cliche is an expression, idea, or element of an artistic work which has been overused to the point of losing its original meaning or effect, especially when at some earlier time it was considered meaningful or novel. In phraseology, the term has taken on a more technical meaning,...

s that were later found in works of artists from many parts of the world.

Glass

Glass art
Glass art
Studio glass or glass sculpture is the modern use of glass as an artistic medium to produce sculptures or three-dimensional artworks. Specific approaches include working glass at room temperature cold working, stained glass, working glass in a torch flame , glass beadmaking, glass casting, glass...

 was a topic in which the style found tremendous expression—for example, the works of Louis Comfort Tiffany
Louis Comfort Tiffany
Louis Comfort Tiffany was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass. He is the American artist most associated with the Art Nouveau  and Aesthetic movements...

 in New York, Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Charles Rennie Mackintosh was a Scottish architect, designer, watercolourist and artist. He was a designer in the Arts and Crafts movement and also the main representative of Art Nouveau in the United Kingdom. He had a considerable influence on European design...

 in Glasgow, and Émile Gallé
Émile Gallé
Émile Gallé was a French artist who worked in glass, and is considered to be one of the major forces in the French Art Nouveau movement.- Biography :...

 and the Daum brothers in Nancy, France.

Ceramics

Art nouveau ceramics were influenced by the work of Japan. The development of high temperature (grand feu) porcelain with crystallised and matte glazes, with or without other decoration, is typical of these works. It was a period where lost techniques were rediscovered, such as the oxblood glaze, and entirely new methods were developed. Major French potters include: Ernest Chaplet, Taxile Doat
Taxile Doat
Taxile Doat was a French potter who is primarily known for his experimentation with high-fired porcelain and stoneware using the pâte-sur-pâte technique. His book on these techniques Grand Feu Ceramics was published in 1905 and helped spread his discoveries internationally...

, Alexandre Bigot
Alexandre Bigot
Alexandre Bigot was a French ceramicist. He was primarily a ceramics manufacturer; producing the designs of many artists and architects of the French Art Nouveau movement; including: Jules Lavirotte, Hector Guimard, Louis Majorelle, Henri Sauvage, Henry van de Velde, Auguste Perret, Andre...

, Adrien-Pierre Dalpayrat, Edmond Lachenal
Edmond Lachenal
Edmond Lachenal was a French potter.Edmond Lachenal had two sons, Jean-Jacques Lachenal and Raoul Lachenal who succeeded him as potters. Edmond Lachenal was one of the pivotal figures in the development and creation of Art Nouveau in ceramics, and his works are comparable in influence and...

 and Albert Dammouse.

Objets d'art and other examples

Jewellery
Jewellery
Jewellery or jewelry is a form of personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets.With some exceptions, such as medical alert bracelets or military dog tags, jewellery normally differs from other items of personal adornment in that it has no other purpose than to...

 of the Art Nouveau period revitalised the jeweller's art, with nature as the principal source of inspiration, complemented by new levels of virtuosity in enamelling
Vitreous enamel
Vitreous enamel, also porcelain enamel in U.S. English, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between 750 and 850 °C...

 and the introduction of new materials, such as opal
Opal
Opal is an amorphous form of silica related to quartz, a mineraloid form, not a mineral. 3% to 21% of the total weight is water, but the content is usually between 6% to 10%. It is deposited at a relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock, being most...

s and semi-precious stones. The widespread interest in Japanese art
Japanese art
Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery, sculpture in wood and bronze, ink painting on silk and paper and more recently manga, cartoon, along with a myriad of other types of works of art...

 and the more specialised enthusiasm for Japanese metalworking skills fostered new themes and approaches to ornament.

For the previous two centuries, the emphasis in fine jewellery had been on gemstone
Gemstone
A gemstone or gem is a piece of mineral, which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments...

s, particularly on the diamond, and the jeweller or goldsmith
Goldsmith
A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with gold and other precious metals. Since ancient times the techniques of a goldsmith have evolved very little in order to produce items of jewelry of quality standards. In modern times actual goldsmiths are rare...

 had been principally concerned with providing settings for their advantage. With Art Nouveau, a different type of jewellery emerged, motivated by the artist-designer rather than the jeweller as setter of precious stones.

