Agra
Overview
Agra (ˈɑːɡrə; ) a.k.a. Akbarabad
Akbarabad
Akbarabad may refer to:* Agra, called Akbarabad when it was the capital of the Mughal Empire*Akbarabad, Ardebil, Iran*Akbarabad, Bushehr, Iran*Akbarabad, Fars, Iran*Akbarabad-e Pa'in, a village in Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran...

is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna
Yamuna
The Yamuna is the largest tributary river of the Ganges in northern India...

 in the northern state
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

 of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh abbreviation U.P. , is a state located in the northern part of India. With a population of over 200 million people, it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity...

, India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, 363 kilometres (226 mi) west of state capital, Lucknow
Lucknow
Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh in India. Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division....

 and 200 kilometres (124 mi) south from national capital New Delhi
New Delhi
New Delhi is the capital city of India. It serves as the centre of the Government of India and the Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi. New Delhi is situated within the metropolis of Delhi. It is one of the nine districts of Delhi Union Territory. The total area of the city is...

. With a population of 1,686,976 (2010 est.), it is one of the most populous cities in Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh abbreviation U.P. , is a state located in the northern part of India. With a population of over 200 million people, it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity...

 and the 19th most populous in India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. Because 80 percent of the city's sewage flows into Yamuna River, it is 20th most polluted city in India.
Unanswered Questions
Encyclopedia
Agra (ˈɑːɡrə; ) a.k.a. Akbarabad
Akbarabad
Akbarabad may refer to:* Agra, called Akbarabad when it was the capital of the Mughal Empire*Akbarabad, Ardebil, Iran*Akbarabad, Bushehr, Iran*Akbarabad, Fars, Iran*Akbarabad-e Pa'in, a village in Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran...

is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna
Yamuna
The Yamuna is the largest tributary river of the Ganges in northern India...

 in the northern state
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

 of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh abbreviation U.P. , is a state located in the northern part of India. With a population of over 200 million people, it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity...

, India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, 363 kilometres (226 mi) west of state capital, Lucknow
Lucknow
Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh in India. Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division....

 and 200 kilometres (124 mi) south from national capital New Delhi
New Delhi
New Delhi is the capital city of India. It serves as the centre of the Government of India and the Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi. New Delhi is situated within the metropolis of Delhi. It is one of the nine districts of Delhi Union Territory. The total area of the city is...

. With a population of 1,686,976 (2010 est.), it is one of the most populous cities in Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh abbreviation U.P. , is a state located in the northern part of India. With a population of over 200 million people, it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity...

 and the 19th most populous in India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. Because 80 percent of the city's sewage flows into Yamuna River, it is 20th most polluted city in India. Agra can also refer to the administrative district
Agra District
Agra District is one of the 70 districts of Uttar Pradesh state of India, and the historical city of Agra is the district headquarters. Agra district is a part of Agra division.-Geography:...

 that has its headquarters in Agra city.

The city finds mention in the epic
Indian epic poetry
Indian epic poetry is the epic poetry written in the Indian subcontinent, traditionally called Kavya . The Ramayana and Mahabharata, originally composed in Sanskrit and translated thereafter into many other Indian languages, are some of the oldest surviving epic poems on earth and form part of...

 Mahābhārata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

 where it was called Agrevaṇa, or 'the border of the forest'. Legend ascribes the founding of the city to Rājā Badal Singh, a Sikarwar Rajput king (circa 1475), whose fort, Badalgarh, stood on or near the site of the present Fort. However, the 11th century Persian poet Mas'ūd Sa'd Salmān
Masud Sa'd Salman
Mas'ud-i Sa'd-i Salmān was an 11th century Persian poet of the Ghaznavid empire who is known as the prisoner poet. He lived from 1046 to 1121.-Early life:He was born in 1046 in Lahore to wealthy parents from Hamadan, present-day Iran...

 writes of a desperate assault on the fortress of Agra, then held by the Shāhī
Shahi
The Shahi , Sahi, also called Shahiya dynasties ruled one of the Middle kingdoms of India which included portions of the Kabulistan and the old province of Gandhara , from the decline of the Kushan Empire in the 3rd century to the early 9th century...

 King Jayapala
Jayapala
Jayapala Janjua Shahi, the son of Asatapala and father of Anandapal, was the first king and founder of the Hindushahi dynasty of Afghanistan and Northwest Pakistan. He succeeded the last Brahman Shahi king Bhimadeva in about 964 CE, and thus began the Janjua Rajput phase of Shahiya Dynasties...

, by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni , actually ', was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid dynasty who ruled from 997 until his death in 1030 in the eastern Iranian lands. Mahmud turned the former provincial city of Ghazni into the wealthy capital of an extensive empire which covered most of today's Iran,...

. Sultan Sikandar Lodī was the first to move his capital from Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

 to Agra in the year 1506; he died in 1517 and his son Ibrāhīm Lodī remained in power there for nine more years, finally being defeated at the Battle of Panipat in 1526. It achieved fame as the capital of the Mughal
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

 emperors from 1526 to 1658 and remains a major tourist destination because of its many splendid Mughal-era buildings, most notably the Tāj Mahal
Taj Mahal
The Taj Mahal is a white Marble mausoleum located in Agra, India. It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal...

, Agra Fort
Agra Fort
Agra Fort, is a monument situated at Agra, is a UNESCO World Heritage site located in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. It is about 2.5 km northwest of its more famous sister monument, the Taj Mahal...

 and Fatehpūr Sikrī
Fatehpur Sikri
Fatehpur Sikri is a city and a municipal board in Agra district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. Built near the much older Sikri, the historical city of Fatehabad, as it was first named, was constructed by Mughal emperor Akbar beginning in 1570...

, all three of which are UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 World Heritage Sites.

Climate

Agra features a semiarid climate that borders on a humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

. The city features mild winters, hot and dry summers and a monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

 season. However the monsoons, though substantial in Agra, are not quite as heavy as the monsoon in other parts of India. This is a primary factor in Agra featuring a semiarid climate as opposed to a humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

.

Demographics

According to the 2011 India census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

, Agra has a population of 3,575,134, while the population of Agra cantonment is 50,968 and that of Agra district is 3,620,436. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Agra district population grew by 31% in the decade 1991–2001. Roughly 57% of the population of Agra district lives in urban areas. Agra has an average literacy rate of 81%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; with 86% males literate. Literacy rate of males is considerably higher than that of women. Agra district literacy rate is 62.56%

Hinduism
Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...

, Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

, and Jainism
Jainism
Jainism is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation. Any soul that has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state...

 are three major religions in Agra district with 89.6%, 8.93%, and 0.51% of the population following them. Jatavs, Baniyas and Jats are most numerous castes in Agra. Agra is also considered as dalit
Dalit
Dalit is a designation for a group of people traditionally regarded as Untouchable. Dalits are a mixed population, consisting of numerous castes from all over South Asia; they speak a variety of languages and practice a multitude of religions...

 capital because Jatav
Jatav
Jatav , also called Jatia, Jatba in the Jammu region Jatoi, is the largest tribe of the Chamar caste in India.-Origin and etymology:...

s form a large section of the population and maintains a substantial middle class in society. Some Scheduled Tribes like the Bhotia and Jaunsari have marginal presence (about 0.02% of the population).

52.5% of Agra's population is in the 15–59 years age category. Around 11% of the population is under 6 years of age. Hindi is the most widely spoken language in Agra. Urdu and Punjabi are also spoken.

History

Though Agra's history is largely recognised with Mughal Kingdom, but the place was established much before it and has linkages since Mahabharat period and Mahirshi Angira in 1000 BC.
It is generally accepted that Sultan Sikandar Lodī, the Ruler of the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
The Delhi Sultanate is a term used to cover five short-lived, Delhi based kingdoms or sultanates, of Turkic origin in medieval India. The sultanates ruled from Delhi between 1206 and 1526, when the last was replaced by the Mughal dynasty...

 founded Agra in the year 1504. After the Sultan's death the city passed on to his son Sultan Ibrāhīm Lodī. He ruled his Sultanate from Agra until he fell fighting to Bābar
Babur
Babur was a Muslim conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty of South Asia. He was a direct descendant of Timur through his father, and a descendant also of Genghis Khan through his mother...

 in the First battle of Panipat
First battle of Panipat
The first battle of Panipat took place in Northern India, and marked the beginning of the Mughal Empire. This was one of the earliest battles involving gunpowder firearms and field artillery.-Details:...

 fought in 1526.

In the year 1556, the great Hindu warrior Hemu
Hemu
Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, Hemu Vikramaditya or simply Hemu was a Hindu Emperor of India during the sixteenth century, in medieval times...

