Altona, Hamburg
Overview
 
Altona (ˈaltona) is the westernmost urban borough (Bezirk) of the German
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 city state
States of Germany
Germany is made up of sixteen which are partly sovereign constituent states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Land literally translates as "country", and constitutionally speaking, they are constituent countries...

 of Hamburg
Hamburg
-History:The first historic name for the city was, according to Claudius Ptolemy's reports, Treva.But the city takes its modern name, Hamburg, from the first permanent building on the site, a castle whose construction was ordered by the Emperor Charlemagne in AD 808...

, on the right bank of the Elbe
Elbe
The Elbe is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. It rises in the Krkonoše Mountains of the northwestern Czech Republic before traversing much of Bohemia , then Germany and flowing into the North Sea at Cuxhaven, 110 km northwest of Hamburg...

 river. From 1640 to 1864 Altona was under the administration of the Danish
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

 monarchy. Altona was an independent city until 1937. In 2006 the population was 243,972.
Founded in 1535 as a village of fishermen, in 1664 Altona received city rights from Danish King Frederik III.
Encyclopedia
Altona (ˈaltona) is the westernmost urban borough (Bezirk) of the German
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 city state
States of Germany
Germany is made up of sixteen which are partly sovereign constituent states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Land literally translates as "country", and constitutionally speaking, they are constituent countries...

 of Hamburg
Hamburg
-History:The first historic name for the city was, according to Claudius Ptolemy's reports, Treva.But the city takes its modern name, Hamburg, from the first permanent building on the site, a castle whose construction was ordered by the Emperor Charlemagne in AD 808...

, on the right bank of the Elbe
Elbe
The Elbe is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. It rises in the Krkonoše Mountains of the northwestern Czech Republic before traversing much of Bohemia , then Germany and flowing into the North Sea at Cuxhaven, 110 km northwest of Hamburg...

 river. From 1640 to 1864 Altona was under the administration of the Danish
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

 monarchy. Altona was an independent city until 1937. In 2006 the population was 243,972.

History

Founded in 1535 as a village of fishermen, in 1664 Altona received city rights from Danish King Frederik III. Until 1864, Altona was one of the Danish monarchy's most important harbour towns. The railroad from Altona to Kiel
Kiel
Kiel is the capital and most populous city in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 238,049 .Kiel is approximately north of Hamburg. Due to its geographic location in the north of Germany, the southeast of the Jutland peninsula, and the southwestern shore of the...

, the Christian VIII
Christian VIII of Denmark
Christian VIII , was king of Denmark from 1839 to 1848 and, as Christian Frederick, king of Norway in 1814. He was the eldest son of Hereditary Prince Frederick of Denmark and Norway and Sophia Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, born in 1786 at Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen...

 Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
The Baltic Sea is a brackish mediterranean sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. It is bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainland of Europe, and the Danish islands. It drains into the Kattegat by way of the Øresund, the Great Belt and...

 Rail Line (Christian VIII Østersø Jernbane), was opened in 1844.

Because of the severe restrictions on the number of Jews allowed to live in Hamburg (with the exception of the period of 1811–15,) until 1864, a major Jewish community developed in Altona. Members did business both in Hamburg and in Altona itself. All that remains after the Nazi Holocaust during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 is the Jewish cemetery
Jewish cemetery
A Jewish cemetery is a cemetery where members of the Jewish faith are buried in keeping with Jewish tradition....

, but in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, the community was a major center of Jewish life and scholarship
Scholarship
A scholarship is an award of financial aid for a student to further education. Scholarships are awarded on various criteria usually reflecting the values and purposes of the donor or founder of the award.-Types:...

. The Danes had lower taxes and placed fewer civil impositions on their Jewish community than did the government of Hamburg.

The wars between Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

 and the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
The Kingdom of Prussia was a German kingdom from 1701 to 1918. Until the defeat of Germany in World War I, it comprised almost two-thirds of the area of the German Empire...

, such as the First Schleswig War (1848–1851) and the Second War of Schleswig
Second War of Schleswig
The Second Schleswig War was the second military conflict as a result of the Schleswig-Holstein Question. It began on 1 February 1864, when Prussian forces crossed the border into Schleswig.Denmark fought Prussia and Austria...

 (February 1864 – October 1864) followed by the Gastein Convention
Gastein Convention
In diplomacy, the Gastein Convention, also called the Convention of Badgastein, a treaty signed at Bad Gastein in Austria on August 20, 1865, embodied agreements between the two principal powers of the German Confederation, Prussia and Austria, over the governing of the provinces of Schleswig and...

 (1864), led to Denmark's cession of the Duchies of Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg to Prussian and Austrian administration, respectively. In 1867 Altona became part of the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
The Kingdom of Prussia was a German kingdom from 1701 to 1918. Until the defeat of Germany in World War I, it comprised almost two-thirds of the area of the German Empire...

.