The jewellers of Paris and Brussels
Brussels
Brussels , officially the Brussels Region or Brussels-Capital Region , is the capital of Belgium and the de facto capital of the European Union...

 defined Art Nouveau in jewellery, and in these cities it achieved the most renown. Contemporary French critics were united in acknowledging that jewellery was undergoing a radical transformation, and that the French designer-jeweller-glassmaker René Lalique
René Lalique
René Jules Lalique was a French glass designer known for his creations of perfume bottles, vases, jewellery, chandeliers, clocks and automobile hood ornaments. He was born in the French village of Ay on 6 April 1860 and died 5 May 1945...

 was popularising the changes. Lalique glorified nature in jewellery, extending the repertoire to include new aspects of nature—such as dragonflies
Dragonfly
A dragonfly is a winged insect belonging to the order Odonata, the suborder Epiprocta or, in the strict sense, the infraorder Anisoptera . It is characterized by large multifaceted eyes, two pairs of strong transparent wings, and an elongated body...

 or grasses—inspired by his encounter with Japanese art.

The jewellers were keen to establish the new style in a noble tradition, and for this they used the Renaissance
Renaissance
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

, with its works of sculpted and enamelled gold, and its acceptance of jewellers as artists rather than craftsmen. In most of the enamelled work of the period, precious stones receded. Diamonds were usually subsidiary, used alongside less familiar materials such as moulded glass, horn
Horn (anatomy)
A horn is a pointed projection of the skin on the head of various animals, consisting of a covering of horn surrounding a core of living bone. True horns are found mainly among the ruminant artiodactyls, in the families Antilocapridae and Bovidae...

 and ivory
Ivory
Ivory is a term for dentine, which constitutes the bulk of the teeth and tusks of animals, when used as a material for art or manufacturing. Ivory has been important since ancient times for making a range of items, from ivory carvings to false teeth, fans, dominoes, joint tubes, piano keys and...

.

Relationship with contemporary styles and movements

As an art style, Art Nouveau has affinities with the Pre-Raphaelites
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was a group of English painters, poets, and critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti...

 and the Symbolist
Symbolism (arts)
Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts. In literature, the style had its beginnings with the publication Les Fleurs du mal by Charles Baudelaire...

 styles, and artists like Aubrey Beardsley
Aubrey Beardsley
Aubrey Vincent Beardsley was an English illustrator and author. His drawings, done in black ink and influenced by the style of Japanese woodcuts, emphasized the grotesque, the decadent, and the erotic. He was a leading figure in the Aesthetic movement which also included Oscar Wilde and James A....

, Alphonse Mucha, Edward Burne-Jones
Edward Burne-Jones
Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, 1st Baronet was a British artist and designer closely associated with the later phase of the Pre-Raphaelite movement, who worked closely with William Morris on a wide range of decorative arts as a founding partner in Morris, Marshall, Faulkner, and Company...

, Gustav Klimt
Gustav Klimt
Gustav Klimt was an Austrian Symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. His major works include paintings, murals, sketches, and other art objects...

 and Jan Toorop
Jan Toorop
Jean Theodoor Toorop , better known as Jan Toorop, was an Indo painter, whose works straddle the space between the Symbolist painters and Art Nouveau.-Biography:...

 could be classed in more than one of these styles. Unlike Symbolist painting, however, Art Nouveau has a distinctive appearance; and unlike the artisan
Artisan
An artisan is a skilled manual worker who makes items that may be functional or strictly decorative, including furniture, clothing, jewellery, household items, and tools...

-oriented Arts and Crafts Movement
Arts and Crafts movement
Arts and Crafts was an international design philosophy that originated in England and flourished between 1860 and 1910 , continuing its influence until the 1930s...

, Art Nouveau artists readily used new materials, machined surfaces and abstraction
Abstraction
Abstraction is a process by which higher concepts are derived from the usage and classification of literal concepts, first principles, or other methods....

 in the service of pure design.

Art Nouveau did not negate machines as the Arts and Crafts Movement did. For sculpture, the principal materials employed were glass and wrought iron, resulting in sculptural qualities even in architecture. Ceramics were also employed in creating editions of sculptures by artists such as Auguste Rodin
Auguste Rodin
François-Auguste-René Rodin , known as Auguste Rodin , was a French sculptor. Although Rodin is generally considered the progenitor of modern sculpture, he did not set out to rebel against the past...

.

