Abraham Lincoln Brigade
Overview
 
The Abraham Lincoln Brigade refers to volunteers from the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 who served in the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
The Spanish Civil WarAlso known as The Crusade among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War among Carlists, and The Rebellion or Uprising among Republicans. was a major conflict fought in Spain from 17 July 1936 to 1 April 1939...

 in the International Brigades
International Brigades
The International Brigades were military units made up of volunteers from different countries, who traveled to Spain to defend the Second Spanish Republic in the Spanish Civil War between 1936 and 1939....

. They fought for Spanish Republican
Second Spanish Republic
The Second Spanish Republic was the government of Spain between April 14 1931, and its destruction by a military rebellion, led by General Francisco Franco....

 forces against Franco
Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was a Spanish general, dictator and head of state of Spain from October 1936 , and de facto regent of the nominally restored Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in November, 1975...

 and the Spanish Nationalists.

As time went on, the name Abraham Lincoln Brigade became used loosely, in the United States, as shorthand to describe any unit with an American component. Volunteers from the United States also served with the Canadian Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion
Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion
The Mackenzie–Papineau Battalion or Mac-Paps were a battalion of Canadians who fought as part of the XV International Brigade on the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War. Except for France, no other country gave a greater proportion of its population as volunteers in Spain than Canada. The...

, the Regiment de Tren (transport), and the John Brown Anti-Aircraft Battery.
Discussions
Encyclopedia
The Abraham Lincoln Brigade refers to volunteers from the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 who served in the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
The Spanish Civil WarAlso known as The Crusade among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War among Carlists, and The Rebellion or Uprising among Republicans. was a major conflict fought in Spain from 17 July 1936 to 1 April 1939...

 in the International Brigades
International Brigades
The International Brigades were military units made up of volunteers from different countries, who traveled to Spain to defend the Second Spanish Republic in the Spanish Civil War between 1936 and 1939....

. They fought for Spanish Republican
Second Spanish Republic
The Second Spanish Republic was the government of Spain between April 14 1931, and its destruction by a military rebellion, led by General Francisco Franco....

 forces against Franco
Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was a Spanish general, dictator and head of state of Spain from October 1936 , and de facto regent of the nominally restored Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in November, 1975...

 and the Spanish Nationalists.

As time went on, the name Abraham Lincoln Brigade became used loosely, in the United States, as shorthand to describe any unit with an American component. Volunteers from the United States also served with the Canadian Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion
Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion
The Mackenzie–Papineau Battalion or Mac-Paps were a battalion of Canadians who fought as part of the XV International Brigade on the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War. Except for France, no other country gave a greater proportion of its population as volunteers in Spain than Canada. The...

, the Regiment de Tren (transport), and the John Brown Anti-Aircraft Battery. North Americans also ran a very well-organized and well-equipped field hospital (funded and staffed by the American Medical Bureau to Save Spanish Democracy).

Creation of the Battalion

The Abraham Lincoln Brigade (in actual fact, a Battalion - see the etymological note below) was made up of volunteers from all walks of American life, and from all classes. Many of the people who volunteered for the Abraham Lincoln Brigade were official members of the Communist Party USA
Communist Party USA
The Communist Party USA is a Marxist political party in the United States, established in 1919. It has a long, complex history that is closely related to the histories of similar communist parties worldwide and the U.S. labor movement....

 or affiliated with other socialist
Socialism
Socialism is an economic system characterized by social ownership of the means of production and cooperative management of the economy; or a political philosophy advocating such a system. "Social ownership" may refer to any one of, or a combination of, the following: cooperative enterprises,...

 or anarchist
Anarchism
Anarchism is generally defined as the political philosophy which holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, and harmful, or alternatively as opposing authority in the conduct of human relations...

 organizations, such as the Uruguay
Uruguay
Uruguay ,officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay,sometimes the Eastern Republic of Uruguay; ) is a country in the southeastern part of South America. It is home to some 3.5 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the capital Montevideo and its metropolitan area...

an Hugo Fernández Artucio
Hugo Fernández Artucio
Hugo Fernández Artucio was a Uruguayan teacher of philosophy, historian and politician.-Earlier career:He was an editor of Free World magazine in New York...

