Apayao
Overview
 
Apayao is a landlocked province
Provinces of the Philippines
The Provinces of the Philippines are the primary political and administrative divisions of the Philippines. There are 80 provinces at present, further subdivided into component cities and municipalities. The National Capital Region, as well as independent cities, are autonomous from any provincial...

 of the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 in the Cordillera Administrative Region
Cordillera Administrative Region
The Cordillera Administrative Region is a region in the Philippines composed of the provinces of Abra, Apayao, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga and Mountain Province, as well as Baguio City, the regional center. The Cordillera Administrative Region encompasses most of the areas within the Cordillera...

 in Luzon
Luzon
Luzon is the largest island in the Philippines. It is located in the northernmost region of the archipelago, and is also the name for one of the three primary island groups in the country centered on the Island of Luzon...

. Its administrative capital is Luna
Luna, Apayao
Luna is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Apayao, Philippines. Its former name was Macatel, changed to Luna by the town's founding father, the great Ilocano explorer Antonino Barroga from Dingras, Ilocos Norte...

 and founding capital Kabugao
Kabugao, Apayao
Kabugao is a municipality in the province of Apayao, Philippines. It is the capital municipality of Apayao. According to the latest census, it has a population of 14,529 people in 2,501 households.-Barangays:...

. It borders Cagayan
Cagayan
Cagayan , the "Land of Smiling Beauty", is a province of the Philippines in the Cagayan Valley region in Luzon. Its capital is Tuguegarao City and is located at the northeastern corner of the island of Luzon. Cagayan also includes the Babuyan Islands to the north. The province borders Ilocos Norte...

 to the north and east, Abra
Abra province
Abra is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is Bangued, and it borders Ilocos Norte and Apayao on the north, Ilocos Sur and Mountain Province on the south, Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur on the west, and Kalinga, and Apayao on the...

 and Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Norte is a province of the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region in Luzon. Its capital is Laoag City and is located at the northwest corner of Luzon Island, bordering Cagayan and Apayao to the east, and Abra and Ilocos Sur to the south...

 to the west, and Kalinga to the south. Prior to 1995, Kalinga and Apayao comprised a single province named Kalinga-Apayao
Kalinga-Apayao
During the Counter-Insurgency under the Japanese Occupation since 1942 to 1945 after the Japanese Invasion, many local Igorot and Cordilleran guerrillas was the fighting siege and invasions around the plains in Kalinga-Apayao in Mountain Province from the few months and three years and aiding the...

, until they were split into two to better service the needs of individual native tribes in the provinces.
Apayao is devoted to agricultural production, particularly food and industrial crops such as palay, corn, coffee, root crops and vegetables.
Encyclopedia
Apayao is a landlocked province
Provinces of the Philippines
The Provinces of the Philippines are the primary political and administrative divisions of the Philippines. There are 80 provinces at present, further subdivided into component cities and municipalities. The National Capital Region, as well as independent cities, are autonomous from any provincial...

 of the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 in the Cordillera Administrative Region
Cordillera Administrative Region
The Cordillera Administrative Region is a region in the Philippines composed of the provinces of Abra, Apayao, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga and Mountain Province, as well as Baguio City, the regional center. The Cordillera Administrative Region encompasses most of the areas within the Cordillera...

 in Luzon
Luzon
Luzon is the largest island in the Philippines. It is located in the northernmost region of the archipelago, and is also the name for one of the three primary island groups in the country centered on the Island of Luzon...

. Its administrative capital is Luna
Luna, Apayao
Luna is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Apayao, Philippines. Its former name was Macatel, changed to Luna by the town's founding father, the great Ilocano explorer Antonino Barroga from Dingras, Ilocos Norte...

 and founding capital Kabugao
Kabugao, Apayao
Kabugao is a municipality in the province of Apayao, Philippines. It is the capital municipality of Apayao. According to the latest census, it has a population of 14,529 people in 2,501 households.-Barangays:...