 Vikramaditya, also known as Samrat Hem Chander Vikramaditya, won Agra as the Prime Minister cum Chief of Army of Adil Shah
Adil Shah
Adil or Adel Shah Afshar or Ali Qoli was Shah of Persia from 1747 until 1748.Subsequent to the assassination of Nader Shah in Fathabad , his nephew Ali Qoli declared himself Adil Shah , and shah of Persia...

 of the Afghan Sūrī Dynasty
Sur Dynasty
The Suri Empire was established by a Muslim dynasty of Afghan origin who ruled a vast territory in the Indian subcontinent between 1540 to 1557, with Delhi serving as its capital...

. The commander of Humāyūn
Humayun
Nasir ud-din Muhammad Humayun was the second Mughal Emperor who ruled present day Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of northern India from 1530–1540 and again from 1555–1556. Like his father, Babur, he lost his kingdom early, but with Persian aid, he eventually regained an even larger one...

 / Akbar's forces in Agra, Tardi Beg Khan, was so scared of Hemu
Hemu
Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, Hemu Vikramaditya or simply Hemu was a Hindu Emperor of India during the sixteenth century, in medieval times...

 that he retreated from the city without a fight. This was Hemu
Hemu
Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, Hemu Vikramaditya or simply Hemu was a Hindu Emperor of India during the sixteenth century, in medieval times...

's 21st continuous win since 1554, and he later went on to conquer Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

, having his coronation
Coronation
A coronation is a ceremony marking the formal investiture of a monarch and/or their consort with regal power, usually involving the placement of a crown upon their head and the presentation of other items of regalia...

 at Purānā Qil'a in Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

 on 7 October 1556 and re-established the Hindu Kingdom and the Vikramaditya
Vikramaditya
Vikramaditya was a legendary emperor of Ujjain, India, famed for his wisdom, valour and magnanimity. The title "Vikramaditya" was later assumed by many other kings in Indian history, notably the Gupta King Chandragupta II and Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya .The name King Vikramaditya is a...

 Dynasty in North India
North India
North India, known natively as Uttar Bhārat or Shumālī Hindustān , is a loosely defined region in the northern part of India. The exact meaning of the term varies by usage...

.

The golden age of the city began with the Mughals. It was known then as Akbarabād and remained the capital of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

 under the Emperors Akbar, Jahāngīr
Jahangir
Jahangir was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1605 until his death. The name Jahangir is from Persian جهانگیر,meaning "Conqueror of the World"...

 and Shāh Jahān
Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan, , Persian: شاه جهان) (January 5, 1592 – January 22, 1666) Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan, , Persian: شاه جهان) (January 5, 1592 – January 22, 1666) (Full title: His Imperial Majesty Al-Sultan al-'Azam wal Khaqan...

. Shāh Jahān
Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan, , Persian: شاه جهان) (January 5, 1592 – January 22, 1666) Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan, , Persian: شاه جهان) (January 5, 1592 – January 22, 1666) (Full title: His Imperial Majesty Al-Sultan al-'Azam wal Khaqan...

 later shifted his capital to Shāhjahānabād in the year 1649.

Since Akbarabād was one of the most important cities in India under the Mughals, it witnessed a lot of building activity. Babar
Babur
Babur was a Muslim conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty of South Asia. He was a direct descendant of Timur through his father, and a descendant also of Genghis Khan through his mother...

, the founder of the Mughal dynasty, laid out the first formal Persian garden on the banks of river Yamuna
Yamuna
The Yamuna is the largest tributary river of the Ganges in northern India...

. The garden is called the Arām Bāgh or the Garden of Relaxation. His grandson Akbar raised the towering ramparts of the Great Red Fort, besides making Agra a center for learning, arts, commerce and religion. Akbar also built a new city on the outskirts of Akbarabād called Fatehpūr Sikrī
Fatehpur Sikri
Fatehpur Sikri is a city and a municipal board in Agra district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. Built near the much older Sikri, the historical city of Fatehabad, as it was first named, was constructed by Mughal emperor Akbar beginning in 1570...

. This city was built in the form of a Mughal military camp in stone.

His son Jahāngīr
Jahangir
Jahangir was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1605 until his death. The name Jahangir is from Persian جهانگیر,meaning "Conqueror of the World"...

 had a love of gardens and flora and fauna and laid many gardens inside the Red Fort or Lāl Qil'a. Shāh Jahān
Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan, , Persian: شاه جهان) (January 5, 1592 – January 22, 1666) Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan, , Persian: شاه جهان) (January 5, 1592 – January 22, 1666) (Full title: His Imperial Majesty Al-Sultan al-'Azam wal Khaqan...

, known for his keen interest in architecture, gave Akbarabād its most prized monument, the Tāj Mahal
Taj Mahal
The Taj Mahal is a white Marble mausoleum located in Agra, India. It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal...

. Built in loving memory of his wife Mumtāz Mahal
Mumtaz Mahal
Mumtaz Mahal born as Arjumand Banu Begum was a Mughal Empress and chief consort of emperor Shah Jahan...

, the mausoleum was completed in 1653.

Shāh Jahān
Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan, , Persian: شاه جهان) (January 5, 1592 – January 22, 1666) Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan, , Persian: شاه جهان) (January 5, 1592 – January 22, 1666) (Full title: His Imperial Majesty Al-Sultan al-'Azam wal Khaqan...

 later shifted the capital to Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

 during his reign, but his son Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
Abul Muzaffar Muhy-ud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir , more commonly known as Aurangzeb or by his chosen imperial title Alamgir , was the sixth Mughal Emperor of India, whose reign lasted from 1658 until his death in 1707.Badshah Aurangzeb, having ruled most of the Indian subcontinent for nearly...

 moved the capital back to Akbarabād, usurping his father and imprisoning him in the Fort there. Akbarabād remained the capital of India during the rule of Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
Abul Muzaffar Muhy-ud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir , more commonly known as Aurangzeb or by his chosen imperial title Alamgir , was the sixth Mughal Emperor of India, whose reign lasted from 1658 until his death in 1707.Badshah Aurangzeb, having ruled most of the Indian subcontinent for nearly...

 until he shifted it to Aurangabad in the Deccan in 1653. After the decline of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

, the city came under the influence of Marathas and Jats and was called Agra, before falling into the hands of the British Raj
British Raj
British Raj was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947; The term can also refer to the period of dominion...

 in 1803.

In 1835 when the Presidency of Agra
Presidency of Agra
Agra Presidency was one of the six Northwestern Provinces of British India , lying nearly in their centre; area, 9,479 sq. m.; pop...

 was established by the British, the city became the seat of government, and just two year later it was the witness to the Agra famine of 1837–38
Agra famine of 1837–38
The Agra famine of 1837–1838 was a famine in the newly established North-Western Provinces of Company-ruled India that affected an area of and a population of 8 million people...

. During the Indian rebellion of 1857
Indian Rebellion of 1857
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerut, and soon escalated into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with the major hostilities confined to...

 British rule across India was threatened, news of the rebellion had reached Agra on 11 May and on 30 May two companies of native infantry, the 44th and 67th regiments, rebelled and marched to Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

. The next morning native Indian troops in Agra were forced to disarm, on 15 June Gwalior (which lies south of Agra) rebelled. By 3 July the British were forced to withdraw into the fort. Two days later a small British force at Sucheta were defeated and forced to withdraw, this led to a mob sacking the city. However, the rebels moved onto Delhi which allowed the British to restore order by 8 July. Delhi fell to the British in September, the following month rebels who had fled Delhi along with rebels from Central India marched on Agra – but were defeated. After this British rule was again secured over the city until the independence of India in 1947.

Agra is the birth place of the religion known as Dīn-i Ilāhī
Din-i-Ilahi
The Dīn-i Ilāhī was a syncretic religious doctrine propounded by the Mughal emperor Jalālu d-Dīn Muḥammad Akbar , who ruled the Indian subcontinent from 1556 to 1605, intending to merge the best elements of the religions of his empire, and thereby reconcile the differences that divided his subjects...

, which flourished during the reign of Akbar and also of the Radhaswami Faith, which has around two million followers worldwide.
Agra has historic linkages with Shauripur of Jainism and Runukta of Hinduism, of 1000 BC.

Tāj Mahal, Agra Fort and Fatehpūr Sikrī
Fatehpur Sikri
Fatehpur Sikri is a city and a municipal board in Agra district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. Built near the much older Sikri, the historical city of Fatehabad, as it was first named, was constructed by Mughal emperor Akbar beginning in 1570...