. Members of the Industrial Workers of the World
Industrial Workers of the World
The Industrial Workers of the World is an international union. At its peak in 1923, the organization claimed some 100,000 members in good standing, and could marshal the support of perhaps 300,000 workers. Its membership declined dramatically after a 1924 split brought on by internal conflict...

 ("Wobblies") were also represented. It is sometimes thought to be the first American military unit to be commanded by a black officer, Oliver Law
Oliver Law
Oliver Law was an African American communist and labor organizer, who fought for the Republic in the Spanish Civil War. He was the commander of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade for four days.-Background:...

.

American volunteers began organizing and arriving in Spain in 1937. Centered in the town of Figueres
Figueres
Figueres is the capital of the comarca of Alt Empordà, in the province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain.The town is the birthplace of artist Salvador Dalí, and houses the Teatre-Museu Gala Salvador Dalí, a large museum designed by Dalí himself which attracts many visitors...

, near the border with France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, the battalion was organized in 1937. The Lincolns went into action in February 1937 after less than two months of training. They initially fielded three companies, two infantry and one machine gun. They suffered heavy losses on February 27, 1937, including their commander Robert Hale Merriman, in a futile assault on Nationalist positions. The battalion was slowly rebuilt while maintaining their front line trenches. The unit was pulled out of the lines for the Brunete Offensive.

Joined by the newly trained George Washington Battalion the Lincolns went into action at Villanueva de Canada on the second day of the Brunete Offensive and secured the town after hard fighting. The Lincolns were then deployed against Misquito Ridge but were unable to dislodge the Nationalist troops holding that key piece of terrain. The Lincoln's commander Oliver Law was killed during this action. The Lincoln and Washington Battalions were merged after this action and took the name Lincoln-Washington Battalion.

During August and September the Lincoln-Washington Battalion fought at Quinto and Belchite in the Aragon Offensive. The engagement at Quinto was a combined arms action as the Lincolns were led into their second assault on the town by T-26 tanks. Belchite was a severe test for the Lincoln-Washington Battalion as they fought house to house. The Battalion took heavy casualties at Belchite.

On October 13, 1937 the Lincoln-Washington Battalion fought at Fuentes de Ebro. The Lincoln-Washington Battalion took far fewer casualties than the other battalions in the XV BDE. After Fuentes the Battalion was pulled back to a reserve position where it received its first extended period of rest and relaxation since going into combat at Jarama.

In late December the Lincoln-Washington Battalion was alerted for service at Teruel. The winter of 1938 was among the coldest on record and the troops fought off frostbite. The Lincoln-Washingtons briefly held positions within the city of Teruel before being pulled back to positions on the heights surrounding the city. The XV BDE including the Lincoln-Washington Battalion were pulled out of the line for rest after three weeks in the lines. However, they were recalled before they reached their reserve positions and were used to spearhead an attack on Nationalist fortifications at Segure de los Banos.

March 1938 found the Lincoln-Washington Battalion in reserve positions in the Aragon. The Lincoln-Washington Battalion was swept up in the disaster known as The Retreats that occurred when Nationalist forces punched through the Republican lines and drove to the sea cutting the Republic in two. During the two phases the Lincoln-Washington Battalion lost most of its personnel killed, captured or missing. The remnants of the Battalion gathered on the far side of the Ebro River where they were reconstituted with an influx of Spanish conscripts.

In July 1938 the rebuilt Lincoln-Washington Battalion went into action crossing the Ebro in the last Republican offensive. After the offensive stalled the Lincoln-Washington Battalion fought in defensive actions in the Sierra Pandols before the Republican government pulled out the internationals in September.

Approximately 2,800 Americans served the Republic during the Spanish Civil War. In excess of 700 were killed in action or died of wounds or sickness. Most American volunteers returned in December and January 1938, thought the last, POWs did not arrive until September 1939.
In 1939, The Roosevelt Administration's
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt , also known by his initials, FDR, was the 32nd President of the United States and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war...

 Attorney-General
United States Attorney General
The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. The attorney general is considered to be the chief lawyer of the U.S. government...

