Apolinario Mabini
Overview
 
Apolinario Mabini y Maranan (July 23, 1864 — May 13, 1903) was a Filipino
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 political philosopher
Political philosophy
Political philosophy is the study of such topics as liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it...

 and revolutionary who wrote a constitutional plan for the first Philippine republic of 1899-1901, and served as its first prime minister
Prime Minister of the Philippines
The Prime Minister of the Philippines was the official designation of the head of the government of the Philippines from 1978 until People Power Revolution in 1986...

 in 1899. In Philippine history texts, he is often referred to as "the Sublime Paralytic", and as "the Brains of the Revolution." To his enemies and detractors, he is referred to as the "Dark Chamber of the President."
Mabini was born on July 23, 1864 in Barangay Talaga in Tanauan
Tanauan City
The City of Tanauan is a second class city in the province of Batangas, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 142,537 inhabitants in 21,912 households. It was incorporated as a city under Republic Act No...

, Batangas
Batangas
Batangas is a first class province of the Philippines located on the southwestern part of Luzon in the CALABARZON region. Its capital is Batangas City and it is bordered by the provinces of Cavite and Laguna to the north and Quezon to the east. Across the Verde Island Passages to the south is the...

.
Encyclopedia
Apolinario Mabini y Maranan (July 23, 1864 — May 13, 1903) was a Filipino
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 political philosopher
Political philosophy
Political philosophy is the study of such topics as liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it...

 and revolutionary who wrote a constitutional plan for the first Philippine republic of 1899-1901, and served as its first prime minister
Prime Minister of the Philippines
The Prime Minister of the Philippines was the official designation of the head of the government of the Philippines from 1978 until People Power Revolution in 1986...

 in 1899. In Philippine history texts, he is often referred to as "the Sublime Paralytic", and as "the Brains of the Revolution." To his enemies and detractors, he is referred to as the "Dark Chamber of the President."

Early life of Apolinario Mabini

Mabini was born on July 23, 1864 in Barangay Talaga in Tanauan
Tanauan City
The City of Tanauan is a second class city in the province of Batangas, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 142,537 inhabitants in 21,912 households. It was incorporated as a city under Republic Act No...

, Batangas
Batangas
Batangas is a first class province of the Philippines located on the southwestern part of Luzon in the CALABARZON region. Its capital is Batangas City and it is bordered by the provinces of Cavite and Laguna to the north and Quezon to the east. Across the Verde Island Passages to the south is the...

. He was the second of eight children of Dionisia Maranan, a vendor in the Tanauan market, and Inocencio Mabini, an unlettered peasant.

Mabini began informal studies under his maternal grandfather, who was the village teacher. Because he demonstrated uncommon intelligence, he was transferred to a regular school owned by Simplicio Avelino, where he worked as a houseboy, and also took odd jobs from a local tailor - all in exchange for free board and lodging. He later transferred to a school conducted by the Fray Valerio Malabanan, whose fame as an educator merited a mention in José Rizal
José Rizal
José Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda , was a Filipino polymath, patriot and the most prominent advocate for reform in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial era. He is regarded as the foremost Filipino patriot and is listed as one of the national heroes of the Philippines by...

's novel El Filibusterismo
El filibusterismo
El filibusterismo , also known by its English alternate title The Reign of Greed, is the second novel written by Philippine national hero José Rizal. It is the sequel to Noli Me Tangere and like the first book, was written in Spanish. It was first published in 1891 in Ghent, Belgium...

.

In 1881 Mabini received a scholarship to go to the Colegio de San Juan de Letran
Colegio de San Juan de Letran
The Colegio de San Juan de Letran, Letran College, or simply Letran is a private Roman Catholic institution of learning located in Intramuros, Manila, in the Philippines. The college was founded in 1620. Colegio de San Juan de Letran has the distinction of being the oldest college in the...

 in Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

. An anecdote about his stay there says that a professor there decided to pick on him because his shabby clothing clearly showed he was poor. Mabini amazed the professor by answering a series of very difficult questions with ease. His studies at Letran were periodically interrupted by a chronic lack of funds, and he earned money for his board and lodging by teaching children.