. It borders Cagayan
Cagayan
Cagayan , the "Land of Smiling Beauty", is a province of the Philippines in the Cagayan Valley region in Luzon. Its capital is Tuguegarao City and is located at the northeastern corner of the island of Luzon. Cagayan also includes the Babuyan Islands to the north. The province borders Ilocos Norte...

 to the north and east, Abra
Abra province
Abra is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is Bangued, and it borders Ilocos Norte and Apayao on the north, Ilocos Sur and Mountain Province on the south, Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur on the west, and Kalinga, and Apayao on the...

 and Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Norte is a province of the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region in Luzon. Its capital is Laoag City and is located at the northwest corner of Luzon Island, bordering Cagayan and Apayao to the east, and Abra and Ilocos Sur to the south...

 to the west, and Kalinga to the south. Prior to 1995, Kalinga and Apayao comprised a single province named Kalinga-Apayao
Kalinga-Apayao
During the Counter-Insurgency under the Japanese Occupation since 1942 to 1945 after the Japanese Invasion, many local Igorot and Cordilleran guerrillas was the fighting siege and invasions around the plains in Kalinga-Apayao in Mountain Province from the few months and three years and aiding the...

, until they were split into two to better service the needs of individual native tribes in the provinces.

Economy

Apayao is devoted to agricultural production, particularly food and industrial crops such as palay, corn, coffee, root crops and vegetables. Main fruits produce are lanzones, citrus, bananas and pineapples. Rice production totals 42,602 metric tons annually, as food crops totals 96,542 metric tons.

Economic activity is also based on livestock and poultry breeding such as swine, carabao, cattle, goat and sheep. Other additional investment includes manufacturing, food processing, furniture, crafts and house wares making.

Municipalities

  • Calanasan
    Calanasan, Apayao
    Calanasan is a 1st class municipality in the province of Apayao, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 9,663 people in 2,034 households...

     (Bayag)
  • Conner
    Conner, Apayao
    Conner is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Apayao, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 22,668 people in 3,808 households.-Barangays:Conner is politically subdivided into 21 barangays.* Allangigan* Buluan...

  • Flora
    Flora, Apayao
    Flora is a 4th class municipality in the province of Apayao, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 16,016 people in 2,985 households.-Barangays:Flora is politically subdivided into 16 barangays.* Allig* Anninipan* Atok...

  • Kabugao
    Kabugao, Apayao
    Kabugao is a municipality in the province of Apayao, Philippines. It is the capital municipality of Apayao. According to the latest census, it has a population of 14,529 people in 2,501 households.-Barangays:...

  • Luna
    Luna, Apayao
    Luna is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Apayao, Philippines. Its former name was Macatel, changed to Luna by the town's founding father, the great Ilocano explorer Antonino Barroga from Dingras, Ilocos Norte...

     (Macatel)
  • Pudtol
    Pudtol, Apayao
    Pudtol is a 4th class municipality in the province of Apayao, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 12,595 people in 2,066 households....

  • Santa Marcela
    Santa Marcela, Apayao
    Santa Marcela is a 5th class municipality in the province of Apayao, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 11,731 people in 1,995 households....


  • History

    Although Apayao was among the earliest areas penetrated by the Spaniards in the Cordilleras, the region, inhabited by the Isneg
    Isneg
    The Isneg are a tribe living in Luzon, the Philippines. The Isneg and other ethnic groups of the Cordillera Administrative Region are collectively known as Cordillerans. They speak the Isnag language....

     tribe, remained largely outside Spanish control until late in the 19th century. As early as 1610, the Dominican friars established a mission in what is now the town of Pudtol
    Pudtol, Apayao
    Pudtol is a 4th class municipality in the province of Apayao, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 12,595 people in 2,066 households....

    . In 1684, the friars again made vain attempts to convert the people and established a church in what is now Kabugao
    Kabugao, Apayao
    Kabugao is a municipality in the province of Apayao, Philippines. It is the capital municipality of Apayao. According to the latest census, it has a population of 14,529 people in 2,501 households.-Barangays:...

    . The ruins of the early churches in Pudtol and Kabugao still stand as mute testimony to the failed attempts to occupy Apayao.

    The Spanish authorities were then able to establish the comandancias of Apayao and Cabugaoan in 1891, which covered the western and eastern portions of what is now Apayao. The comandancias, however, failed to bring total control and the Spanish government only maintained a loose hold over the area.

    The Americans established the Mountain Province
    Mountain Province
    Mountain Province is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is Bontoc and borders, clockwise from the south, Ifugao, Benguet, Ilocos Sur, Abra, Kalinga, and Isabela.Mountain Province is sometimes incorrectly named Mountain in some...

     on August 13, 1908, with the enactment of Act
    Philippine Commission
    The Philippine Commission was a body appointed by the President of the United States to exercise legislative and limited executive powers in the Philippines. It was first appointed by President William McKinley in 1901. Beginning in 1907, it acted as the upper house of a bicameral Philippine...