, Frank Murphy
Frank Murphy
William Francis Murphy was a politician and jurist from Michigan. He served as First Assistant U.S. District Attorney, Eastern Michigan District , Recorder's Court Judge, Detroit . Mayor of Detroit , the last Governor-General of the Philippines , U.S...

 indicted 16 alleged Communists and fellow travelers for having recruited volunteers for the Abraham Lincoln Brigade supporting Spanish Republican
Second Spanish Republic
The Second Spanish Republic was the government of Spain between April 14 1931, and its destruction by a military rebellion, led by General Francisco Franco....

 forces against Franco
Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was a Spanish general, dictator and head of state of Spain from October 1936 , and de facto regent of the nominally restored Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in November, 1975...

 and the Nationalists. This earned Murphy censure from liberals.

Service

The International Brigade took part in several battles in Spain. They unsuccessfully defended the supply road
Military Supply Chain Management
Military supply chain management is a cross-functional approach to procuring, producing and delivering products and services. The broad management scope includes sub-suppliers, suppliers, internal information and funds flow.-Supply:...

 between Valencia and Madrid
Madrid
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

 in the Jarama Valley
Battle of Jarama
The Battle of Jarama was an attempt by General Franco's Nationalists to dislodge the Republican lines along the river Jarama, just east of Madrid, during the Spanish Civil War...

 from February 1937 until June 1937. They were also present at the battles of Brunete
Battle of Brunete
The Battle of Brunete , fought 15 miles west of Madrid, was a Republican attempt to alleviate the pressure exerted by the Nationalists on the capital and on the north during the Spanish Civil War...

, Zaragoza
Battle of Saragossa
The Battle of Saragossa took place on 20 August, 1710, between the Spanish-Bourbon army commanded by the Marquis de Bay and a multinational army led by the Austrian commander Guido Starhemberg during the War of the Spanish Succession.-Prelude:...

, Belchite
Battle of Belchite (1937)
Battle of Belchite was a group of military operations that took place in the Spanish Civil War between 24 August and 7 September 1937 nearby the town of Belchite, in Aragon.-Prelude:...

, Teruel
Battle of Teruel
The Battle of Teruel was fought in and around the city of Teruel during the Spanish Civil War in December 1937 – February 1938. The combatants fought the battle during the worst Spanish winter in twenty years. It was one of the bloodier actions of the war. The city changed hands several times,...

, and Ebro River
Battle of the Ebro
The Battle of the Ebro was the longest and bloodiest battle of the Spanish Civil War...

.

The Brigade was a cause célèbre
Cause célèbre
A is an issue or incident arousing widespread controversy, outside campaigning and heated public debate. The term is particularly used in connection with celebrated legal cases. It is a French phrase in common English use...

in some liberal and socialist circles in the United States. Some groups organized fundraising activities and supply drives to keep the brigade afloat. News of the brigade's high casualty rate and bravery in battle made them heroic figures to Americans opposing the rise of fascism
Fascism
Fascism is a radical authoritarian nationalist political ideology. Fascists seek to rejuvenate their nation based on commitment to the national community as an organic entity, in which individuals are bound together in national identity by suprapersonal connections of ancestry, culture, and blood...

. Paul Robeson
Paul Robeson
Paul Leroy Robeson was an American concert singer , recording artist, actor, athlete, scholar who was an advocate for the Civil Rights Movement in the first half of the twentieth century...

 was one high profile supporter, even going so far as to visit the Lincolns in the field in Spain and appearing in publicity photographs (the XV International Brigade
XV International Brigade
The XV International Brigade fought for the Spanish Second Republic in the Spanish Civil War as a part of the International Brigades. It was mustered at Albacete in Spain, in January 1937, comprising many English-speaking volunteers - arranged into a mostly British British Battalion and a mostly...

 had its own photographic unit).

The war dragged on and the Nationalist forces, supported by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

 under Hitler
Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party , commonly referred to as the Nazi Party). He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and head of state from 1934 to 1945...

 and Fascist Italy
Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)
The Kingdom of Italy was a state forged in 1861 by the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which was its legal predecessor state...

 under Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was an Italian politician who led the National Fascist Party and is credited with being one of the key figures in the creation of Fascism....