Mabini's mother had wanted him to take up the priesthood, but his desire to defend the poor made him decide to take up Law instead. A year after receiving his Bachilles en Artes
Bachelor of Arts
A Bachelor of Arts , from the Latin artium baccalaureus, is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, the sciences, or both...

 with highest honors and the title Professor of Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 from Letran, he moved on to the University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas
The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, The Catholic University of the Philippines , is a private Roman Catholic university run by the Order of Preachers in Manila. Founded on April 28, 1611 by archbishop of Manila Miguel de Benavides, it has the oldest extant university charter in the...

, where he received his law degree in 1894.

The 1896 Revolution

Believing that the Reform Movement still had a chance to achieve success, Mabini did not immediately support the revolution of 1896. When José Rizal was executed in December that year, however, he changed his mind and gave the revolution his wholehearted support.

In 1898, while vacationing in Los Baños, Laguna
Los Baños, Laguna
The Nature and Science City of Los Baños is a 1st class urban city in the province of Laguna, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 98,631 inhabitants in 17,030 households...

, Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy was a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader. He played an instrumental role during the Philippines' revolution against Spain, and the subsequent Philippine-American War or War of Philippine Independence that resisted American occupation...

 sent for him. It took hundreds of men taking turns carrying his hammock to portage Mabini to Kawit. Aguinaldo, upon seeing Mabini's physical condition, must have entertained second thoughts in calling for his help.

Mabini was most active in the revolution in 1898
Philippine Revolution
The Philippine Revolution , called the "Tagalog War" by the Spanish, was an armed military conflict between the people of the Philippines and the Spanish colonial authorities which resulted in the secession of the Philippine Islands from the Spanish Empire.The Philippine Revolution began in August...

, when he served as the chief adviser for General Aguinaldo. He drafted decrees and crafted the first ever constitution in Asia for the First Philippine Republic, including the framework of the revolutionary government which was implemented in Malolos
Malolos Congress
-Further reading:*Philippine House of Representatives Congressional Library...

 in 1899.

Prime Minister of the Philippines

Apolinario Mabini was appointed prime minister
Prime Minister of the Philippines
The Prime Minister of the Philippines was the official designation of the head of the government of the Philippines from 1978 until People Power Revolution in 1986...

 and was also foreign minister
Department of Foreign Affairs (Philippines)
The Philippines' Department of Foreign Affairs is the executive department of the Philippine government tasked to contribute to the enhancement of national security and the protection of the territorial integrity and national sovereignty, to participate in the national endeavor of sustaining...

 of the newly independent dictatorial government of Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy was a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader. He played an instrumental role during the Philippines' revolution against Spain, and the subsequent Philippine-American War or War of Philippine Independence that resisted American occupation...

 on January 2, 1899. Eventually, the government declared the first Philippine republic in appropriate ceremonies on January 23, 1899. Mabini then led the first cabinet
Cabinet of the Philippines
The Cabinet of the Philippines consists of the heads of the largest part of the executive branch of the national government of the Philippines...

 of the republic.

Mabini found himself in the center of the most critical period in the new country's history, grappling with problems until then unimagined. Most notable of these were his negotiations with Americans, which began on March 6, 1899. The United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and the new Philippine Republic were embroiled in extremely contentious and eventually violent confrontations. During the negotiations for peace, Americans proffered Mabini autonomy for Aguinaldo's new government, but the talks failed because Mabini’s conditions included a ceasefire
Ceasefire
A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. Ceasefires may be declared as part of a formal treaty, but they have also been called as part of an informal understanding between opposing forces...

, which was rejected. Mabini negotiated once again, seeking for an armistice
Armistice
An armistice is a situation in a war where the warring parties agree to stop fighting. It is not necessarily the end of a war, but may be just a cessation of hostilities while an attempt is made to negotiate a lasting peace...

 instead, but the talks failed yet again. Eventually, feeling that the Americans were not negotiating 'bona fide,' he forswore the Americans, rallied the people, and supported war. He resigned from government on May 7, 1899.

Later life and death

He also joined the fraternity of Freemasonry.