Art Nouveau architecture made use of many technological
Technology
Technology is the making, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization in order to solve a problem or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, and procedures. The word technology comes ;...

 innovations of the late 19th century, especially the use of exposed iron and large, irregularly shaped pieces of glass for architecture. By the start of World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, however, the stylised nature of Art Nouveau design—which was expensive to produce—began to be disused in favour of more streamlined, rectilinear modernism
Modern art
Modern art includes artistic works produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the style and philosophy of the art produced during that era. The term is usually associated with art in which the traditions of the past have been thrown aside in a spirit of...

, which was cheaper and thought to be more faithful to the plainer industrial
Industrial design
Industrial design is the use of a combination of applied art and applied science to improve the aesthetics, ergonomics, and usability of a product, but it may also be used to improve the product's marketability and production...

 aesthetic that became Art Deco
Art Deco
Art deco , or deco, is an eclectic artistic and design style that began in Paris in the 1920s and flourished internationally throughout the 1930s, into the World War II era. The style influenced all areas of design, including architecture and interior design, industrial design, fashion and...

.

Architects

  • Émile André
    Émile André
    François-Émile André was a French architect, artist, and furniture designer. He was the son of the architect of Charles André and the father of two other architects, Jacques and Michel André.-Life and career:...

     (1871–1933)
  • Gavriil Baranovsky
    Gavriil Baranovsky
    Gavriil Vasilyevich Baranovsky was a Ukrainian-born Russian architect, civil engineer, art historian and publisher, who worked primarily in Saint Petersburg for the Elisseeff family, but also practiced in Moscow and produced the first town plan for Murmansk .-Education and early career:Born in...

     (1860–1920)
  • Vjekoslav Bastl
    Vjekoslav Bastl
    Vjekoslav "Alojz" Bastl was a Croatian architect known for his diverse secessionist architectural style. His work circulated mostly within the boundaries of Zagreb, where he resided. Later in life, he got heavily influenced by modernism....

     (1872–1947)
  • Peter Behrens
    Peter Behrens
    Peter Behrens was a German architect and designer. He was important for the modernist movement, as several of the movements leading names worked for him when they were young.-Biography:Behrens attended the Christianeum Hamburg from September 1877 until Easter 1882...

     (1868–1940)
  • Ferdinand Boberg
    Ferdinand Boberg
    Ferdinand Boberg, born 11 April 1860 in Falun, died 7 May 1946 in Stockholm, was a Swedish architect.He was one of the most productive and prominent architects of Stockholm around the turn of the 20th century. Among his most famous work is an electrical plant at Björns Trädgård in Stockholm, that...

     (1860–1946)
  • Gustave Serrurier-Bovy
    Gustave Serrurier-Bovy
    Gustave Serrurier-Bovy was a Belgian architect and furniture designer. He is credited with creating the Art Nouveau style, coined as a style in Paris by Bing....

     (1858–1910)
  • Raimondo Tommaso D'Aronco
    Raimondo Tommaso D'Aronco
    Raimondo Tommaso D’Aronco was an Italian architect renowned for his building designs in the style of Art Nouveau. He was the chief palace architect to the Ottoman Sultan Abdülhamid II in Istanbul, Turkey for 16 years.- Early years :...

     (1857–1932)
  • Lluís Domènech i Montaner
    Lluís Domènech i Montaner
    Lluís Domènech i Montaner was a Spanish Catalan architect who was highly influential on Modernisme català, the Catalan Art Nouveau / Jugendstil movement. He was also a Catalan politician....

     (1850–1923)
  • Mikhail Eisenstein
    Mikhail Eisenstein
    Mikhail Osipovich Eisenstein, , was a Russian architect and civil engineer. His paternal grandparents being German Jews, had converted to Orthodox Christianity, and his maternal grandparents were Swedes. He graduated from the Institute of Civic Engineering in St. Petersburg in 1893. He was the...

     (1867–1921)
  • August Endel (1871–1925)
  • Max Fabiani
    Max Fabiani
    Max Fabiani, was a Slovene-Italian architect from the Gorizia region. Together with Ciril Metod Koch, he introduced the Vienna Secession style of architecture in the Slovene Lands.-Life:...

     (1865–1962)
  • Eugène Gaillard
    Eugène Gaillard
    Eugène Gaillard was a French art nouveau industrial designer, architect and advocate of modern design. Gaillard abandoned a career in law for that of interior design and decoration. He was employed for some time by Siegfried Bing along with Georges de Feure and Edouard Colonna to work on his...