, gained victory after victory over the Republic, which was increasingly dominated by the Spanish Communist Party
Spanish Communist Party
Spanish Communist Party , was the first communist party in Spain, formed out of the Federación de Juventudes Socialistas . The founders of the party, that had belonged to leftwing within FJS, included Ramón Merino Gracia, Manuel Ugarte, Pedro Illescasm Luis Portela, Tiburicio Pico and Rito Estaban...

 (PCE). The International Brigades were withdrawn from battle by the Spanish prime minister
Prime Minister of Spain
The President of the Government of Spain , sometimes known in English as the Prime Minister of Spain, is the head of Government of Spain. The current office is established under the Constitution of 1978...

 Juan Negrín
Juan Negrín
Juan Negrín y López was a Spanish politician and physician.-Early years:Born in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Negrín came from a religious middle-class family...

, in the spring of 1938 in the vain hope that the Nationalists would withdraw their German and Italian Troops in turn.
Most of the surviving Lincolns were repatriated
Repatriation
Repatriation is the process of returning a person back to one's place of origin or citizenship. This includes the process of returning refugees or soldiers to their place of origin following a war...

 by early 1939.

Aftermath

During and after the Spanish Civil War, members of the brigade were generally viewed as supporters of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

. However, the Hitler-Stalin pact
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, named after the Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov and the German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, was an agreement officially titled the Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union and signed in Moscow in the late hours of 23 August 1939...

 caused a division among the Lincoln Brigade veterans. Some of them, adopting the official Communist line that regarded the war in Europe as "an imperialist war", joined with the American Peace Mobilization
American Peace Mobilization
The American Peace Mobilization was a peace group, officially cited in 1947 by United States Attorney General Tom C. Clark on the Attorney General's List of Subversive Organizations for 1948, as directed by President Harry S...

 in protesting U.S. support for Britain against Nazi Germany. Others, however, persisted with the anti-Fascist
Anti-fascism
Anti-fascism is the opposition to fascist ideologies, groups and individuals, such as that of the resistance movements during World War II. The related term antifa derives from Antifaschismus, which is German for anti-fascism; it refers to individuals and groups on the left of the political...

 line which they had followed to Spain. In particular, former Lincoln Brigade commander Milton Wolff volunteered in 1940 for the British Special Operations Executive
Special Operations Executive
The Special Operations Executive was a World War II organisation of the United Kingdom. It was officially formed by Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Minister of Economic Warfare Hugh Dalton on 22 July 1940, to conduct guerrilla warfare against the Axis powers and to instruct and aid local...

, and arranged the provision of arms for the European resistance
Resistance during World War II
Resistance movements during World War II occurred in every occupied country by a variety of means, ranging from non-cooperation, disinformation and propaganda to hiding crashed pilots and even to outright warfare and the recapturing of towns...

 organizations.

During and following World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, particularly at the height of the Second Red Scare
McCarthyism
McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of disloyalty, subversion, or treason without proper regard for evidence. The term has its origins in the period in the United States known as the Second Red Scare, lasting roughly from the late 1940s to the late 1950s and characterized by...

, the U.S. government considered former members of the brigade to be security risks. In fact, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover
J. Edgar Hoover
John Edgar Hoover was the first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation of the United States. Appointed director of the Bureau of Investigation—predecessor to the FBI—in 1924, he was instrumental in founding the FBI in 1935, where he remained director until his death in 1972...

 persuaded President Roosevelt to ensure that former ALB members fighting in U.S. Forces in World War II not be considered for commissioning as officers, or to have any type of positive distinction conferred upon them.

Etymology

The name Brigade
Brigade
A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of two to five battalions, plus supporting elements depending on the era and nationality of a given army and could be perceived as an enlarged/reinforced regiment...

 is a misnomer. In the Spanish Civil War, a brigade consisted of four to six battalion
Battalion
A battalion is a military unit of around 300–1,200 soldiers usually consisting of between two and seven companies and typically commanded by either a Lieutenant Colonel or a Colonel...

s. American volunteers mostly joined the two battalion
Battalion
A battalion is a military unit of around 300–1,200 soldiers usually consisting of between two and seven companies and typically commanded by either a Lieutenant Colonel or a Colonel...

s (the Lincoln Battalion and the Washington Battalion) within XV International Brigade
XV International Brigade
The XV International Brigade fought for the Spanish Second Republic in the Spanish Civil War as a part of the International Brigades. It was mustered at Albacete in Spain, in January 1937, comprising many English-speaking volunteers - arranged into a mostly British British Battalion and a mostly...