In 1871 Altona and the nearby city Hamburg were hit by cholera
Cholera
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine that is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The main symptoms are profuse watery diarrhea and vomiting. Transmission occurs primarily by drinking or eating water or food that has been contaminated by the diarrhea of an infected person or the feces...

, with a minimum of 16 casualties.

During the Weimar era following World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, the city of Altona was disturbed by major worker strikes and street disorders. Inflation in Germany was a major problem. In 1923 Max Brauer
Max Brauer
Max Julius Friedrich Brauer was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party and First Mayor of Hamburg....

, the mayor of Altona, directed that city personnel be paid in part with gas meter tokens, as these coins did not lose value from inflation. The most notable event at this time is the Altona Bloody Sunday (German: Altonaer Blutsonntag) on July 7, 1932 when several persons were shot by the police force during a demonstration of Nazi groups. After police raids and a special court, on August 1, 1933 Bruno Tesch
Bruno Tesch (antifascist)
Bruno Guido Camillo Tesch was a German antifascist and member of the Young Communist League of Germany. Aged 20, he was convicted of murder and executed in connection with the Altona Bloody Sunday riot, an SA march on 17 July 1932 that turned violent and led to 18 people being shot and killed...

 and others were found guilty and executed by beheading with a hand-held axe. In the 1990s, the Federal Republic of Germany reversed the convictions of Tesch and the other men who were executed, clearing their names.

The Greater Hamburg Act removed Altona from the Free State of Prussia in 1937 and merged it (and several surrounding cities) with the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg in 1938.

On 1 February 2007 the Ortsämter (Precincts) in Hamburg were dissolved. In Altona were the precincts Blankenese, Lurup and Osdorf with local offices. On 1 March 2008 the Schanzenviertel neighborhood, which had spanned across parts of the boroughs of Altona, Eimsbüttel and Hamburg-Mitte, became the Sternschanze quarter, the entirety of which is now in the Altona borough.

Geography

The border of Altona to the south is the River Elbe
Elbe
The Elbe is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. It rises in the Krkonoše Mountains of the northwestern Czech Republic before traversing much of Bohemia , then Germany and flowing into the North Sea at Cuxhaven, 110 km northwest of Hamburg...

, and across the river the state Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony is a German state situated in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the sixteen states of Germany...

 and the boroughs Harburg
Hamburg-Harburg
Harburg is a borough of the city of Hamburg, Germany and a quarter in this borough. The borough Harburg lies on the southern shores of the river Elbe and covers parts of the port of Hamburg, residential and rural areas and some research institutes...

 and Hamburg-Mitte
Hamburg-Mitte
Hamburg-Mitte located in the Free and Hanseatic city of Hamburg, Germany is one of the seven boroughs of Hamburg, covering mostly the urban center of the city of Hamburg. The quarters Hamburg-Altstadt and Neustadt are the historical origin of Hamburg...

. To the east is the borough Hamburg-Mitte and to the north is the borough Eimsbüttel
Eimsbüttel
Eimsbüttel is one of the seven boroughs of Hamburg, Germany. In 2006 the population was 246,087.-History:On March 1, 2008 Eimsbüttel lost a part of its area to form the quarter Sternschanze in the borough Altona.-Geography:...

. The western border is to the state of Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the sixteen states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig...

. According to the statistical office Hamburg the area of Altona was in 2006 77.5 km² or 29.9 sq mi.

Quarters

Politically, the following quarters (German Stadtteile) are subject to the Altona borough:
  1. Altona-Altstadt
  2. Altona-Nord
    Altona-Nord, Hamburg
    Altona-Nord located in the Altona borough in the city Hamburg, Germany, is one of 105 quarters of Hamburg. In 2006 the population was 21,406.-Geography:According to the statistical office of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein, the quarter has a total area of ....

  3. Bahrenfeld
    Bahrenfeld
    Bahrenfeld is a western quarter of the city of Hamburg in Germany, it is subject to the district/borough Bezirk Altona and was an independent settlement until 1890. It is home to DESY and the Color Line Arena. In 2006 the population was 26,434.-History:...

  4. Ottensen
    Ottensen
    Ottensen located in Hamburg, Germany in the Altona borough on the right bank of the Elbe river, is a former town. It is a now one of the 105 quarters of Hamburg. Ottensen is an urban area, which population was 32,757 in 2006....

  5. Othmarschen
    Othmarschen
    Othmarschen is a quarter in the Altona borough of the Hamburg in northern Germany. In 2006 the population was 12,169.-History:The first records on Othmarschen are from 1317...

     (including parts of Klein Flottbek)
  6. Groß Flottbek
  7. Osdorf
    Osdorf, Hamburg
    Osdorf is a quarter in the city of Hamburg, Germany. It belongs to the Altona borough. In 2006 the population was 25,206.-History:...

  8. Lurup
    Lurup
    Lurup is a quarter in the Altona borough of the Free and Hanseatic city of Hamburg in northern Germany. It was a former independent town. In 2006 the population was 33,459.-History:...