On December 10, 1899, he was captured by Americans at Cuyapo, Nueva Ecija
Nueva Ecija
Nueva Ecija is a landlocked province of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon region. Its capital is Palayan City...

, but was later set free. In 1901, he was exiled to Guam
Guam
Guam is an organized, unincorporated territory of the United States located in the western Pacific Ocean. It is one of five U.S. territories with an established civilian government. Guam is listed as one of 16 Non-Self-Governing Territories by the Special Committee on Decolonization of the United...

, along with scores of revolutionists Americans referred to as 'insurrectos' and who refused to swear fealty to imperialist America. When Brig. Gen. Arthur C. MacArthur, Jr. was asked to explain by the US Senate why Mabini had to be deported, he cabled:
Mabini returned home to the Philippines in 1903 after agreeing to take the oath of allegiance to the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 on February 26, 1903 before the Collector of Customs. On the day he sailed, he issued this statement to the press:
To the chagrin of the American colonial officials, however, Mabini resumed his patriotic work of agitating for independence for the Philippines soon after he was back home from exile.
On May 13, 1903 Mabini died of cholera
Cholera
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine that is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The main symptoms are profuse watery diarrhea and vomiting. Transmission occurs primarily by drinking or eating water or food that has been contaminated by the diarrhea of an infected person or the feces...

 in Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

, at the age of 38.

Legacy

  • Two sites related to Mabini have been chosen to host shrines in his honor:

  • The house where Mabini died is now located in the campus of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines
    Polytechnic University of the Philippines
    The Polytechnic University of the Philippines commonly known as PUP is a public research university in the Philippines. It was founded on October 19, 1904 as the Manila Business School, offering commerce-related courses...

     (PUP) in Santa Mesa, Manila
    Santa Mesa, Manila
    Santa Mesa is one of the 16 geographical districts of the city of Manila, which is primarily a residential, commercial and educational center. Santa Mesa is bounded by several districts and cities...

    , having been moved twice. The simple nipa retains the original the furniture, and some of the books he wrote, and also contains souvenir items, while hosting the municipal library and reading facilities.

  • Mabini was buried in his town of birth - what is now Talaga, Tanauan City
    Tanauan City
    The City of Tanauan is a second class city in the province of Batangas, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 142,537 inhabitants in 21,912 households. It was incorporated as a city under Republic Act No...

    , Batangas
    Batangas
    Batangas is a first class province of the Philippines located on the southwestern part of Luzon in the CALABARZON region. Its capital is Batangas City and it is bordered by the provinces of Cavite and Laguna to the north and Quezon to the east. Across the Verde Island Passages to the south is the...

    . A replica of the house Mabini was born in was also constructed on the site, and also contains memorabilia.

  • Mabini's face adorns the Philippine Ten Peso bill
    Philippine peso bills
    Banknotes of the Philippine peso are issued by the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas for circulation in the Philippines. The smallest amount of legal tender in wide circulation is 20 peso and the largest is 1000 peso...

    , along with that of Andrés Bonifacio
    Andres Bonifacio
    Andrés Bonifacio y de Castro was a Filipino nationalist and revolutionary. He was a founder and later Supremo of the Katipunan movement which sought the independence of the Philippines from Spanish colonial rule and started the Philippine Revolution...

    .

  • Four Philippine municipalities are named after Mabini:
  • Mabini, Batangas
    Mabini, Batangas
    Mabini is a 1st class municipality in the Province of Batangas, Philippines. It is located on the Calumpang Peninisula between Batangas Bay to the east and Balayan Bay to the west. According to the latest census, Mabini has a population of 40,629 people in 7,025 households...

    ,
  • Mabini, Bohol
    Mabini, Bohol
    Mabini is a 4th class municipality in the province of Bohol, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 28,788 people.-Barangays:Mabini is politically subdivided into 22 barangays.-External links:*****...

    ,
  • Mabini, Compostela Valley
    Mabini, Compostela Valley
    Mabini is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Compostela Valley, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 32,058 people in 6,524 households.Mabini was formerly known as Doña Alicia, and was given its modern name only in 1954....