. The XV International Brigade was made up of six battalions of volunteers from nations around the globe, topped up with Spanish conscripts. Irish volunteers formed the Connolly Column
Connolly Column
The Connolly Column was the name given to the Irish volunteers who fought for the Second Spanish Republic in the International Brigades during the Spanish Civil War. They were named after James Connolly, the executed leader of the Irish Citizen Army...

of the battalion under the command of Frank Ryan
Frank Ryan (Irish republican)
Frank Ryan was a prominent member of the Irish Republican Army, editor of An Phoblacht, leftist activist and leader of Irish volunteers on the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War....

. In late 1936 this column joined the American rather than the British battalion on nationalist
Irish nationalism
Irish nationalism manifests itself in political and social movements and in sentiment inspired by a love for Irish culture, language and history, and as a sense of pride in Ireland and in the Irish people...

 grounds.

Anthem: "Valley of Jarama"

Members of the XV International Brigade
XV International Brigade
The XV International Brigade fought for the Spanish Second Republic in the Spanish Civil War as a part of the International Brigades. It was mustered at Albacete in Spain, in January 1937, comprising many English-speaking volunteers - arranged into a mostly British British Battalion and a mostly...

 adapted a song by Alex McDade
Alex McDade
Alex McDade was a Glasgow labourer who went to Spain to fight with XV International Brigade in the Spanish Civil War He was a political commissar with the British Battalion and wounded at the Battle of Jarama in February 1937. He was killed on the first day of the Battle of Brunete at Villanueva...

 to reflect the losses at the Battle of Jarama
Battle of Jarama
The Battle of Jarama was an attempt by General Franco's Nationalists to dislodge the Republican lines along the river Jarama, just east of Madrid, during the Spanish Civil War...

. Sung to the tune of the traditional country song Red River Valley, it became their anthem.

Lincoln Battalion Commanding officers

  • James Harris
  • Robert Hale Merriman
    Robert Hale Merriman
    Robert Hale Merriman was an American professor of economics at the University of California. He joined the Republican forces in Spain during the Spanish Civil War and commanded the Abraham Lincoln Battalion of the International Brigades....

  • Martin Hourihan
  • Oliver Law
    Oliver Law
    Oliver Law was an African American communist and labor organizer, who fought for the Republic in the Spanish Civil War. He was the commander of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade for four days.-Background:...

  • Mirko Markovics
  • Steve Nelson
    Steve Nelson (activist)
    Stjepan Mesaros, best known as Steve Nelson was a Croatian-born American political activist. Nelson achieved public notoriety as the political commissar of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade in the Spanish Civil War and a leading functionary of the Communist Party, USA...

  • Hans Amlie
  • Leonard Lamb
  • Phil Detro
  • Dave Reis
  • Aaron Lopoff
  • Milton Wolff

Lincoln Battalion Commissars

  • Phil Bard
  • Sam Stember
  • George Brodsky
  • David E. Jones
  • Fred Lutz
  • Steve Nelson
  • John Q. Robinson
  • Fred Keller
  • George Watt

Other notable members

  • Herman Bottcher
    Herman Bottcher
    Major Herman J. F. Bottcher was a German national who achieved the rank of Major with two different armies: the International Brigade during the Spanish Civil War and the United States Army during World War II. He was awarded two U.S. Distinguished Service Crosses, the second highest U.S....

     - Earned two Distinguished Service Crosses
    Distinguished Service Cross (United States)
    The Distinguished Service Cross is the second highest military decoration that can be awarded to a member of the United States Army, for extreme gallantry and risk of life in actual combat with an armed enemy force. Actions that merit the Distinguished Service Cross must be of such a high degree...

     in World War II.
  • Edward A. Carter, Jr.
    Edward A. Carter, Jr.
    Edward Allen Carter, Jr. was United States Army Staff Sergeant who received the Medal of Honor for his heroic actions during March 1945 during World War II...

     - Earned the Medal of Honor
    Medal of Honor
    The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government. It is bestowed by the President, in the name of Congress, upon members of the United States Armed Forces who distinguish themselves through "conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his or her...

     in World War II.
  • Alvah Bessie
    Alvah Bessie
    Alvah Cecil Bessie was an American novelist, journalist and screenwriter who was imprisoned for ten months and blacklisted by the movie studio bosses for being one of the group known as the Hollywood Ten.-Life and career:...

     - Hollywood Screenwriter who was one of the Hollywood Ten.
  • Carmelo Delgado Delgado
    Carmelo Delgado Delgado
    Lieutenant Carmelo Delgado Delgado was a leader of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party . Delgado joined the Abraham Lincoln International Brigade and fought against General Francisco Franco and the Spanish Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War...

     - Puerto Rican nationalist, among the first U.S. citizens to die in the war.
  • Leo Eloesser
    Leo Eloesser
    Leo Eloesser , a noted thoracic surgeon, was born in San Francisco. He spent his undergraduate years at Berkeley and in 1901 went to Germany to study medicine. He became a pioneer in the field of thoracic surgery and joined the faculty of the Stanford Medical School in 1912. Known for his work...

     - Noted US thoracic surgeon.
  • Moe Fishman - co-founder and Executive Secretary/Treasurer of the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade.
  • John Gates
    John Gates
    John "Johnny" Gates, born Solomon Regenstreif was a prominent American Communist journalist, best remembered as one of the individuals spearheading a failed attempt at liberalization of the Communist Party USA in 1957.-Early years:...

     - Political Commissar of the Battalion, later editor of The Daily Worker.
  • Robert Klonsky
    Robert Klonsky
    Robert Klonsky was a member of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, which fought on the side of the Spanish Republicans in the Spanish Civil War, a prelude to World War II.-Biography:...

     - One of the defendants in the Smith Act
    Smith Act
    The Alien Registration Act or Smith Act of 1940 is a United States federal statute that set criminal penalties for advocating the overthrow of the U.S...

     trial of the mid-1950s.
  • Harry Lidz—Heroic, eccentric uncle in Franz Lidz
    Franz Lidz
    Franz Lidz is an American writer and journalist.He was a senior writer at Sports Illustrated, a contributing editor at Conde Nast Portfolio, and is a correspondent for GQ, Sports Illustrated, Men's Journal, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Observer, AARP the Magazine, Slate and has written...

    's 1991 memoir Unstrung Heroes and his 2003 urban historical Ghosty Men: The Strange But True Story of the Collyer Brothers
    Collyer brothers
    Homer Lusk Collyer and Langley Wakeman Collyer , known as the Collyer brothers, were two American brothers who became famous because of their bizarre nature and compulsive hoarding...

  • Conlon Nancarrow
    Conlon Nancarrow
    Conlon Nancarrow was a United States-born composer who lived and worked in Mexico for most of his life. He became a Mexican citizen in 1955.Nancarrow is best remembered for the pieces he wrote for the player piano...

     - Composer.
  • Edwin Rolfe - Poet
  • George Sossenko
    George Sossenko
    George Sossenko is a Russian-born American lecturer and activist. At age 17, he left his parent's home in Paris, France, to join those fighting against Francisco Franco's nationalist forces in the Spanish Civil War...

     - Also fought in the Durruti Column
    Durruti Column
    The Durruti Column was the largest anarchist column formed during the Spanish Civil War . During the first months of the war it has come to be the most recognized and popular military organisations fighting at the republican side...

    .
  • Robert G. Thompson
    Robert G. Thompson
    Robert George Thompson was born on June 21, 1915 in Grants Pass, Oregon, Thompson fought on the side of the Spanish Republicans in the Civil War in Spain, attaining the rank of battalion commander with the all-American volunteer Abraham Lincoln Brigade.Following the Spanish Civil War Thompson saw...

     - Awarded the Distinguished Service Cross in World War II; among the 1950s Smith Act trial defendants.
  • Harry Wayland Randall
    Harry Wayland Randall
    Harry W. Randall, Jr. served in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade and was the Chief Photographer of the Photographic Unit of the 15th International Brigade.- Early life :...