     (1862–1933)
  • Antoni Gaudí
    Antoni Gaudí
    Antoni Gaudí i Cornet was a Spanish Catalan architect and figurehead of Catalan Modernism. Gaudí's works reflect his highly individual and distinctive style and are largely concentrated in the Catalan capital of Barcelona, notably his magnum opus, the Sagrada Família.Much of Gaudí's work was...

     (1852–1926)
  • Vladislav Gorodetsky
    Vladislav Gorodetsky
    Vladislav Gorodetsky or full name Leshek Vladislav Dezidery Gorodetsky was an architect and big-game hunter, best known for his Art Nouveau-style buildings, namely the House with Chimaeras, the St...

     (1863–1930)
  • Hector Guimard
    Hector Guimard
    Hector Guimard was an architect, who is now the best-known representative of the French Art Nouveau style of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries....

     (1867–1942)
  • Paul Hankar
    Paul Hankar
    Paul Hankar was a Belgian architect and designer who, along with Victor Horta and Henry Van de Velde, is considered one of the principal architects to work in the Art Nouveau style in Brussels at the turn of the twentieth century.-Formative Studies: Hankar was born at Frameries. He began his...

     (1859–1901)
  • Josef Hoffmann
    Josef Hoffmann
    Josef Hoffmann was an Austrian architect and designer of consumer goods.- Biography :...

     (1870–1956)
  • Victor Horta
    Victor Horta
    Victor, Baron Horta was a Belgian architect and designer. John Julius Norwich described him as "undoubtedly the key European Art Nouveau architect." Indeed, Horta is one of the most important names in Art Nouveau architecture; the construction of his Hôtel Tassel in Brussels in 1892-3 means that...

     (1861–1947)
  • Lev Kekushev
    Lev Kekushev
    Lev Nikolayevich Kekushev was a Russian architect, notable for his Art Nouveau buildings in Moscow, built in the 1890s and early 1900s in the original, Franco-Belgian variety of this style...

     (1862–1919)
  • Ciril Metod Koch
    Ciril Metod Koch
    Ciril Metod Koch was a Slovene architect. Together with Max Fabiani, he introduced the Vienna Secession style in the Slovene Lands....

     (1867–1925)
  • Károly Kós
    Károly Kós
    Károly Kós was a Hungarian architect, writer, illustrator, ethnologist and politician of Austria-Hungary and Romania.- Biography :...

     (1883–1977)
  • Béla Lajta
    Béla Lajta
    Béla Lajta was a prominent Hungarian architect.-Career:...

     (1873–1920)
  • Ödön Lechner
    Ödön Lechner
    Ödön Lechner was a Hungarian architect, nicknamed the "Hungarian Gaudí".Lechner was one of the early representatives of the Hungarian Secession movement, called szecesszió in Hungarian, which was related to Art Nouveau and Jugendstil in the rest of Europe...

     (1845–1914)
  • Jules Lavirotte
    Jules Lavirotte
    Jules Aimé Lavirotte was a French architect who designed no fewer than nine buildings still standing in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, or in immediately surrounding arrondissements...

     (1864–1924)
  • Charles Rennie Mackintosh
    Charles Rennie Mackintosh
    Charles Rennie Mackintosh was a Scottish architect, designer, watercolourist and artist. He was a designer in the Arts and Crafts movement and also the main representative of Art Nouveau in the United Kingdom. He had a considerable influence on European design...

     (1868–1928)
  • Ede Magyar
    Ede Magyar
    Ede Magyar was an architect, nicknamed 'the Hungarian Gaudi' for his similar organic style.-Life and career:...

     (1877–1912)
  • Rafael Masó
    Rafael Masó
    Rafael Masó was a Catalan Art Nouveau architect. He practiced in Girona, Spain. He designed the Farinera Teixidor and the S'Agaró resort.-External links:*, Comissió Any Masó....

     (1880–1935)
  • Ivan Meštrović
    Ivan Meštrovic
    Ivan Meštrović was a Croatian and Yugoslav sculptor and architect born in Vrpolje, Croatia...

     (1883–1962)
  • Gyula Pártos
    Gyula Pártos
    Gyula Pártos was a Hungarian architect. Together with Ödön Lechner he designed a number of buildings in the typical Secession style of the turn of the century Hungary.-Career:...

     (1845–1916)
  • Marian Peretiatkovich (1872–1916)
  • Jože Plečnik
    Jože Plecnik
    Jože Plečnik , was a Slovene architect who practised in Vienna, Belgrade, Prague and Ljubljana.-Biography:...

     (1872–1957)
  • Zsigmond Quittner
    Zsigmond Quittner
    Zsigmond Quittner was a Hungarian architect.-Career:Quittner was born in Pest in 1859. He studied for his degree in Munich and worked in Budapest from 1880. His style is eclectic, a commercial version of the Vienna Secession...

     (1859–1918)
  • Eliel Saarinen
    Eliel Saarinen
    Gottlieb Eliel Saarinen was a Finnish architect who became famous for his art nouveau buildings in the early years of the 20th century....

     (1873–1950)
  • Fyodor Schechtel
    Fyodor Schechtel
    Fyodor Osipovich Schechtel was a Russian architect, graphic artist and stage designer, the most influential and prolific master of Russian Art Nouveau and late Russian Revival....

     (1859–1926)
  • László Székely (1877-1934)
  • Gustave Strauven
    Gustave Strauven
    Gustave Strauven was a Belgian architect. His father was a gardener from Limbourg and he died in World War I. He was an art nouveau architect and he liked to use new technologies. He created more than 30 buildings, incorporating wrought iron floral motifs.He started in Victor Horta's bureau when...

     (1878–1919)
  • Louis Sullivan
    Louis Sullivan
    Louis Henri Sullivan was an American architect, and has been called the "father of skyscrapers" and "father of modernism" He is considered by many as the creator of the modern skyscraper, was an influential architect and critic of the Chicago School, was a mentor to Frank Lloyd Wright, and an...

     (1856–1924)
  • Eugène Vallin
    Eugène Vallin
    Eugène Vallin was a French furniture designer and manufacturer, as well as an architect.-Life and career:Vallin studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Nancy...

     (1856–1922)
  • Henry Van de Velde
    Henry van de Velde
    Henry Clemens Van de Velde was a Belgian Flemish painter, architect and interior designer. Together with Victor Horta and Paul Hankar he could be considered one of the main founders and representatives of Art Nouveau in Belgium...

     (1863–1957)
  • Ivan Vurnik
    Ivan Vurnik
    Ivan Vurnik, was a Slovene architect. Together with, Ciril Metod Koch and Jože Plečnik, Vurnik is considered one of the initiators of Slovenian modernist architecture.-Early years:...

     (1884–1971)
  • Otto Wagner
    Otto Wagner
    Otto Koloman Wagner was an Austrian architect and urban planner, known for his lasting impact on the appearance of his home town Vienna, to which he contributed many landmarks.-Life:...

     (1841–1918)
  • William Walcot
    William Walcot
    William Walcot was a British architect graphic artist and etcher, notable as a practitioner of refined Art Nouveau in Moscow, Russia . His trademark Lady's Head keystone ornament became the easily recognizable symbol of Russian Style Moderne...

     (1874–1943)
  • Lucien Weissenburger
    Lucien Weissenburger
    Lucien Weissenburger , was a French architect. He was one of the principal architects to work in the Art Nouveau style in Lorraine and a member of the board of directors of the École de Nancy....

     (1860–1929)

Furniture designers

  • Eugène Gaillard
    Eugène Gaillard
    Eugène Gaillard was a French art nouveau industrial designer, architect and advocate of modern design. Gaillard abandoned a career in law for that of interior design and decoration. He was employed for some time by Siegfried Bing along with Georges de Feure and Edouard Colonna to work on his...

     (1862–1933)
  • Louis Majorelle
    Louis Majorelle
    Louis-Jean-Sylvestre Majorelle, usually known simply as Louis Majorelle, was a French decorator and furniture designer who manufactured his own designs, in the French tradition of the ébéniste...

     (1859–1926)

Art, drawing, and graphics

  • Aubrey Beardsley
    Aubrey Beardsley
    Aubrey Vincent Beardsley was an English illustrator and author. His drawings, done in black ink and influenced by the style of Japanese woodcuts, emphasized the grotesque, the decadent, and the erotic. He was a leading figure in the Aesthetic movement which also included Oscar Wilde and James A....

     (1872–1898)
  • František Bílek
    František Bílek
    František Bílek was a famous Czech Art Nouveau and Symbolist sculptor and architect....