, all three of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Air

Agra Airport
Agra Air Force Station
Air Force Station Agra also known as Agra Airport or Kheria Airport , is a military airbase and public airport serving the city of Agra, in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The air force station is one of the largest airbases of the Indian Air Force and has been synonymous with the Taj Mahal...

 is about 12.5 km (8 mi) from city center

Rail

Agra is on the central train line between Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

 (Station Code: NDLS) and Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

 (Bombay) (Station Code: CSTM) and between Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

 and Chennai
Chennai
Chennai , formerly known as Madras or Madarasapatinam , is the capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, located on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal. Chennai is the fourth most populous metropolitan area and the sixth most populous city in India...

 (Station Code: MAS) and many trains like Bhopal Shatabdi
Bhopal Shatabdi
Bhopal Shatabdi Express is a train operated by the Northern Railway which runs between New Delhi, the main railway station of India's capital territory, New Delhi. and Bhopal Junction the main railway station of Bhopal City, the state capital of central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. The train is...

, Bhopal Express, Malwa Express
Malwa Express
Malwa Express is a daily superfast express train service which connects Indore Junction BG railway station of Indore, the largest city and commercial hub in Madhya Pradesh, to Jammu Tawi in Jammu & Kashmir, India.- Number and Nomenclature :The 'down' service from Indore runs as number 12919, and...

, Gondwana Express
Gondwana Express
The Jabalpur - Hazrat Nizamuddin Gondwana Express is a superfast express train of West Central Railway in India. It runs between Jabalpur Junction and Hazrat Nizamuddin daily.Following is a detailed train schedule...

, Jabalpur - Jammutawi Express, Shreedham Express, Garib Rath
Garib Rath
The Garib Rath express train is one of the premier trains introduced by the Indian Railways in 2005 by Railways Minister Lalu Prasad Yadav to provide fully air-conditioned travel to those passengers who could not afford the expensive tickets of the fully air-conditioned coaches as in Rajdhani...

, Tamil Nadu Express
Tamil Nadu Express
The Tamil Nadu Express or T.N. Express is a passenger train route of the Indian Railways. The train was first started on 7 August 1976 by then Prime Minister, Mrs. Indira Gandhi as a bi-weekly was the first State named train of the south...

, Chennai Rajdhni etc. connect Agra with all major Indian cities like New Delhi
New Delhi
New Delhi is the capital city of India. It serves as the centre of the Government of India and the Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi. New Delhi is situated within the metropolis of Delhi. It is one of the nine districts of Delhi Union Territory. The total area of the city is...

, Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

, Kolkata
Kolkata
Kolkata , formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River, it was the commercial capital of East India...

, Chennai
Chennai
Chennai , formerly known as Madras or Madarasapatinam , is the capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, located on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal. Chennai is the fourth most populous metropolitan area and the sixth most populous city in India...

, Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Pune
Pune
Pune , is the eighth largest metropolis in India, the second largest in the state of Maharashtra after Mumbai, and the largest city in the Western Ghats. Once the centre of power of the Maratha Empire, it is situated 560 metres above sea level on the Deccan plateau at the confluence of the Mula ...

, Bhopal, Indore
Indore
Indore is one of the major city in India, the largest city and commercial center of the state of Madhya Pradesh in central India. Indore is located 190 km west of the state capital Bhopal. According to the 2011 Indian census, Indore city has a population of 1,960,631...

, Kochi
Kochi
-Places:* Kochi, a city in the state of Kerala, India, formerly known as Cochin* Kingdom of Cochin, a former feudal city-state on Malabar Coast, India** Fort Kochi, one of the three main urban components which constitute the present day city of Kochi, Kerala, India...

, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Ujjain
Ujjain
Ujjain , is an ancient city of Malwa region in central India, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River , today part of the state of Madhya Pradesh. It is the administrative centre of Ujjain District and Ujjain Division.In ancient times the city was called Ujjayini...

, Jaipur
Jaipur
Jaipur , also popularly known as the Pink City, is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan. Founded on 18 November 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amber, the city today has a population of more than 3.1 million....

, Lucknow
Lucknow
Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh in India. Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division....

, Thiruvananthapuram
Thiruvananthapuram
Thiruvananthapuram , formerly known as Trivandrum, is the capital of the Indian state of Kerala and the headquarters of the Thiruvananthapuram District. It is located on the west coast of India near the extreme south of the mainland...

 etc. every day. Some east-bound trains from Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

 also travel via Agra, so direct connections to points in Eastern India (including Kolkata
Kolkata
Kolkata , formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River, it was the commercial capital of East India...

) (Calcutta) are also available. There are close to 20 trains to New Delhi
New Delhi Railway Station
The New Delhi Railway Station , station code NDLS, situated between Ajmeri Gate and Paharganj is the main railway station in Delhi. New Delhi railway station is the second busiest and one of the largest in India. It handles over 300 trains each day with 16 platforms and about 360,000 passengers...

 and Gwalior Junction
Gwalior Junction
The Gwalior Junction railway station is an important railway station of Gwalior City in the state of Madhya Pradesh. It is operated by North Central Railway....

 every day, and at least three or four to Bhopal, Indore, Nagpur, Mumbai and Chennai. There are three main railway stations in Agra:
  • Agra Cantt
    Agra Cantt
    Agra Cantonment is the main railway station in the Indian city of Agra. It is located near the Sadar Bazaar towards the Southwest of the city. Agra Cantonment is directly managed by the North Central Railways.-See also:*Agra Fort Railway Station...

     (Station Code: AGC) is the main railway station and lies southwest of the Taj and Agra Fort, both of which are a short ride from the station by car, auto-rickshaw, or cycle rickshaw.

  • Agra Fort Railway Station
    Agra Fort Railway Station
    Agra Fort Railway Station, is located near Agra Fort, in Rawatpara, Agra. It is one of the few stations in India that has both broad gauge and metre gauge. Agra Fort Railway Station comes under the Western Railways...

     (Station Code: AF) near Agra Fort, is infrequently serviced by the interstate express trains, it is one of the oldest railway station in the country. The station serves trains to the east (Kanpur, Gorakhpur
    Gorakhpur
    Gorakhpur is a city in the eastern part of the state of Uttar Pradesh in India, near the border with Nepal. It is the administrative headquarters of Gorakhpur District and Gorakhpur Division. Gorakhpur is one of the proposed capitals of the Purvanchal state which is yet to be formed...

    , Kolkata
    Kolkata
    Kolkata , formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River, it was the commercial capital of East India...

    , Guwahati
    Guwahati
    Guwahati, Pragjyotishpura in ancient Assam formerly known as Gauhati is a metropolis,the largest city of Assam in India and ancient urban area in North East India, with a population of 963,429. It is also the largest metropolitan area in north-eastern India...

    ) and central India Ratlam
    Ratlam
    Ratlam , known historically as Ratnapuri, is a city in the Malwa region in Madhya Pradesh state of central India. The town of Ratlam lies 480 m above sea level. It is the administrative headquarters of Ratlam District....

    , Nagda
    Nagda
    JANMAI JAI NAGARI i.e.Nagda is a city in Ujjain district in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is an industrial town in the Malwa region of western Madhya Pradesh and is situated on the bank of Chambal River....

    , Kota
    Kota, Rajasthan
    Kota , formerly known as Kotah, is a city in the northern Indian state of Rajasthan. It is located south of state capital, Jaipur. Situated on the banks of Chambal River, the city is the trade centre for an area in which millet, wheat, rice, pulses, coriander and oilseeds are grown; industries...

     (Haldighati Express). Some of these trains also stop at Agra Cantt.
  • Raja Ki Mandi
    Raja ki mandi
    Raja ki Mandi is an area in Agra. This is the shopper's paradise, with shops selling all sort of clothes lining the streets. There is also a railway station at Raja ki Mandi by the same name.- History :...

     (Station Code: RKM) is a small station. Some of the trains which stop at Agra Cantt
    Agra Cantt
    Agra Cantonment is the main railway station in the Indian city of Agra. It is located near the Sadar Bazaar towards the Southwest of the city. Agra Cantonment is directly managed by the North Central Railways.-See also:*Agra Fort Railway Station...

     also stop here. Other stations are Idgah
    Idgah
    Idgah is towards the south-west of Agra City. Idgah has evolved into an important township where many important offices are located in the precincts of Idgah Colony. The place is an important commercial area in Agra. Idgah has a Bus Stand, which is the biggest Bus Stand in Agra and also a Railway...

    , Billochpura, Agra City
    Agra City
    Agra City is a railway Station in the heart of the old City in Agra, India. It is near Belangunj which is the trading hub of Agra. The station is a relic of the past and at present very few trains stop here....

    , Yamuna Bridge.