  9. Nienstedten
    Nienstedten
    Nienstedten is a quarter in the city of Hamburg, Germany. It belongs to the Altona borough on the right bank of the Elbe river. Nienstedten is home to the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea. In 2006 the population was 6,783.-Geography:...

     (including parts of Klein Flottbek)
  10. Blankenese
    Blankenese
    Blankenese is a former independent town, now a suburban quarter in the borough Altona in the western part of Hamburg . It is located on right bank of the Elbe river...

  11. Iserbrook
    Iserbrook
    Iserbrook is a quarter in the Altona borough of the Free and Hanseatic city of Hamburg in northern Germany. In 2007 the population was 10,660.-Geography:...

  12. Sülldorf
    Sülldorf
    Sülldorf is a quarter in the Altona borough of the Free and Hanseatic city of Hamburg in northern Germany. In 2006 the population was 8,980.-Geography:...

  13. Rissen
  14. Sternschanze



Demographics

In 2006 in the borough Altona were living 243,972 people. 16.4% were children under the age of 18, and 18.6% were 65 years of age or older. 15.3% were immigrants. 12,545 people were registered as unemployed. In 1999 48% of all households were made up of individuals.

There were 37 elementary schools and 30 secondary schools in Altona and 635 physicians in private practice and 67 pharmacies.

Diet of the borough

Simultaneously with elections to the state parliament (Bürgerschaft), the Bezirksversammlung is elected as representatives of the citizens. It consists of 51 representatives.

Elections

Elections were held in Hamburg on 20 February 2011. The five parties having more than 5 percent in recent polls (minimum to qualify) are the conservative CDU
Christian Democratic Union (Germany)
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany is a Christian democratic and conservative political party in Germany. It is regarded as on the centre-right of the German political spectrum...

, the social-democratic SPD
Social Democratic Party of Germany
The Social Democratic Party of Germany is a social-democratic political party in Germany...

, the ecologist Green Party
Alliance '90/The Greens
Alliance '90/The Greens is a green political party in Germany, formed from the merger of the German Green Party and Alliance 90 in 1993. Its leaders are Claudia Roth and Cem Özdemir...

 (GAL), the left-wing Die Linke
The Left (Germany)
The Left , also commonly referred to as the Left Party , is a democratic socialist political party in Germany. The Left is the most left-wing party of the five represented in the Bundestag....

 and the liberal Free Democratic Party
Free Democratic Party (Germany)
The Free Democratic Party , abbreviated to FDP, is a centre-right classical liberal political party in Germany. It is led by Philipp Rösler and currently serves as the junior coalition partner to the Union in the German federal government...

 (FDP).

Transportation

Altona is the location of a major railway station
Train station
A train station, also called a railroad station or railway station and often shortened to just station,"Station" is commonly understood to mean "train station" unless otherwise qualified. This is evident from dictionary entries e.g...

, Hamburg-Altona
Hamburg-Altona railway station
Hamburg-Altona or Altona is a railway station in Hamburg, Germany. It is situated west of the city's main station, Hamburg Hauptbahnhof , in the district of Altona, and is the usual terminus for southbound long-distance trains....

, connecting the local rapid transit
Hamburg S-Bahn
The Hamburg S-Bahn is a railway network for public rapid mass transit in the Hamburg Metropolitan Region. Together the S-Bahn, the Hamburg U-Bahn, the AKN railway and the regional railway form the backbone of railway public transport in the city and the surrounding area...

 with the regional railways and local bus lines.

The Bundesautobahn 7 leads through Altona borough.

According to the Department of Motor Vehicles (Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt), in Altona 87,131 private cars were registered (359 cars/1000 people).

See also

  • Jean de Labadie
    Jean de Labadie
    Jean de Labadie was a 17th century French pietist. Originally a Roman Catholic Jesuit priest, he became a member of the Reformed Church in 1650, before founding the community which became known as the Labadists in 1669...

     (1610–1674), French Christian mystic who died in Altona.
  • Jonathan Eybeschutz
    Jonathan Eybeschutz
    Jonathan Eybeschutz , was a Talmudist, Halachist, Kabbalist, holding positions as Dayan of Prague, and later as Rabbi of the "Three Communities": Altona, Hamburg and Wandsbek. With Jacob Emden, he is well known as a protagonist in the Emden-Eybeschütz Controversy.-Biography:Eybeschütz's father was...

     (1690–1764), was a Talmudist, Halachist, and Kabbalist who died in Altona.
  • George Jarvis (Philhellene)
    George Jarvis (Philhellene)
    George Jarvis - was the first of American Philhellenes who took part in the Greek Revolution.-Biography:George Jarvis, born in Altona, Denmark, was the son of Benjamin Jarvis, an American diplomat on assignment in Europe. While Jarvis was student in German university, he fired by enthusiasm for...

    (1797–1828), was the first of American Philhellenes who took part in the Greek Revolution 1821-1829,general of Greek army,born in Altona

External links

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