     - Chief Photographer of the Photographic Unit of the 15th International Brigade.
  • William Herrick - Novelist

Supporters of the Spanish Republicans

  • Paul Robeson
    Paul Robeson
    Paul Leroy Robeson was an American concert singer , recording artist, actor, athlete, scholar who was an advocate for the Civil Rights Movement in the first half of the twentieth century...

     -Honorary member
  • Dashiell Hammett
    Dashiell Hammett
    Samuel Dashiell Hammett was an American author of hard-boiled detective novels and short stories, and political activist. Among the enduring characters he created are Sam Spade , Nick and Nora Charles , and the Continental Op .In addition to the significant influence his novels and stories had on...

  • Lillian Hellman
    Lillian Hellman
    Lillian Florence "Lily" Hellman was an American playwright, linked throughout her life with many left-wing causes...

  • Gypsy Rose Lee
    Gypsy Rose Lee
    Gypsy Rose Lee was an American burlesque entertainer famous for her striptease act. She was also an actress, author, and playwright whose 1957 memoir was made into the stage musical and film Gypsy.-Early life:...

  • Dorothy Parker
    Dorothy Parker
    Dorothy Parker was an American poet, short story writer, critic and satirist, best known for her wit, wisecracks, and eye for 20th century urban foibles....

  • Pablo Picasso
    Pablo Picasso
    Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso known as Pablo Ruiz Picasso was a Spanish expatriate painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, and stage designer, one of the greatest and most influential artists of the...

  • Sam Yorty
  • Helen Keller
    Helen Keller
    Helen Adams Keller was an American author, political activist, and lecturer. She was the first deafblind person to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree....

  • Ernest Hemingway
    Ernest Hemingway
    Ernest Miller Hemingway was an American author and journalist. His economic and understated style had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his life of adventure and his public image influenced later generations. Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the...

  • Woody Guthrie
    Woody Guthrie
    Woodrow Wilson "Woody" Guthrie is best known as an American singer-songwriter and folk musician, whose musical legacy includes hundreds of political, traditional and children's songs, ballads and improvised works. He frequently performed with the slogan This Machine Kills Fascists displayed on his...

  • George Orwell
    George Orwell
    Eric Arthur Blair , better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist...


Memorials & Awards

  • Currently, there are four memorials dedicated to the veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade.
    • The first is located on the campus of the University of Washington
      University of Washington
      University of Washington is a public research university, founded in 1861 in Seattle, Washington, United States. The UW is the largest university in the Northwest and the oldest public university on the West Coast. The university has three campuses, with its largest campus in the University...

       in Seattle.
    • The second is located in James Madison Park in Madison, Wisconsin
      Madison, Wisconsin
      Madison is the capital of the U.S. state of Wisconsin and the county seat of Dane County. It is also home to the University of Wisconsin–Madison....

      .
    • A third memorial to the veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade was dedicated on the Embarcadero in San Francisco, California
      San Francisco, California
      San Francisco , officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the financial, cultural, and transportation center of the San Francisco Bay Area, a region of 7.15 million people which includes San Jose and Oakland...

       on March 30, 2008. Among the speakers were San Francisco mayor Gavin Newsom and a few of the several ALB veterans still living.
    • The fourth memorial commemorates the Students & Faculty of The City College of New York who fought in the Spanish Civil War, including the 13 Alumni who died in the Struggle. The memorial is located in the North Academic Center of CCNY.

In museums

In 2007, Facing Fascism: New York and the Spanish Civil War at the Museum of the City of New York
Museum of the City of New York
The Museum of the City of New York is an art gallery and history museum founded in 1923 to present the history of New York City, USA and its people...

 examines the role that New Yorkers played in the conflict, as well as the political and social ideologies that motivated them to participate in activities ranging from rallying support, fundraising, and relief aid, to fighting — and sometimes dying — on the front lines in Spain. The stories of these New Yorkers will be told through photographs, letters, uniforms, weapons, and an array of personal and historical memorabilia.

See also

  • American Medical Bureau
  • International Brigades
    International Brigades
    The International Brigades were military units made up of volunteers from different countries, who traveled to Spain to defend the Second Spanish Republic in the Spanish Civil War between 1936 and 1939....