The luxury trains – the Palace on Wheels
Palace on Wheels
The Palace on Wheels is a luxury tourist train. It was launched by the Indian Railways to promote tourism in Rajasthan, and has been highly popular since its launch....

, and the Royal Rajasthan On Wheels also stop at Agra on their eight day round trip of tourist destinations in Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

 and Agra. The Buddhist Special Train also visits Agra.

Road

Idgah Bus Stand
Idgah Bus Stand
Idgah Bus Station is the biggest bus station in Agra. The Bus Stand is in Idgah Colony. The bus Stand is very close to both the Idgah Railway Station as well as the Agra Cantt, which is the main railway Station in Agra....

, Taj Depot, Ford depot and Inter State Bus Terminal (ISBT) are the major Bus Stands in Agra and is connected to most of the bigger cities in North India.
  • From Delhi
    Delhi
    Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

    : NH2
    National Highway 2 (India)
    National Highway 2 , commonly referred as Delhi-Kolkata Road is a busy Indian National Highway that runs through the states of Delhi, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, and West Bengal. It constitute a major portion of historical Grand Trunk Road along with NH 91 and NH 1 in India...

    , a modern divided highway, connects the 200 km (124 mi) distance from Delhi to Agra. The drive is about 4 hours. The primary access to the highway is along Mathura Road in Delhi but, if coming from South Delhi or Delhi Airport, it is easier to take Aurobindo Marg (Mehrauli Road) and then work up to NH2 via Tughlakabad.
  • From Jaipur
    Jaipur
    Jaipur , also popularly known as the Pink City, is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan. Founded on 18 November 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amber, the city today has a population of more than 3.1 million....

    : National Highway 11
    National Highway 11 (India)
    National Highway 11 or NH 11 is a National Highway in India that links Agra in Uttar Pradesh with Bikaner in Rajasthan. This -long highway passes through Bharatpur, Dausa, Jaipur, Sikar and Fatehpur before terminating on National Highway 15 at Bikaner....

    , a Four lane divided highway, connects Agra with Jaipur
    Jaipur
    Jaipur , also popularly known as the Pink City, is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan. Founded on 18 November 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amber, the city today has a population of more than 3.1 million....

     via the bird sanctuary town of Bharatpur
    Bharatpur, India
    Bharatpur is a city in the Indian state of Rajasthan. It was founded by Maharaja Suraj Mal in 1733. Located in the Brij region, Bharatpur was once an impregnable, well-planned and well-fortified city, and the capital of Jat kingdom ruled by Sinsinwar Maharajas.The trio of Bharatpur, Deeg and...

    . The distance of around 255 km (158 mi) can be covered in around 3–4 hours. Caution: When you enter from Jaipur / Bharatpur side, beware of robber in uniform (State police / RTO) at the entry point of Agra City. They will chase you and threaten you for no fault of yours. By doing these they will loot big amount of money from you and make you uncomfortable.
  • From Gwalior A distance of around 120 km (75 mi), takes around 1.5 hours on the National highway 3
    National Highway 3 (India)
    National Highway 3 , commonly referred to as the Mumbai-Agra Highway, is a major Indian National Highway that runs through the states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra states in India...

    , also known as the Agra – Mumbai
    Mumbai
    Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

     Highway.
  • From Lucknow
    Lucknow
    Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh in India. Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division....

     / Kanpur NH2
    National Highway 2 (India)
    National Highway 2 , commonly referred as Delhi-Kolkata Road is a busy Indian National Highway that runs through the states of Delhi, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, and West Bengal. It constitute a major portion of historical Grand Trunk Road along with NH 91 and NH 1 in India...

    , the divided modern highway, continues on to Kanpur (285 km, 5 hours) and from there to points East ending in Kolkata
    Kolkata
    Kolkata , formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River, it was the commercial capital of East India...

    . From Kanpur, NH25 heads for the city of Lucknow
    Lucknow
    Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh in India. Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division....

     (90 km, 2 hours).


The Mahatma Gandhi(MG) Road which runs through the city connects it from one end to the other. In March 2010, the Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh abbreviation U.P. , is a state located in the northern part of India. With a population of over 200 million people, it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity...

 government, through an open bidding process, chose Jaypee Associates
Jaypee Group
The Jaypee Group is an Indian conglomerate based in Noida, India. It was founded by Jaiprakash Gaur which is involved in well diversified infrastructure conglomerate with business interests in Engineering & Construction, Power, Cement, Real Estate, Hospitality, Expressways, Sports & Education...

 to develop an Inner Ring Road to connect NH2/Yamuna Expressway
Yamuna Expressway
Yamuna Expressway , formerly known as Taj Expressway project was conceived with the idea of reducing the travel time between Noida and Agra...

 in the north to NH3 in the south in a 30 month timeframe. In September 2010, Gifford was chosen to design the road.

Taxi

Tourists can hire a taxi for local sight seeing or Agra visit from local taxi stand. A prepaid taxi counter is available at Agra Cantt railway station.

Local Transport

Recently, under JNNURM (Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission) in order to revamp city's urban infrastructure Tata-Marcopolo's city buses are being run by Agra Municipal Corporation covering whole city in an efficient way.

Other para-transit modes includes auto-rickshaws and rickshaw. While passengers need to negotiate rates for the rickshaws and they are usually expensive, there is a system of (what is called) 'Tempo' which are autorickshaws that run on specific routes called out by drivers. Tempos take around 6 people simultaneously and work out to be most economical and practical.

Polluting vehicles are not allowed near Tāj Mahal
Taj Mahal
The Taj Mahal is a white Marble mausoleum located in Agra, India. It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal...

, so one needs to take electric autos or Tanga
Tanga (carriage)
A tanga or tonga is a light horse-drawn carriage used for transportation in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh....

 (Tonga) from a few kilometres outside the Tāj Mahal
Taj Mahal
The Taj Mahal is a white Marble mausoleum located in Agra, India. It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal...

.

Places of interest

Tāj Mahal

Agra's Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
The Taj Mahal is a white Marble mausoleum located in Agra, India. It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal...

 is one of the most famous buildings in the world, the mausoleum of Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan, , Persian: شاه جهان) (January 5, 1592 – January 22, 1666) Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan, , Persian: شاه جهان) (January 5, 1592 – January 22, 1666) (Full title: His Imperial Majesty Al-Sultan al-'Azam wal Khaqan...

's favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal
Mumtaz Mahal
Mumtaz Mahal born as Arjumand Banu Begum was a Mughal Empress and chief consort of emperor Shah Jahan...

. It is one of the New Seven Wonders of the world, and one of three World Heritage Sites in Agra.

Completed in 1653, the Tāj Mahal was built by the Mughal king Shāh Jahān as the final resting place for his beloved wife, Mumtāz Mahal. Finished in marble, it is perhaps India's most fascinating and beautiful monument. This perfectly symmetrical monument took 22 years (1630–1652) of labour and 20,000 workers, masons and jewellers to build and is set amidst landscaped gardens. Built by the Persian architect, Ustād 'Īsā, the Tāj Mahal is on the bank of the Yamuna
Yamuna
The Yamuna is the largest tributary river of the Ganges in northern India...

 River. It can be observed from Agra Fort
Agra Fort
Agra Fort, is a monument situated at Agra, is a UNESCO World Heritage site located in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. It is about 2.5 km northwest of its more famous sister monument, the Taj Mahal...

 from where Emperor Shāh Jahān gazed at it, for the last eight years of his life, a prisoner of his son Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
Abul Muzaffar Muhy-ud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir , more commonly known as Aurangzeb or by his chosen imperial title Alamgir , was the sixth Mughal Emperor of India, whose reign lasted from 1658 until his death in 1707.Badshah Aurangzeb, having ruled most of the Indian subcontinent for nearly...

. It is an acknowledged masterpiece of symmetry. Verses of the Koran are inscribed on it and at the top of the gate are twenty-two small domes, signifying the number of years the monument took to build. The Tāj Mahal was built on a marble platform that stands above a sandstone one. The most elegant dome of the Tāj Mahal has a diameter of 60 feet (18.3 m), and rises to a height of 80 feet (24.4 m); directly under this dome is the tomb of Mumtāz Mahal. Shah Jahān's tomb was erected next to hers by his son Aurangzeb. The interiors are decorated by fine inlay work, incorporating semi-precious stones.

Agra Fort

Agra Fort
Agra Fort
Agra Fort, is a monument situated at Agra, is a UNESCO World Heritage site located in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. It is about 2.5 km northwest of its more famous sister monument, the Taj Mahal...

 (sometimes called the Red Fort), was commissioned by the great Mughal Emperor Akbar in 1565, and is another of Agra's World Heritage Sites. A stone tablet at the gate of the Fort states that it had been built before 1000 but was later renovated by Akbar. The red sandstone fort was converted into a palace during Shāh Jahān
Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan, , Persian: شاه جهان) (January 5, 1592 – January 22, 1666) Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan, , Persian: شاه جهان) (January 5, 1592 – January 22, 1666) (Full title: His Imperial Majesty Al-Sultan al-'Azam wal Khaqan...

's time, and reworked extensively with marble
Marble
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone; however stonemasons use the term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone.Marble is commonly used for...

 and pietra dura
Pietra dura
Pietra dura or pietre dure , called parchin kari in South Asia, is a term for the technique of using cut and fitted, highly-polished colored stones to create images. It is considered a decorative art...

 inlay. Notable buildings in the fort include the Pearl Mosque
Pearl Mosque
The "Pearl Mosque" is a name given to several religious structures:#The Pearl Mosque is located inside the Lahore Fort in Lahore, Pakistan, that was built between 1630-35 and is referred to as the 'Moti Masjid'...

, the Dīwān-e-'Ām and Dīwān-e-Khās (halls of public and private audience), Jahāngīr's Palace
Jahangir
Jahangir was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1605 until his death. The name Jahangir is from Persian جهانگیر,meaning "Conqueror of the World"...

, Khās Mahal, Shīsh Mahal (mirrored palace), and the Musamman Burj
Musamman Burj
Musamman Burj also known as the Saman Burj or the Shah-burj, is a beautiful octagonal tower standing close to the Shah Jahan's private hall Diwan-e-Khas in Agra Fort.-History:Musamman Burj was built by Shah Jahan for his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal...

.

The great Mughal Emperor Akbar commissioned the construction of the Agra Fort in 1565 CE., although it was converted into a palace by his grandson Shāh Jahān
Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan, , Persian: شاه جهان) (January 5, 1592 – January 22, 1666) Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan, , Persian: شاه جهان) (January 5, 1592 – January 22, 1666) (Full title: His Imperial Majesty Al-Sultan al-'Azam wal Khaqan...

, being reworked extensively with marble
Marble
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone; however stonemasons use the term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone.Marble is commonly used for...

 and pietra dura
Pietra dura
Pietra dura or pietre dure , called parchin kari in South Asia, is a term for the technique of using cut and fitted, highly-polished colored stones to create images. It is considered a decorative art...

 inlay. Notable buildings in the fort include the Pearl Mosque
Pearl Mosque
The "Pearl Mosque" is a name given to several religious structures:#The Pearl Mosque is located inside the Lahore Fort in Lahore, Pakistan, that was built between 1630-35 and is referred to as the 'Moti Masjid'...

 or Motī Masjid, the Dīwān-e-'Ām and Dīwān-e-Khās (halls of public and private audience), Jahāngīr's Palace
Jahangir
Jahangir was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1605 until his death. The name Jahangir is from Persian جهانگیر,meaning "Conqueror of the World"...

, Khās Mahal, Shīsh Mahal (mirrored palace), and the Musamman Burj
Musamman Burj
Musamman Burj also known as the Saman Burj or the Shah-burj, is a beautiful octagonal tower standing close to the Shah Jahan's private hall Diwan-e-Khas in Agra Fort.-History:Musamman Burj was built by Shah Jahan for his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal...

. The forbidding exteriors of this fort conceal an inner paradise. The fort is crescent shaped, flattened on the east with a long, nearly straight wall facing the river. It has a total perimeter of 2.4 kilometres (1.5 mi), and is ringed by double castellated ramparts of red sandstone punctuated at regular intervals by bastions. A 9 metres (29.5 ft) wide and 10 metres (32.8 ft) deep moat surrounds the outer wall.

Chhatrapati
Chhatrapati
Chhatrapati is the Indian honorific title equivalent to the European Emperor. It is more formally written as Kshetrapati, from the Sanskrit kshetra- and -pati...

 Shīvajī visited the Agra Fort, as a result of the conditions of the Treaty of Purandar
Treaty of Purandar (1665)
The Treaty of Purandar was signed on June 11, 1665, between the Rajput ruler Jai Singh I, who was commander of the Mughal Empire, and Maratha Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Shivaji was forced to sign the agreement after Jai Singh besieged Purandar fort...

 entered into with Mirzā Rājā Jaisingh to meet Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
Abul Muzaffar Muhy-ud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir , more commonly known as Aurangzeb or by his chosen imperial title Alamgir , was the sixth Mughal Emperor of India, whose reign lasted from 1658 until his death in 1707.Badshah Aurangzeb, having ruled most of the Indian subcontinent for nearly...

 in the Dīwān-i-Khās (Special Audience Chamber). In the audience he was deliberately placed behind men of lower rank. An insulted Shīvajī stormed out of the imperial audience and was confined to Jai Sing's quarters on 12 May 1666. Fearing the dungeons and execution he escaped on 17 August 1666. A heroic equestrian statue of Shīvajī has been erected outside the fort.

The fort is a typical example of Mughal architecture, effectively showing how the North Indian style of fort construction differentiated from that of the South. In the South, the majority forts were built on the seabed like the one at Bekal
Bekal
-References:* *...

 in Kerala
Kerala
or Keralam is an Indian state located on the Malabar coast of south-west India. It was created on 1 November 1956 by the States Reorganisation Act by combining various Malayalam speaking regions....

.

Fatehpūr Sikrī

The Mughal Emperor Akbar built Fatehpūr Sikrī about 35 km (22 mi) from Agra, and moved his capital there. Later abandoned, the site displays a number of buildings of significant historical importance. A World Heritage Site, it is often visited by tourists. The name of the place came about after the Mughal Emperor Bābar
Babur
Babur was a Muslim conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty of South Asia. He was a direct descendant of Timur through his father, and a descendant also of Genghis Khan through his mother...

 defeated Rāṇā Sāngā
Rana Sanga
-Historical Fact:Maharana Sangram Singh was the ruler of Mewar state, a region lying within the present-day Indian state of Rajasthan, a desert region, between 1509 and 1527. He was a scion of the Sisodia clan of Suryavanshi Rajputs...

 in a battle at a place called Sikrī (about 40 km (25 mi) from Agra). Then the Mughal Emperor Akbar wanted to make Fatehpūr Sikrī his head quarters, so he built a majestic fort; due to shortage of water, however, he had to ultimately move his headquarters to Agra Fort.

Buland Darwāza
Buland Darwaza
Buland Darwaza , meaning 'high' or 'great' gate in Persian, is the largest of gateways in the world. It is located in Fatehpur Sikri which is located 43 km away from Agra, India. It is also known as the "Gate of Magnificence".Buland Darwaza or the loft gateway was built by the great Mughal...

 or 'the lofty gateway' was built by the great Mughal emperor, Akbar in 1601 CE. at Fatehpūr Sikrī. Akbar built the Buland Darwāza to commemorate his victory over Gujarat. The Buland Darwāza is approached by 52 steps. The Buland Darwāza is 53.63 m high and 35 meters wide. it is made of red and buff sandstone, decorated by carving and black and white marble inlays. An inscription on the central face of the Buland Darwāza demonstrates Akbar's religious broadmindedness, it is a message from Jesus advising his followers not to consider this world as their permanent home.

I'timād-Ud-Daulah

The Empress Nūr Jahān
Nur Jehan
Begum Nur Jahan , also known as Mehr-un-Nisaa, was an Empress of the Mughal Dynasty that ruled much of the Indian subcontinent...

 built I'timād-Ud-Daulah's Tomb
Itmad-Ud-Daulah's Tomb
Itmad-ud-Daula's Tomb is a Mughal mausoleum in the city of Agra in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Often described as 'jewel box', sometimes called the 'Baby Tāj', the tomb of I'timād-ud-Daulah is often regarded as a draft of the Tāj Mahal....

, sometimes called the 'Baby Tāj', for her father, Mirzā Ghiyās Beg
Mirza Ghiyas Beg
Mirza Ghiyas Beg was an important official in the Mughal empire, whose children served as wives, mothers, and generals of the Mughal emperors.-Biography:...

, the Chief Minister of the Emperor Jahāngīr
Jahangir
Jahangir was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1605 until his death. The name Jahangir is from Persian جهانگیر,meaning "Conqueror of the World"...

. Located on the left bank of the Yamuna
Yamuna
The Yamuna is the largest tributary river of the Ganges in northern India...

 river, the mausoleum is set in a large cruciform garden criss-crossed by water courses and walkways. The mausoleum itself covers about 23 square metres (27.5 sq yd), and is built on a base about fifty meters square and about one meter high. On each corner are hexagonal towers, about thirteen meters tall. Small in comparison to many other Mughal
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

-era tombs, it is sometimes described as a jewel box. Its garden layout and use of white marble, pietra dura
Pietra dura
Pietra dura or pietre dure , called parchin kari in South Asia, is a term for the technique of using cut and fitted, highly-polished colored stones to create images. It is considered a decorative art...

