1986 EDSA Revolution
Overview
 
The People Power Revolution (also known as the EDSA Revolution and the Philippine Revolution of 1986) was a series of popular demonstration
Demonstration (people)
A demonstration or street protest is action by a mass group or collection of groups of people in favor of a political or other cause; it normally consists of walking in a mass march formation and either beginning with or meeting at a designated endpoint, or rally, to hear speakers.Actions such as...

s in the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 that occurred in 1983-86. The methods used amounted to a sustained campaign of civil resistance
Civil resistance
The term civil resistance, alongside the term nonviolent resistance, is used to describe political action that relies on the use of non-violent methods by civil groups to challenge a particular power, force, policy or regime. Civil resistance operates through appeals to the adversary, pressure and...

 against regime violence and electoral fraud. This case of nonviolent revolution
Nonviolent revolution
A nonviolent revolution is a revolution using mostly campaigns of civil resistance, including various forms of nonviolent protest, to bring about the departure of governments seen as entrenched and authoritarian...

 led to the departure of President Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. was a Filipino leader and an authoritarian President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He was a lawyer, member of the Philippine House of Representatives and a member of the Philippine Senate...

 and the restoration of the country's democracy
Democracy
Democracy is generally defined as a form of government in which all adult citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. Ideally, this includes equal participation in the proposal, development and passage of legislation into law...

. It has been an inspiration for the Revolutions of 1989
Revolutions of 1989
The Revolutions of 1989 were the revolutions which overthrew the communist regimes in various Central and Eastern European countries.The events began in Poland in 1989, and continued in Hungary, East Germany, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia and...

 that contributed to the ending of communist dictatorships in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of Europe. The term has widely disparate geopolitical, geographical, cultural and socioeconomic readings, which makes it highly context-dependent and even volatile, and there are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region"...

.
Encyclopedia
The People Power Revolution (also known as the EDSA Revolution and the Philippine Revolution of 1986) was a series of popular demonstration
Demonstration (people)
A demonstration or street protest is action by a mass group or collection of groups of people in favor of a political or other cause; it normally consists of walking in a mass march formation and either beginning with or meeting at a designated endpoint, or rally, to hear speakers.Actions such as...

s in the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 that occurred in 1983-86. The methods used amounted to a sustained campaign of civil resistance
Civil resistance
The term civil resistance, alongside the term nonviolent resistance, is used to describe political action that relies on the use of non-violent methods by civil groups to challenge a particular power, force, policy or regime. Civil resistance operates through appeals to the adversary, pressure and...

 against regime violence and electoral fraud. This case of nonviolent revolution
Nonviolent revolution
A nonviolent revolution is a revolution using mostly campaigns of civil resistance, including various forms of nonviolent protest, to bring about the departure of governments seen as entrenched and authoritarian...

 led to the departure of President Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. was a Filipino leader and an authoritarian President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He was a lawyer, member of the Philippine House of Representatives and a member of the Philippine Senate...

 and the restoration of the country's democracy
Democracy
Democracy is generally defined as a form of government in which all adult citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. Ideally, this includes equal participation in the proposal, development and passage of legislation into law...

. It has been an inspiration for the Revolutions of 1989
Revolutions of 1989
The Revolutions of 1989 were the revolutions which overthrew the communist regimes in various Central and Eastern European countries.The events began in Poland in 1989, and continued in Hungary, East Germany, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia and...

 that contributed to the ending of communist dictatorships in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of Europe. The term has widely disparate geopolitical, geographical, cultural and socioeconomic readings, which makes it highly context-dependent and even volatile, and there are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region"...

. It is also referred to as the Yellow Revolution due to the presence of yellow ribbons during the demonstrations and the arrival of Benigno Aquino, Jr.
Benigno Aquino, Jr.
Benigno Simeon "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr. was a Filipino Senator and a former Governor of Tarlac. Aquino, together with Gerry Roxas and Jovito Salonga, formed the leadership of the opposition to the Marcos regime in the years leading to the imposition of martial law in the Philippines...

. It was widely seen as a victory of the people against the 20-year running authoritarian
Dictatorship
A dictatorship is defined as an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by an individual, the dictator. It has three possible meanings:...