     (1872–1941)
  • Ivan Yakovlevich Bilibin (1876–1942)
  • Walter Crane
    Walter Crane
    Walter Crane was an English artist and book illustrator. He is considered to be the most prolific and influential children’s book creator of his generation and, along with Randolph Caldecott and Kate Greenaway, one of the strongest contributors to the child's nursery motif that the genre of...

     (1845–1915)
  • Jules Cheret
    Jules Chéret
    Jules Chéret was a French painter and lithographer who became a master of Belle Époque poster art. He has been called the father of the modern poster. -Biography:...

     (1836–1932)
  • Eugène Gaillard
    Eugène Gaillard
    Eugène Gaillard was a French art nouveau industrial designer, architect and advocate of modern design. Gaillard abandoned a career in law for that of interior design and decoration. He was employed for some time by Siegfried Bing along with Georges de Feure and Edouard Colonna to work on his...

     (1862–1933)
  • Eugène Grasset
    Eugène Grasset
    Eugène Samuel Grasset was a Swiss decorative artist who worked in Paris, France in a variety of creative design fields during the Belle Époque. He is considered a pioneer in Art Nouveau design.-Biography:...

     (1845–1917)
  • Gustav Klimt
    Gustav Klimt
    Gustav Klimt was an Austrian Symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. His major works include paintings, murals, sketches, and other art objects...

     (1862–1918)
  • E. M. Lilien
    E. M. Lilien
    Ephraim Moses Lilien was an art nouveau illustrator and print-maker particularly noted for his art on Jewish and Zionist themes. He is sometimes called the "first Zionist artist."-Biography:...

     (1874–1925)
  • Józef Mehoffer
    Józef Mehoffer
    Józef Mehoffer was a Polish painter and decorative artist, one of the leading artists of the Young Poland movement and one of the most revered Polish artists of his time.-Life:...

     (1869–1946)
  • Alphonse Mucha (1860–1939)
  • Erwin Puchinger
    Erwin Puchinger
    Erwin Puchinger was a Viennese painter, illustrator, industrial designer and graphic artist. He was an influential figure in Viennese art in the fin-de-siecle. Puchinger was a part of the Austrian Jugendstil and Gesamtkunstwerk movements, which sought to erase the boundaries between fine art and...

     (1876–1944)
  • József Rippl-Rónai
    József Rippl-Rónai
    József Rippl-Rónai was a Hungarian painter.He was born in Kaposvár. After his studies at the High School there, he went to study in Budapest, where he obtained a degree in pharmacology. In 1884 he travelled to Munich to study painting at the Academy. Two years later he obtained a grant which...

     (1861–1927)
  • Valentin Serov
    Valentin Serov
    Valentin Alexandrovich Serov was a Russian painter, and one of the premier portrait artists of his era.-Youth and education:...

     (1865–1911)
  • Konstantin Somov
    Konstantin Somov
    Konstantin Andreyevich Somov was a Russian artist associated with the Mir iskusstva. Born into a family of a major art historian and Hermitage Museum curator, he became interested in the 18th century art and music at an early age.Somov studied at the Imperial Academy of Arts under Ilya Repin from...

     (1869–1939)
  • Virginia Frances Sterret
    Virginia Frances Sterret
    Virginia Frances Sterrett was an American artist and illustrator.Sterrett received her first commission at the age of 19 from the Penn Publishing Company to illustrate Old French Fairy Tales - a collection of works from the 19th century French author, Comtesse de Ségur .A year after...

     (1900–1931)
  • Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
    Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
    Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa or simply Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec was a French painter, printmaker, draughtsman, and illustrator, whose immersion in the colourful and theatrical life of fin de siècle Paris yielded an œuvre of exciting, elegant and provocative images of the modern...

     (1864–1901)
  • Théophile Steinlen
    Théophile Steinlen
    Théophile Alexandre Steinlen, frequently referred to as just Steinlen , was a Swiss-born French Art Nouveau painter and printmaker....

     (1859–1923)
  • Henri Privat-Livemont (1861–1936)
  • Janos Vaszary
    Janos Vaszary
    János Vaszary was a Hungarian painter. He was born in Kaposvár, Hungary. His masters included Bertalan Székely at the School of Decorative Art. He went on with his studies in Munich and at the Académie Julian in Paris. He was particularly influenced by Jules Bastien-Lepage and Puvis de...

