Anti-Communist Volunteer Militia
The White Guard was a name given colloquially and collectively by the Partisans to an ensemble of Slovene
Slovenia , officially the Republic of Slovenia , is a country in Central and Southeastern Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. Slovenia borders Italy to the west, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north, and also has a small portion of...

 anti-communist political and paramilitary groups during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. The name White Guard was used exclusively by the Partisans and their local organization the Liberation Front of the Slovenian People
Liberation Front of the Slovenian People
On 26 April 1941 in Ljubljana the Anti-Imperialist Front was established. It was to promote "an international massive movement" to "liberate the Slovenian nation" whose "hope and example was the Soviet Union"...

, and not by the anti-communist organizations themselves.

After the invasion of Yugoslavia
Invasion of Yugoslavia
The Invasion of Yugoslavia , also known as the April War , was the Axis Powers' attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II...

 by Axis forces
Axis Powers
The Axis powers , also known as the Axis alliance, Axis nations, Axis countries, or just the Axis, was an alignment of great powers during the mid-20th century that fought World War II against the Allies. It began in 1936 with treaties of friendship between Germany and Italy and between Germany and...

, part of Slovenia's territory was reorganized as the Province of Ljubljana
Province of Ljubljana
The Province of Ljubljana was a province of the Kingdom of Italy and of the Nazi German Adriatic Littoral during World War II. It was created on May 3, 1941 from territory occupied and annexed to Italy after the Axis invasion and dissolution of Yugoslavia, and it was abolished on May 9, 1945, when...

. Followers of the Slovene People's Party
Slovene People's Party (historical)
The Slovene People's Party was a Slovenian political party in the 19th and 20th centuries, active in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Between 1907 and 1941, it was the largest and arguably the most influential political party in the Slovene Lands...

 met up with other non-communist political groups and set up the underground Slovenian Alliance in order to fight against the Communist Party of Yugoslavia's local Partisans.

Slovenian Alliance

The dominant figures in the Slovenian Alliance were Marko Natlačen
Marko Natlačen
Marko Natlačen was a Slovenian politician and jurist, who also served as a ban of the Dravska banovina but is perhaps best remembered as the author of the xenophobic slogan Srbe na vrbe.-Biography:...

, bishop Gregorij Rožman
Gregorij Rožman
Gregorij Rožman was a Slovenian Roman Catholic clergyman and theologian. Between 1930 and 1959, he served as bishop of the Diocese of Ljubljana. He is most famous for his controversial role during World War II...

 and general Leon Rupnik
Leon Rupnik
Leon Rupnik, also known as Lav Rupnik or Lev Rupnik was a Slovene general during the Kingdom of Yugoslavia who collaborated with the Fascist Italian and Nazi German occupation forces during World War II...

. The Slovenian Alliance secretly swore allegiance to the government-in-exile of King Peter II
Peter II of Yugoslavia
Peter II, also known as Peter II Karađorđević , was the third and last King of Yugoslavia...

 and nominally recognized the authority of Chetnik leader Draža Mihailović
Draža Mihailovic
Dragoljub "Draža" Mihailović was a Yugoslav Serbian general during World War II...

, but actually hampered the efforts of Karel Novak, Mihailović's representative in Slovenia, to set up a local Chetnik organization.

With Italy's capitulation in September 1943, the Slovenian Alliance attempted to make contact with the Anglo-Americans in the hope of an Allied landing, but were soon under attack by the Partisans, who had taken possession of Italian arms. Without a unified command structure, the anti-communist forces were dispersed by the attack.

Slovene troops, including about 2000 former members of the Slovene MVAC, subsequently formed the Slovene Home Guard, led by Leon Rupnik under German patronage.

The name White Guard has been used to refer collectively to the Village Guards, the Slovenian Alliance, the slovene MVAC, and occasionnally the Slovene Home Guard.

Post war

The majority of the White Guard (as well as the Home Guard units) after the war were executed by the Yugoslav Army
Yugoslav Army
Aside from the Yugoslav People's Army, the terms Yugoslav Army, Army of Yugoslavia, or Military of Yugoslavia may refer to:* Yugoslav Partisans , the Yugoslav resistance army during World War II...

. According to the European Public Hearing on “Crimes Committed by Totalitarian Regimes" they were executed without a trial. The Slovenian Government created the Commission on Concealed Mass Graves in Slovenia
Commission on Concealed Mass Graves in Slovenia
The Commission on Concealed Mass Graves in Slovenia is an office of the Slovenian government whose task is to find and document mass grave sites from the Second World War and the period immediately after it. It was established on November 10, 2005...

and documented the mass grave sites of the POWs. They were investigated between November 2005 and October 2009. The POWs units that were not executed were placed in Yugoslav concentration camps.
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