     No. 1876. Apayao, along with Amburayan, Benguet
    Benguet
    Benguet is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is La Trinidad and borders, clockwise from the south, Pangasinan, La Union, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Ifugao, and Nueva Vizcaya....

    , Bontoc, Ifugao
    Ifugao
    Ifugao is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Covering a total land area of 262,820 hectares, the province of Ifugao is located in a mountainous region characterized by rugged terrain, river valleys, and massive forests...

    , Kalinga, and Lepanto, became sub-provinces of this new province. Before this, Apayao had been a part of Cagayan
    Cagayan
    Cagayan , the "Land of Smiling Beauty", is a province of the Philippines in the Cagayan Valley region in Luzon. Its capital is Tuguegarao City and is located at the northeastern corner of the island of Luzon. Cagayan also includes the Babuyan Islands to the north. The province borders Ilocos Norte...

     province.

    In 1942, Japanese Imperial forces entered Apayao, starting a three-year occupation of the province during the Second World War. Local Filipino troops of the 1st, 2nd, 12th, 15th and 16th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and the military forces of the USAFIP-NL 11th and 66th Infantry Regiment, supported by the Cordilleran guerrillas, drove out the Japanese in 1945.

    After almost 60 years, on June 18, 1966, the huge Mountain Province was split into four provinces with the enactment of Republic Act
    Republic Acts of the Philippines
    This article contains a partial list of Philippine laws. Philippine laws have had various nomenclature designations at different periods in the history of the Philippines, as shown in the following table:...

     No. 4695. The four provinces were Benguet, Bontoc (renamed Mountain Province), Kalinga-Apayao
    Kalinga-Apayao
    During the Counter-Insurgency under the Japanese Occupation since 1942 to 1945 after the Japanese Invasion, many local Igorot and Cordilleran guerrillas was the fighting siege and invasions around the plains in Kalinga-Apayao in Mountain Province from the few months and three years and aiding the...

     and Ifugao. Kalinga-Apayao, along with Ifugao, became one of the provinces of the Cagayan Valley
    Cagayan Valley
    Cagayan Valley is a region of the Philippines, also designated as Region II or Region 02. It is composed of five provinces, namely: Batanes, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, and Quirino...

     region in 1972.

    On July 15, 1987, the Cordillera Administrative Region
    Cordillera Administrative Region
    The Cordillera Administrative Region is a region in the Philippines composed of the provinces of Abra, Apayao, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga and Mountain Province, as well as Baguio City, the regional center. The Cordillera Administrative Region encompasses most of the areas within the Cordillera...

     was established and Kalinga-Apayao was made one of its provinces. Finally, on February 14, 1995, Kalinga-Apayao was split into two distinct provinces with the passage of Republic Act No. 7878.

    The merged outlines of Apayao and Kalinga resemble a bust of a man akin to former President Ferdinand Marcos
    Ferdinand Marcos
    Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. was a Filipino leader and an authoritarian President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He was a lawyer, member of the Philippine House of Representatives and a member of the Philippine Senate...

     (looking toward his home province, Ilocos Norte
    Ilocos Norte
    Ilocos Norte is a province of the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region in Luzon. Its capital is Laoag City and is located at the northwest corner of Luzon Island, bordering Cagayan and Apayao to the east, and Abra and Ilocos Sur to the south...

    ) whom the media called as the "Great Profile" during the Marcos Era.

    Demographics

    Based on the 2000 census survey, half of the population is Ilocano
    Ilocano people
    The Ilocano or Ilokano people are the third largest Filipino ethnolinguistic group. Aside from being referred to as Ilocanos, from "i"-from, and "looc"-bay, they also refer to themselves as Samtoy, from the Ilocano phrase "sao mi ditoy", meaning 'our language here.' The word "Ilocano" came from...

     50.82% and almost 1/3 of the population is Isnag 29.95%. Other ethnic groups living in the province are the Malaueg 3.69%, Isneg
    Isneg
    The Isneg are a tribe living in Luzon, the Philippines. The Isneg and other ethnic groups of the Cordillera Administrative Region are collectively known as Cordillerans. They speak the Isnag language....

     3.48%, Kalinga 3.08%, Ibaloi
    Ibaloi
    The Ibaloi or Nabaloi is an indigenous ethnic group found in the northern Philippines. The Ibaloi are one of the indigenous peoples collectively known as Igorot, who live in the mountains of the Cordillera Central on the island of Luzon...

     1.01%, Kankana-ey 1.24% and Bontok 1.04%.

    External links

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