, inlay designs and latticework
Latticework
Latticework is a framework consisting of a criss-crossed pattern of strips of building material, typically wood or metal. The design is created by crossing the strips to form a network...

 presage many elements of the Tāj Mahal
Taj Mahal
The Taj Mahal is a white Marble mausoleum located in Agra, India. It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal...

.

The walls are white marble from Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

 encrusted with semi-precious stone decorations – cornelian, jasper
Jasper
Jasper, a form of chalcedony, is an opaque, impure variety of silica, usually red, yellow, brown or green in color; and rarely blue. This mineral breaks with a smooth surface, and is used for ornamentation or as a gemstone. It can be highly polished and is used for vases, seals, and at one time for...

, lapis lazuli
Lapis lazuli
Lapis lazuli is a relatively rare semi-precious stone that has been prized since antiquity for its intense blue color....

, onyx
Onyx
Onyx is a banded variety of chalcedony. The colors of its bands range from white to almost every color . Commonly, specimens of onyx contain bands of black and/or white.-Etymology:...

, and topaz
Topaz
Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO42. Topaz crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces.-Color and varieties:...

 in images of cypress
Cypress
Cypress is the name applied to many plants in the cypress family Cupressaceae, which is a conifer of northern temperate regions. Most cypress species are trees, while a few are shrubs...

 trees and wine bottles, or more elaborate decorations like cut fruit or vases containing bouquets. Light penetrates to the interior through delicate jālī
Jali
A jali is the term for a perforated stone or latticed screen, usually with an ornamental pattern constructed through the use of calligraphy and geometry. Early work was performed by carving into stone, while the later more elegant used by the Mughals employed the technique of inlay, using marble...

 screens of intricately carved white marble.

Many of Nūr Jahān's relatives are interred in the mausoleum. The only asymmetrical element of the entire complex is that the tombs of her father and mother have been set side-by-side, a formation replicated in the Taj Mahal.

Akbar's Tomb, Sikandra

Sikandra, the last resting place of the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

 Akbar the Great
Akbar the Great
Akbar , also known as Shahanshah Akbar-e-Azam or Akbar the Great , was the third Mughal Emperor. He was of Timurid descent; the son of Emperor Humayun, and the grandson of the Mughal Emperor Zaheeruddin Muhammad Babur, the ruler who founded the Mughal dynasty in India...

, is on the Delhi-Agra Highway, only 13 kilometres from the Agra Fort
Agra Fort
Agra Fort, is a monument situated at Agra, is a UNESCO World Heritage site located in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. It is about 2.5 km northwest of its more famous sister monument, the Taj Mahal...

. Akbar's tomb
Tomb of Akbar the Great
The Tomb of Akbar the Great is an important Mughal architectural masterpiece, built 1605-1613, set in 48 Ha of grounds in Sikandra, a suburb of Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India.-History:...

 reflects the completeness of his personality. The vast, beautifully carved, red-ochre sandstone tomb with deers, rabbits and langur
Gray langur
Gray langurs or Hanuman langurs, the most widespread langurs of South Asia, are a group of Old World monkeys constituting the entirety of the genus Semnopithecus. All taxa have traditionally been placed in the single species Semnopithecus entellus...

s is set amidst a lush garden. Akbar himself planned his own tomb and selected a suitable site for it. To construct a tomb in one's lifetime was a Turkic
Turkic peoples
The Turkic peoples are peoples residing in northern, central and western Asia, southern Siberia and northwestern China and parts of eastern Europe. They speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family. They share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds...

 custom which the Mughals
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

 followed religiously. Akbar's son Jahāngīr
Jahangir
Jahangir was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1605 until his death. The name Jahangir is from Persian جهانگیر,meaning "Conqueror of the World"...

 completed construction of this pyramidal tomb in 1613.
The 99 names of Allah have been inscribed on the tomb.

Swāmī Bāgh Samādhi

The Swāmī Bāgh Samādhi is a monument to hold the ashes of Huzūr Swāmijī Mahārāj
Shiv Dayal Singh
Seth Shiv Dayal Singh was born on the 25th august. At the age of five, he was sent to school where he learnt Hindi, Urdu, Persian and Gurumukhi. He also acquired a working knowledge of Arabic and Sanskrit...

 (Shrī Shiv Dayāl Singh Seth) in the Swāmībāgh
Swamibagh
Swamibagh is a town and a nagar panchayat in Agra district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.-Demographics: India census, Swamibagh had a population of 1909. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%...

 section, on the high road that goes from Bhagwan Talkies to Dayāl Bāgh, in the outskirts of the city. He was the founder of the Radhāswāmī Faith and the Samādhi is sacred to its followers. Construction began in February 1904 and still continues. Many believe that construction will never end at Swāmī Bāgh – it is often seen as the next Tāj Mahal. The carvings in stone, using a combination or coloured marble, are life-like and not seen anywhere else in India. The picture shown is taken from the rear of the building and shows only two floors. When completed, the Samādhi will have a carved dome and a gateway.

Mankameshwar Temple

The Mankameshwar Temple
Mankameshwar Temple
Mankameshwar Mandir in Agra is devoted to Lord Shiva. The temple is situated at Rawatpara, near Agra Fort Railway Station. It is one of the ancient temples devoted to Lord Shiva.It is said that the shivlinga covered by the silver metal was founded by lord shiva himself during Dwapara era, when...

 is one of four ancient temples dedicated to Lord Shiva
Shiva
Shiva is a major Hindu deity, and is the destroyer god or transformer among the Trimurti, the Hindu Trinity of the primary aspects of the divine. God Shiva is a yogi who has notice of everything that happens in the world and is the main aspect of life. Yet one with great power lives a life of a...

 located on the four corners of Agra City. It is located near the Jāma Masjid and is about 2.5 kilometers from the Tāj Mahal
Taj Mahal
The Taj Mahal is a white Marble mausoleum located in Agra, India. It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal...

 and less than 1 km (0.621372736649807 mi) from Agra Fort
Agra Fort
Agra Fort, is a monument situated at Agra, is a UNESCO World Heritage site located in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. It is about 2.5 km northwest of its more famous sister monument, the Taj Mahal...

. Being located in the old city, the temple is surrounded by markets, many of which date back to the Mughal Era.

Indrabhan Girls' Inter College

It is widespreadly considered to be the birth place of great poet Mirza Ghalib. It is located near the Mankameshwar Temple and is about 3 kilometers from the Tāj Mahal
Taj Mahal
The Taj Mahal is a white Marble mausoleum located in Agra, India. It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal...

 and less than 1 km (0.621372736649807 mi) from Agra Fort
Agra Fort
Agra Fort, is a monument situated at Agra, is a UNESCO World Heritage site located in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. It is about 2.5 km northwest of its more famous sister monument, the Taj Mahal...

. Being located in the old city, the College is surrounded by markets. Approximately four or five years back, the birth room of Mirza Ghalib was hidden behind the wall by the Management of the college to keep the identity of the place secret.

Gurū kā Tal

Gurū kā Tal
Guru ka Tal
Guru ka Tal is a historical Sikh pilgrimage place dedicated to the memory of ninth Guru Sri Guru Tegh Bahudar Ji. Guru ka Tal is near Sikandra in Agra. The Gurudwara was built over the place where the Guru Tegh Bahadur laid down his arms to offer arrest to Aurangazeb, the Mughal Emperor...

 was originally a reservoir meant to collect and conserve rainwater built in Agra, near Sikandra, during Jahāngīr's reign next to the Tomb of I'tibār Khān Khwājasara in 1610. In 1970s a gurdwāra was erected here. Gurū kā Tal
Guru ka Tal
Guru ka Tal is a historical Sikh pilgrimage place dedicated to the memory of ninth Guru Sri Guru Tegh Bahudar Ji. Guru ka Tal is near Sikandra in Agra. The Gurudwara was built over the place where the Guru Tegh Bahadur laid down his arms to offer arrest to Aurangazeb, the Mughal Emperor...

 is a holy place of worship for the Sikhs. Four of the ten Sikh Gurus are said to have paid it a visit. Enjoying both historical and religious importance, this gurdwāra attracts a large number of devotees and tourists. Boasting elaborate stone carvings and 8 towers of the twelve original towers. It is located by national (Delhi-Agra) highway-2.