    , and
  • Mabini, Pangasinan
    Mabini, Pangasinan
    Mabini is a 4th class municipality in the province of Pangasinan, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 23,338 people in 4,774 households.-Barangays:Mabini is politically subdivided into 16 barangays. In 1954,...


  • The Philippine Navy
    Philippine Navy
    The Philippine Navy is the naval arm of the Armed Forces of the Philippines . Its official name in Filipino is Hukbong Dagat ng Pilipinas, literally, "Sea Force of the Philippines"....

    's Jacinto class corvette, BRP Apolinario Mabini (PS-36)
    BRP Apolinario Mabini (PS-36)
    The BRP Apolinario Mabini is one of the three Jacinto class of corvettes, and are considered as one of the most modern ships in the Philippine Navy. She was originally called HMS Plover during her service with the Royal Navy...

    , is also named after Mabini.

  • The Philippine government presents the annual Apolinario Mabini Awards to outstanding persons with disabilities.

  • The Mabini Academy
    The Mabini Academy
    The Mabini Academy of Lipa City, Batangas, Philippines, was founded as a non-stock, non-profit corporation on June 10, 1922 by Professor Randall A. Rowley, Dean Francisco Benitez, Mrs. Paz M. Benitez, Dr. Jose M. Katigbak, Mrs. Tarcila M. Katigbak, and Miss Emilia Malabanan...

     is a school in Lipa City, Batangas named after Mabini. The school logo carries Mabini's Image.

  • Southern Tagalog Arterial Road
    Southern Tagalog Arterial Road
    The Southern Tagalog Arterial Road is a four-lane and two-lane expressway in the Philippines...

     or Apolinario Mabini Superhighway is an expressway that connect the province of Batangas to the SLEX.

Controversy about Mabini's paralysis

Even during his lifetime, there were controversial rumors regarding the cause of Mabini's paralysis. Infighting among members of the Malolos congress led to the spread of rumors saying that Mabini's paralysis had by caused by venereal disease - specifically, syphilis. This was debunked only in 1980, when Mabini's bones were exhumed and the autopsy
Autopsy
An autopsy—also known as a post-mortem examination, necropsy , autopsia cadaverum, or obduction—is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse to determine the cause and manner of death and to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present...

 proved once and for all that the cause of his paralysis was Polio.

This information reached National Artist
National Artist of the Philippines
A National Artist of the Philippines is a title given to a Filipino who has been given the highest recognition for having made significant contributions to the development of Philippine arts...

 F. Sionil José
F. Sionil José
F. Sionil José or in full Francisco Sionil José is one of the most widely-read Filipino writers in the English language. His novels and short stories depict the social underpinnings of class struggles and colonialism in Filipino society...

 too late, however. By the time the historian Ambeth Ocampo
Ambeth Ocampo
Ambeth R. Ocampo is a multi-awarded Filipino historian, academic, journalist, and author best known for his writings about Philippines' national hero José Rizal and for "Looking Back", his bi-weekly editorial page column in the Philippine Daily Inquirer...

 told him about the autopsy results, he had already published Po-on
Po-on (novel)
Po-on A Novel is a novel written by Francisco Sionil José, a Filipino English-language writer. This is the original title when it was first published in the Philippines in the English language. In the United States, it was published under the title Dusk A Novel...

, the first novel of his Rosales Saga. That novel contained plot points based on the premise that Mabini had indeed become a paralytic due to syphilis.

In later editions of the book, the novelist corrected the error and issued an apology,which reads in part:
In the later editions, Mabini's disease - an important plot point - was changed to an undefined liver ailment. The ailing Mabini takes pride in the fact that his symptoms are definitely not those of syphilis, despite the rumors spread by his detractors in the Philippine Revolutionary government.

From Mabini

  • Describing his cabinet:


About Mabini

  • By former Military Governor of the Philippines, Gen. Arthur MacArthur
    Arthur MacArthur, Jr.
    Lieutenant General Arthur MacArthur, Jr. , was a United States Army General. He became the military Governor-General of the American-occupied Philippines in 1900 but his term ended a year later due to clashes with the civilian governor, future President William Howard Taft...

    , describing Mabini before the US Senate's Lodge Committee of 1902:


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK