Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town
The Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town is both a federally recognized Native American tribe and a traditional township of Muskogean-speaking Alabama  and Coushatta
----The Coushatta are a historic Muskogean-speaking Native American people living primarily in the U.S. state of Louisiana. When first encountered by Europeans, they lived in the territory of present-day Georgia and Alabama...

 (also known as Quassarte) peoples. Their traditional languages include Alabama
Alabama language
Alabama is a Native American language, spoken by the Alabama-Coushatta tribe of Texas. It was once spoken by the Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town of Oklahoma, but there are no more Alabama speakers in Oklahoma. It is a Muskogean language, and is believed to have been related to the Muklasa and...

, Koasati
Koasati language
Koasati is a Native American language of Muskogean origin. The language is spoken by the Coushatta people, most of whom live in Allen Parish north of the town of Elton, Louisiana, though a smaller number share a reservation near Livingston, Texas, with the Alabama people...

, and Mvskoke
Creek language
The Creek language, also known as Muskogee or Muscogee , is a Muskogean language spoken by Muscogee and Seminole people primarily in the U.S. states of Oklahoma and Florida....

. The tribe includes 380 enrolled members.

Other federally recognized Coushatta tribes are the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana and the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas. Two other Muscogee tribal towns are federally recognized, and 40 tribal towns, or talwa, remain enrolled in the Muscogee Creek Nation.


The Quassarte
----The Coushatta are a historic Muskogean-speaking Native American people living primarily in the U.S. state of Louisiana. When first encountered by Europeans, they lived in the territory of present-day Georgia and Alabama...

 and Alabama
Alabama (people)
The Alabama or Alibamu are a Southeastern culture people of Native Americans, originally from Mississippi...

 were originally two distinct tribes, who both lived on the banks of the Alabama River
Alabama River
The Alabama River, in the U.S. state of Alabama, is formed by the Tallapoosa and Coosa rivers, which unite about north of Montgomery.The river flows west to Selma, then southwest until, about from Mobile, it unites with the Tombigbee, forming the Mobile and Tensaw rivers, which discharge into...

 from Mobile, Alabama
Mobile, Alabama
Mobile is the third most populous city in the Southern US state of Alabama and is the county seat of Mobile County. It is located on the Mobile River and the central Gulf Coast of the United States. The population within the city limits was 195,111 during the 2010 census. It is the largest...

 to the upper reaches of the river. Both the river and the state are named after the Alabama. The Quassarte are also known as the Coushatta
----The Coushatta are a historic Muskogean-speaking Native American people living primarily in the U.S. state of Louisiana. When first encountered by Europeans, they lived in the territory of present-day Georgia and Alabama...

 or Koasati, in their own language.

The two tribes shared many similarities in their languages and culture, as they were both Muskogean speaking. In the early 17th century, after a conflict with French settlers, the tribes formed an alliance. They intermarried freely and became active trading partners. In 1763, the two tribes joined the Muscogee Nation Confederacy (also called the Creek Confederacy).

Before removal of the Muscogee Creek people from Alabama
Alabama is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Mississippi to the west. Alabama ranks 30th in total land area and ranks second in the size of its inland...

 in the 1830s, the Muscogee Nation Confederacy included over 44 different tribal towns. The Alabama and Quassarte peoples made up six to eight of those towns. Facing increasing encroachment by European-American settlers, some of the Quassarte and Alabama peoples moved into Louisiana and Texas in the late 18th century and early 19th century. These emigrants formed what are today the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana and the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas. Those who stayed in Alabama joined forces and became a single town.

The Indian Removal Act
Indian Removal Act
The Indian Removal Act was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830.The Removal Act was strongly supported in the South, where states were eager to gain access to lands inhabited by the Five Civilized Tribes. In particular, Georgia, the largest state at that time, was involved in...

 of 1830 forced the tribal town, along with the rest of the Muscogee, to Indian Territory
Indian Territory
The Indian Territory, also known as the Indian Territories and the Indian Country, was land set aside within the United States for the settlement of American Indians...

 west of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
The Mississippi River is the largest river system in North America. Flowing entirely in the United States, this river rises in western Minnesota and meanders slowly southwards for to the Mississippi River Delta at the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains...

. They settled in what would become Hughes, McIntosh, Okfuskee, and Seminole Counties. The Dawes Allotment Act
Dawes Act
The Dawes Act, adopted by Congress in 1887, authorized the President of the United States to survey Indian tribal land and divide the land into allotments for individual Indians. The Act was named for its sponsor, Senator Henry L. Dawes of Massachusetts. The Dawes Act was amended in 1891 and again...

 of 1887 and the Curtis Act of 1898
Curtis Act of 1898
The Curtis Act of 1898 was an amendment to the United States Dawes Act that brought about the allotment process of lands of the Five Civilized Tribes of Indian Territory: the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Muscogee, Cherokee, and Seminole...

, intended to increase assimilation, provided for allotments of land to individual households from the communal reservation lands and sale of the "surplus"; in addition, it required the extinguishing of tribal governments and courts. The Bureau of Indian Affairs
Bureau of Indian Affairs
The Bureau of Indian Affairs is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the US Department of the Interior. It is responsible for the administration and management of of land held in trust by the United States for Native Americans in the United States, Native American...

 took an increased role on the reservations.

The Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town still maintained its cultural identity and kept traditional dances and beliefs alive at the Alabama Ceremonial Grounds near Wetumka. Other Native American peoples also survived culturally and preserved their religious practices. The town took the opportunity afforded by the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act
Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act
The Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act of 1936, also known as the Thomas-Rogers Act, is a United States federal law that extended the US Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. It sought to return some form of tribal government to the many tribes in former Indian Territory...

 of 1936; it organized as a distinct, federally recognized tribe in April of 1939. Due to its historic relationship with the Muscogee Creek Nation, tribal members can maintain dual citizenship in both tribes.


The Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town is headquartered in Wetumka, Oklahoma
Wetumka, Oklahoma
Wetumka is a city in Hughes County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 1,451 at the 2000 census. It is the headquarters for two federally recognized tribes, the Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town and the Kialegee Tribal Town...

. Tribal enrollment stands at 370, with all tribal members living within the state of Oklahoma.

The Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town is governed by a chief, second chief, secretary, floor speaker, solicitor, chairman of the governing committee, and the governing committee itself, with twelve elected members. Tarpie Yargee is the elected chief, currently serving a four-year term.

Tribal enrollment is based on lineal descent from 1890 and 1895 tribal rolls and does not require a minimum blood quantum.

The tribe maintains a close relationship with the Muscogee Creek Nation and falls under the jurisdiction of their tribal courts. Some members are dually enrolled in the Muscogee Nation. Its tribal jurisdictional area, as opposed to a reservation, spans Creek, Hughes, Mayes, McIntosh, Muskogee, Okfuskee, Okmulgee, Rogers, Seminole, Tulsa, and Wagoner counties in Oklahoma. The Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town operates a tribal housing program and a smoke shop, with tax-free cigarette sales, in Henryetta, Oklahoma
Henryetta, Oklahoma
Henryetta is a city in Okmulgee County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 6,096 at the 2000 census.Henryetta is notable as the high school hometown of NFL Hall of Fame quarterback Troy Aikman...


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.