Jamā Masjid

The Jāma Masjid is a large mosque attributed to Shah Jahan's daughter, Princess Jahanara Begum
Jahanara Begum
Shahzadi Jahanara Begum Sahib was the eldest daughter of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal.-Influence at Court:...

, built in 1648, notable for its unusual dome and absence of minarets. The inscription at its entrance shows that it costed Rs 5 Lakhs at that time for its completion.

Chīnī kā Rauza

Notable for its Persian influenced dome of blue glazed tiles, the Chīnī kā Rauza
Chini Ka Rauza
Chini ka Rauza is a funerary monument in Agra, India, containing the tomb of Allama Afzal Khan Mullah, a scholar and poet who was the Prime Minister of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan. The tomb was built in 1635...

 is dedicated to the Prime Minister of Shāh Jahān, 'Allāma Afzal Khāl Mullā Shukrullāh of Shirāz.

Rām Bāgh

The oldest Mughal garden in India, the Rām Bāgh
Ram Bagh
The Ram Bagh is the oldest Mughal Garden in India, originally built by the Mughal Emperor Babur in 1528, located about five kilometers northeast of the Taj Mahal in Agra, India...

 was built by the Emperor Bābar
Babur
Babur was a Muslim conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty of South Asia. He was a direct descendant of Timur through his father, and a descendant also of Genghis Khan through his mother...

 in 1528 on the bank of the Yamuna. It lies about 2.34 km (1 mi) north of the Tāj Mahal. The pavilions in this garden are designed so that the wind from the Yamuna, combined with the greenery, keeps them cool even during the peak of summer. The original name of the gardens was Ārām Bāgh, or 'Garden of Relaxation', and this was where the Mughal emperor Bābar used to spend his leisure time and where he eventually died. His body was kept here for sometime before sending it to Kabul
Kabul
Kabul , spelt Caubul in some classic literatures, is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan. It is also the capital of the Kabul Province, located in the eastern section of Afghanistan...

.

Mariam's Tomb

Mariams Tomb, is the tomb of Mariam, the wife of great Mughal Emperor Akbar. The tomb is within the compound of the Christian Missionary Society.

Mehtāb Bāgh

The Mehtāb Bāgh
Mehtab Bagh
Mehtab Bagh , is a charbagh located to the north of the Taj Mahal complex, across the Yamuna River.-History:It was designed as an integral part of the complex in the riverfront terrace pattern seen elsewhere in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. Its width is identical to that of the rest of the Taj...

, or 'Moonlight Garden', is on the opposite bank of the River Yamuna from the Tāj Mahal.

Keetham Lake

Also known as Sur Sarovar, Keetham Lake
Keetham Lake
Keetham lake is a scenic lake just outside Agra on the Agra - Delhi highway . The Keetham lake is also known as the Sur Sarovar. It is a tranquil spot, ideal for a relaxed outing...

 is situated about 7 kilometres from akbar tomb Agra, within the Surdas Reserved Forest. The lake has an impressive variety of aquatic life and water birds.

Mughal Heritage Walk

The Mughal Heritage Walk is a part of community development programme being implemented with support of Agra Municipal corporation, USAID and an NGO; Center for Urban and Regional Excellence. It seeks to build sustainable livelihoods for youth and women from low resource communities and improving their living environments through infrastructure services and integration within the city.

The Mughal Heritage Walk is a one kilometer loop which connects the agricultural fields with the Rajasthani culture, river bank connected with the ancient village of Kuchhpura, the Heritage Structure of Mehtab Bagh
Mehtab Bagh
Mehtab Bagh , is a charbagh located to the north of the Taj Mahal complex, across the Yamuna River.-History:It was designed as an integral part of the complex in the riverfront terrace pattern seen elsewhere in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. Its width is identical to that of the rest of the Taj...

, the Mughal aqueduct system, the Humanyun Mosque
Humanyun Mosque
Humanyun Mosque is situated in the village of Kachhpura in Agra on the left bank of River Yamuna.-History:Though this mosque has not been mention in texts related to Mughal period, it one of the earliest monuments of Mughal period corresponding to the beginning phase of Mughal architecture in India...

 and the Gyarah Sidi
Gyarah Sidi
Gyarah Sidi are the remains of Mughal Emperor, Humayun’s astrological observatory, situated at a stone’s throw from Babur’s Mehtab Bagh, in a field on the banks of the Yamuna river in Agra.-History:...

.

The Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception

The Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
The Immaculate Conception of Mary is a dogma of the Roman Catholic Church, according to which the Virgin Mary was conceived without any stain of original sin. It is one of the four dogmata in Roman Catholic Mariology...

 is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Agra.

Economy

Nearly five centuries ago, Agra was the commercial nerve centre of Mughal empire
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

. Due to the presence of the Taj Mahal and other historic monuments, it has a tourism industry as well royal crafts like Pietra Dura
Pietra dura
Pietra dura or pietre dure , called parchin kari in South Asia, is a term for the technique of using cut and fitted, highly-polished colored stones to create images. It is considered a decorative art...

,
marble inlay and carpets

Today 40% of the population depends largely on agriculture, and others on the leather and footwear business and iron foundries. Agra is the second most self-employed in India in 2007, behind Varanasi, followed by Bhopal, Indore and Patna. According to the National Sample Survey Organization, in 1999-2000, 431 of every 1,000 employed males were self-employed in the city, which grew to 603 per 1,000 in 2004-05. Tourism contributes to the economy of Agra. Agra is home to Asia’s largest spa called Kaya Kalp — The Royal Spa, at the Hotel Mughal in Agra.

The city has many industries. Agra has Uttar Pradesh's first plant biotech company Harihar Biotech located near the Taj. It is one of the largest plant tissue culture laboratories in North India with a production capacity of 2 millions plants annually.

Agra has garment manufacturers and exporters, and an automobile industry. Auto companies include Anil Diesels, Harvest Group of Industries, Indian Agriculture and Automobile Corporation (IAAC) and Malloys India.

There are about 7000 small scale industrial units. Agra city is known for leather goods, handicrafts, Zari Zardozi, Marvel and stone carving and inlay work. Agra is known for its sweets (Petha and Gajak) and Snacks (Dalmoth).

Some of the leading manufacturers, exporter and sellers of leather in Agra are Hindustan Rubber and Plastic Industries, Polyplast Industries, Royal International, Eskay Sales Corporation, Best Buy, Bandejjia Traders and Expomore.

The city center place at Agra (Kinari Bazar) has jewellery and garments shops. The silver and gold jewellery hub is at Choube Ji Ka Fatak.

With the expansion of Agra, organizations dealing in building materials have flourished. A few names are Silver Gatta Agency, Yashoda Exports, Glass Expressions and Sharda Enterprises. The Amar Paper Agency in Agra dealing in paper related products was established in 1986 by Hon. Shri Ram Nath Agarwal. Other companies are the Yoga Handicrafts and the D.R.Chain and Wire Manufacturing Company.

Agra has Transformer
Transformer
A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors—the transformer's coils. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic field...

 manufacturers. The Shah Market area is an electronics market while Sanjay Place
Sanjay Place
Sanjay Place is a place in Agra, India. Sanjay Place is the financial hub of Agra.-History:The area which is now known as Sanjay Palace was actually a central Jail. Then in 1976 during Indira Gandhi's emergency rule saw the shifting of the Central Jail to a new site outside the city periphery....

 is the trade center of Agra.

Education

Agra has always been a centre for education and learning. It was during the advent of Mughal era that Agra grew as a centre of Islamic education.
British people introduced the western concept of education in Agra. In the year 1823, Agra College, one of the oldest colleges in India was formed out of a Sanskrit school established by the Scindia rulers.
In the British era, Agra became a great center of Hindi literature
Hindi literature
Hindi literature , is broadly divided into four prominent forms or styles, being Bhakti ; Shringar ; Veer-Gatha ; and Adhunik...

 with people like Babu Gulab Rai at the helm.

Schools

  • Baptist Higher Secondary School, Sai ka takia, Agra
  • Air Force School, Agra
  • Army School, Agra
    Army School, Agra
    Army School , Agra Army School, Agra was established 01 Aug 1991 by the Army Welfare Education Society , and was formally inaugurated by Brig R Loganathan, UYSM on this day. Earlier it was known as Station Sainik School...

  • St. Andrews Public School, Agra.
  • St Clare's Senior Secondary School, Agra
  • St. Peter's College, Agra
    St. Peter's College, Agra
    St. Peter’s College, Agra is one of the oldest convent school in India. It is a Minority Anglo-Indian Christian Institution granted Minority Rights under Article 30 of the Indian Constitution. It is located in to the east of Paliwal Park and opposite the commercial district of Sanjay Place. The...