     (1867–1939)
  • Hans Unger
    Hans Unger
    Hans Unger was a German painter who was, during his lifetime, a highly respected Art Nouveau artist. His popularity did not survive the change in the artistic climate in Germany after World War I, however, and after his death he was soon forgotten...

     (1872–1936)
  • Stanisław Wyspiański (1869–1907)
  • Eliseu Visconti (1866–1944)
  • Gerda Wegener
    Gerda Wegener
    Gerda Gottlieb Wegener Porta was a Danish illustrator and painter best known for her erotica.-Biography:She grew up originally from the provinces as the daughter of a clergyman. She moved to Copenhagen to pursue her education at the Royal Art Academy, and married fellow artist Einar Wegener in...

     (1886–1940)

Glassware and stained glass designers

  • Auguste Daum (1853–1909)
  • Antonin Daum (1864–1930)
  • Émile Gallé
    Émile Gallé
    Émile Gallé was a French artist who worked in glass, and is considered to be one of the major forces in the French Art Nouveau movement.- Biography :...

     (1846–1904)
  • René Lalique
    René Lalique
    René Jules Lalique was a French glass designer known for his creations of perfume bottles, vases, jewellery, chandeliers, clocks and automobile hood ornaments. He was born in the French village of Ay on 6 April 1860 and died 5 May 1945...

     (1860–1945)
  • Louis Comfort Tiffany
    Louis Comfort Tiffany
    Louis Comfort Tiffany was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass. He is the American artist most associated with the Art Nouveau  and Aesthetic movements...

     (1848–1933)

Ceramicists

  • Ernest Chaplet
  • Adrien-Pierre Dalpayrat
  • Albert Dammouse
  • Taxile Doat
    Taxile Doat
    Taxile Doat was a French potter who is primarily known for his experimentation with high-fired porcelain and stoneware using the pâte-sur-pâte technique. His book on these techniques Grand Feu Ceramics was published in 1905 and helped spread his discoveries internationally...

     (1851–1939)
  • Edmond Lachenal
    Edmond Lachenal
    Edmond Lachenal was a French potter.Edmond Lachenal had two sons, Jean-Jacques Lachenal and Raoul Lachenal who succeeded him as potters. Edmond Lachenal was one of the pivotal figures in the development and creation of Art Nouveau in ceramics, and his works are comparable in influence and...

     (1855–1948)
  • Artus Van Briggle
    Van Briggle Pottery
    Established in Colorado Springs, Colorado in 1901 by Artus and Anne Van Briggle, the Van Briggle Art Pottery is the oldest continuously operating art pottery in the United States. Artus Van Briggle had a significant impact on the Art Nouveau movement in the United States, and his pottery is...

     (1869–1904)
  • Vilmos Zsolnay
    Vilmos Zsolnay
    Vilmos Zsolnay was a Hungarian industrialist and entrepreneur. As the director of the Zsolnay porcelain manufacture he introduced new materials and inventions into the manufacture of pottery and ceramics and led the company to world-wide recognition.Zsolnay was born on April 19, 1828 in Pécs and...

     (1828–1900)

Other decorative artists

  • Charles Robert Ashbee
    Charles Robert Ashbee
    Charles Robert Ashbee was an English designer and entrepreneur who was a prime mover of the Arts and Crafts movement that took its craft ethic from the works of John Ruskin and its co-operative structure from the socialism of William Morris.-Early life:He was the son of businessman and erotic...

     (1863–1942)
  • Will H. Bradley (1868–1962)
  • Georges de Feure
    Georges de Feure
    Georges de Feure was a French painter, theatrical designer, and industrial art designer in the symbolism and Art Nouveau styles....

     (1868–1943)
  • Hermann Obrist
    Hermann Obrist
    Hermann Obrist was a German sculptor of the Jugendstil movement. He studied Botany and History in his youth whose influence one can perceive in his later work in the field of applied arts...

     (1863–1927)
  • François-Raoul Larche
    François-Raoul Larche
    François-Raoul Larche was a French Art Nouveau sculptor whose work included several figures of Christ, but who may be better known for his numerous female figures, both nude and draped....

    (1860–1912)


Further reading

  • Art Nouveau Grange Books,Rochester,England 2007 ISBN 978-1-84013-790-3
  • William Craft Brumfield. The Origins of Modernism in Russian Architecture (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991) ISBN 0-520-06929-3

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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