  • International Brigades order of battle
    International Brigades order of battle
    The International Brigades were volunteer military units of foreigners who fought on the side of the Second Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War. The number of combattant volunteers has been estimated at between 32,000–35,000, though with no more than about 20,000 active at any one time...

  • Irish Socialist Volunteers in the Spanish Civil War
    Irish Socialist Volunteers in the Spanish Civil War
    Irish Socialist volunteers in the Spanish Civil War describes a grouping of IRA members and Irish Socialists who fought in support the cause of the Second Republic during the Spanish Civil War. These volunteers were taken from both Irish Republican and Unionist political backgrounds but were bonded...

  • Jewish volunteers in the Spanish Civil War
    Jewish volunteers in the Spanish Civil War
    A minority of the Jewish population, particularly that of Europe's, were active in socialist and Communist organisations in the period between the two World Wars....

  • Polish volunteers in the Spanish Civil War
    Polish volunteers in the Spanish Civil War
    This article is about volunteers of Polish nationality or extraction who fought for the Spanish Second Republic in the Spanish Civil War. According to André Marty, the Comintern "chief organiser", about 3,000 Poles volunteered for the International Brigades. Elsewhere, "it has been calculated that...

  • Spanish Republican Air Force
    Spanish Republican Air Force
    The Spanish Republican Air Force, , was the air arm of the Second Spanish Republic, the legally established government of Spain between 1931 and 1939...

  • Yankee Squadron
    Yankee Squadron
    The Yankee Squadron was a group of mercenary American military aviators who flew for the Spanish Republican Air Force, during the Spanish Civil War.-History:...

  • Songs of the Lincoln Battalion
    Songs Of The Lincoln Battalion
    Songs of the Lincoln Battalion is a 1944 Asch album by three former members of the Almanac Singers: Baldwin 'Butch' Hawes, Bess Lomax Hawes and Pete Seeger, along with Tom Glazer.-Track listing:...


Further reading

  • Beevor, Antony
    Antony Beevor
    Antony James Beevor, FRSL is a British historian, educated at Winchester College and Sandhurst. He studied under the famous military historian John Keegan. Beevor is a former officer with the 11th Hussars who served in England and Germany for five years before resigning his commission...

    , The Battle for Spain, 2006.
  • Bermack, Richard. The Front Lines of Social Change: Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, Heyday Books
    Heyday Books
    Heyday Books is an independent nonprofit publisher based in Berkeley, California.Heyday was founded by Malcolm Margolin in 1974 when he wrote, typeset, designed, and distributed The East Bay Out, a guide to the natural history of the hills and bayshore around Berkeley and Oakland...

    , 2005.
  • Brandt, Joe (Ed.). Black Americans In The Spanish People's War Against Fascism 1936-1939. New York: Veterans Abraham Lincoln Brigade, no date, ca. 1979.
  • Eby,Cecil. Between the Bullet and the Lie: American Volunteers in the Spanish Civil War, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1969.
  • Eby, Cecil. Comrades and Commissars,http://psupress.org/books/titles/0-271-02910-2.html 2007.
  • Glazer, Peter. Radical Nostalgia: Spanish Civil War Commemoration in America. New York: University of Rochester Press, 2005.
  • Orwell, George, "Homage to Catalonia", 1938.
  • Osheroff, Abraham. "Dreams and Nightmares", 1974.
  • Rolfe, Edwin. The Lincoln Battalion: The Story of the Americans Who Fought in Spain in the International Brigades, New York: Random House
    Random House
    Random House, Inc. is the largest general-interest trade book publisher in the world. It has been owned since 1998 by the German private media corporation Bertelsmann and has become the umbrella brand for Bertelsmann book publishing. Random House also has a movie production arm, Random House Films,...

    , 1939.
  • Thomas, Hugh
    Hugh Thomas
    Hugh Thomas , is a British historian and life peer.Hugh Thomas may also refer to:* Hugh Thomas , American choral conductor, pianist and educator* Hugh Thomas , Australian rules football coach...

    , The Spanish Civil War, 4th Rev. Ed. 2001.
  • Yates, James. Mississippi to Madrid: Memoir of a Black American in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. Seattle: Open Hand Publishing, 1989.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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