  • St. Paul's Church College, Agra
  • St. Patrick's Junior College, Agra
  • St. Anthony's Junior College, Agra
  • St. Conrad's Inter College, Agra
  • St. George's College, Agra
    St. George's College, Agra
    St. George's College, Agra is one of the oldest convent school in India. It is a Minority Anglo-Indian Christian Institution granted Minority Rights under Article 30 of the Indian Constitution. It is located near Mall Road and near to Targhar. The campus is approximately...

     (Inter College)
  • Maharaja Agrasen Inter College, Agra
  • St. Francis School, Agra
  • Delhi Public School, Agra
  • Agra Public School, Agra
  • Holy Public School, Agra.
  • St. Clare's Senior Secondary School, Agra
  • Government Inter College (G.I.C.) Agra
  • M. D. Jain Inter College, Agra
  • Queen Victoria Girls Inter College, Agra
  • Saket Inter College, Agra
  • St. Johns Inter College, Agra.
  • Saraswati Vidya Mandir Inter College, Agra
  • Raja Balwant Singh Inter College, Agra
  • Saraswati Shishu Mandir, Agra
  • Sumeet Rahul Goel Mem. Sen. Sec. School, Agra
  • Simpkins school, Agra
  • Dayanand Bal Mandir, agra
  • Radhaswami Educational Institute (R.E.I), Agra
  • Sachdeva Millenium School, Agra
  • Gyandeep High School, jagdishpura Agra

Universities in Agra

Agra University
Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar University
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar University, formerly Agra University, is one of the oldest institutions in Uttar Pradesh, in the historic city of Agra.-Institute of Engineering & Technology:...

 was established on 1 July 1927 and catered to colleges spread across the United Provinces, the Rajputana, the Central Provinces and almost to entire North India, at present around 142 Colleges are affiliated to this university. The historic Agra University was later rechristened as Dr. BhimRao Ambedkar University by the then Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, Ms. Mayawati.
  • Dayalbagh Educational Institute
    Dayalbagh Educational Institute
    Dayalbagh Educational Institute or DEI is an educational institution located at Dayalbagh on the outskirts of the city of Agra, 200 kilometers from New Delhi...

    , Radhasoami Satsang Sabha, started the Radhasoami Educational Institute, as a co-educational Middle School, open to all, on January 1, 1917. It became a Degree College in 1947, affiliated to Agra University. In 1975, it formulated a programme of undergraduate studies which received approbation from the Government of Uttar Pradesh and the University Grants Commission, as a result of which in 1981 the Ministry of Education, Government of India, conferred the status of an institution deemed to be a University on the Dayalbagh Educational Institute, to implement the new scheme.
  • Central Institute of Hindi, Central Institute of Hindi (also known as Kendriya Hindi Sansthan) is an autonomous institute under Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India engaged in teaching Hindi as a foreign and second language. Apart from running residential Hindi language courses for foreign students, the institute also conducts regular training programmes for teachers of Hindi belonging to non-Hindi states of India. The institute is situated at a 11 acres (4.5 ha) campus on the outskirts of Agra city. Headquartered in Agra the institute has eight regional centers in Delhi, Hyderabad, Mysore, Shillong, Dimapur, Guwahati, Ahmedabad and Bhubneshwar. The institute is the only government run institution in India established solely for research and teaching of Hindi as a foreign and second language.

Colleges

Agra is also home to colleges:
  • Seth Padam Chand Jain Institute of Business and Economics (SPCJ), is the oldest management institute in Agra. It provides Masters Degree in Business Management and offers specialisations in Marketing, Finance and Human Resources Management.
  • School of Life Sciences(SLS Khandari, Agra), is the biggest college for Master's education of Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar University, Agra (formerly Agra University), situated at Khandari campus, Agra(UP).
  • Dau Dayal Institute Of Vocational Education
    Dau Dayal Institute Of Vocational Education
    Dau Dayal Institute of Vocational Education is located in the Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar University's Khandari Campus in Agra.The Dau Dayal Institute of Vocational Education is an integral part of Dr B.R...

     is an institute run by Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar University, Agra (formerly Agra University) and is situated at Khandari campus, Agra (U.P.). Students can pursue courses like Masters in Computer Management, B.Com.(Voc.) Adevertising and Sales Promotion, Bachelor of Science (Computer Applications, Instrumentation and Optical Instrumentation) Vocational and other job-oriented courses in Tourism Management, M.Sc (Electronics and Instrumentation) and Ph.D. (Instrumentation).
  • Agra College
    Agra College
    Agra College is one of the oldest institutions in India. Pandit Gangadhar Shastri, a noted Sanskrit Scholar founded the college in 1823. Till 1883 the institute was a government college and after that a Board of Trustees and a Committee of Management managed the college...

  • Institute of Engineering & Technology Khandari (I.E.T. Khandari, Agra), is the engineering institute of Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar University, Agra (formerly Agra University), situated at Khandari, Agra in Uttar Pradesh.
  • Sarojini Naidu Medical College
    Sarojini Naidu Medical College
    Sarojini Naidu Medical College, is one of the three oldest medical colleges of India. It is located in Agra, Uttar Pradesh state. It is named after the first lady Governess of Uttar Pradesh, poetess and freedom fighter, Bharat Kokila Smt...

    , Agra, named the first Indian woman to become the President of the Indian National Congress
    Indian National Congress
    The Indian National Congress is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. It is the largest and one of the oldest democratic political parties in the world. The party's modern liberal platform is largely considered center-left in the Indian...

     and the first woman to become the Governor
    Governor
    A governor is a governing official, usually the executive of a non-sovereign level of government, ranking under the head of state...

     of Uttar Pradesh
    Uttar Pradesh
    Uttar Pradesh abbreviation U.P. , is a state located in the northern part of India. With a population of over 200 million people, it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity...

    : the freedom fighter and poet
    Poet
    A poet is a person who writes poetry. A poet's work can be literal, meaning that his work is derived from a specific event, or metaphorical, meaning that his work can take on many meanings and forms. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, and have produced works that vary...

     Sarojini Naidu
    Sarojini Naidu
    Sarojini Naidu , also known by the sobriquet The Nightingale of India, was a child prodigy, Indian independence activist and poet...

    . Founded in 1854, S. N. Medical College & Hospital is one of the three oldest medical schools in India.
  • St. John's College, Agra was established in 1850 by the Church Missionary Society of England through the efforts of the Agra C. M. S. Association which came into being in 1840. Shankar Dayal Sharma
    Shankar Dayal Sharma
    Shankar Dayal Sharma was the ninth President of India serving from 1992 to 1997. Prior to his presidency, Dr Sharma had been the eighth Vice President of India, serving under President Ramaswamy Venkataraman...

    , the 9th President of India received his education from St. John's college.
  • F.E.T Agra College, Agra, Carrying the legacy of Agra College and Agra University, Faculty of Engineering and technology came into existence in 1999.
  • Raja Balwant Singh College
    Raja Balwant Singh College
    Raja Balwant Singh College is located at Bichpuri, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. The college is affiliated to Uttar Pradesh Technical University, Lucknow and Dr. B.R...

    , RBS College is one of the biggest college of Asia and was started by Awagarh Kingdom. This college has the largest campus area and maximum number of education branches.
  • Anand Engineering College, Agra
    Anand Engineering College, Agra
    Anand Engineering College, also known as AEC, Agra, is an engineering college in Agra, India. It is situated at the 18 km milestone on the Agra-Delhi highway , spread across at a scenic location overlooking Keetham Lake, one of the greenest areas around the city of Agra...

     is affiliated to U.P. Technical University Lucknow. It is a part of SGI(Sharda Group of Institutions) an educational group of North India.
  • B.M.A.S Engineering College, Agra
    B.M.A.S Engineering College, Agra
    B.M.A.S Engineering College, Agra is an engineering college of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is affiliated to U.P Technical University Lucknow, and part of SGI the largest educational group of North India....

    is affiliated to U.P. Technical University Lucknow. It is a part of SGI(Sharda Group of Institutions) an educational group of North India.
  • IBRC, Agra (Institute of biotechnology and research center) provides training in biotechnology.

Institute of Social Science (ISS), is the oldest social science institute in Agra. It provides Masters Degree in Social Work, Statistic and Sociology..
  • Dayalbagh Educational Institute -DEI (Deemed University)Is one of the oldest university in INDIA. And is relatd to religious faith of Radha Soami. It has been known for its pioneer engineers right from 1951A.D.

Further reading

  • Agranama: The authentic book about the history of Agra by Mr. Satish Chandra Chaturvedi

External links




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