, repressive regime of then president Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. was a Filipino leader and an authoritarian President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He was a lawyer, member of the Philippine House of Representatives and a member of the Philippine Senate...

 and made news headlines as "the revolution that surprised the world".

The majority of the demonstrations took place at Epifanio de los Santos Avenue
Epifanio de los Santos Avenue
Epifanio de los Santos Avenue , formerly known as Highway 54, is the main circumferential road and highway of Metro Manila in the Philippines. It is an important commuting artery between the northern and southern parts of the metropolitan area...

, known more commonly by its acronym EDSA, in Quezon City
Quezon City
Quezon City is the former capital and the most populous city in the Philippines. Located on the island of Luzon, Quezon City is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region. The city was named after Manuel L...

, Metropolitan Manila and involved over two million Filipino civilians as well as several political, military, and religious figures, such as Cardinal Jaime Sin. The protests, fueled by a resistance and opposition of years of corrupt governance by Marcos, occurred from February 22–25, 1986, when Marcos fled Malacañang Palace
Malacañang Palace
The Malacañan Palace, commonly known simply as Malacañang, is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the Philippines. Located at 1000 J. P. Laurel Street, San Miguel, Manila, the house was built in 1750 in Spanish Colonial style. It has been the residence of every...

 to the U.S. state of Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii is the newest of the 50 U.S. states , and is the only U.S. state made up entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of...

 and conceded to Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco-Aquino was the 11th President of the Philippines and the first woman to hold that office in Philippine history. She is best remembered for leading the 1986 People Power Revolution, which toppled Ferdinand Marcos and restored democracy in the Philippines...

 as the legitimate President of the Philippines
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

.

On February 25, 2011, the Philippines celebrated the 25th anniversary of the People Power Revolution.

Background and history

Ferdinand Marcos was elected president in 1965
Philippine presidential election, 1965
Presidential, legislative and local elections were held on November 19, 1965 in the Philippines. Incumbent President Diosdado Macapagal lost his opportunity to get a second full term as President of the Philippines to Senate President Ferdinand Marcos. His running mate, Senator Gerardo Roxas lost...

, defeating incumbent Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Pangan Macapagal was the ninth President of the Philippines, serving from 1961 to 1965, and the sixth Vice President, serving from 1957 to 1961. He also served as a member of the House of Representatives, and headed the Constitutional Convention of 1970...

 by a very slim margin. During this time, Marcos was very active in the initiation of public works projects and the intensification of tax collections. Marcos and his government claimed that they "built more roads than all his predecessors combined, and more schools than any previous administration". Amidst charges of vote buying and a fraudulent election, Marcos was reelected in 1969, this time defeating Sergio Osmeña Jr.

Marcos's second term for the presidency, however, was marred by allegations of widespread graft and corruption. The increasing disparity of wealth between the very wealthy and the very poor which made up the majority of the country's population led to the rise of crime and civil unrest around the country. These factors, including the formation of the New People's Army
New People's Army
The New People's Army is the armed wing of the Communist Party of the Philippines. It was formed on March 29, 1969. The Maoist NPA conducts its armed guerrilla struggle based on the strategical line of 'protracted people's war'.The NPA exacts so called "revolutionary taxes" from business owners...

, an armed revolt that called for the redistribution of wealth and land reform in the Philippines, and a bloody Muslim separatist movement in the southern island of Mindanao led by the Moro National Liberation Front
Moro National Liberation Front
The Moro National Liberation Front is a political organization that was founded by Nur Misuari in 1969. The MNLF struggles against the Philippine Government to achieve independence of the Bangsamoro Land...

, contributed to the rapid rise of civil discontent and unrest in the Philippines.

Marcos was barred from running for a third term as president in 1973, so on September 23, 1972, by virtue of a presidential proclamation (No. 1081), he declared martial law
Martial law
Martial law is the imposition of military rule by military authorities over designated regions on an emergency basis— only temporary—when the civilian government or civilian authorities fail to function effectively , when there are extensive riots and protests, or when the disobedience of the law...

, citing rising civil disobedience as justification. Through this decree, Marcos seized emergency powers giving him full control of the Philippine military and the authority to suppress the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, and many other civil liberties. Marcos also dissolved the Philippine Congress and shut down media establishments critical of the Marcos government. Marcos also ordered the immediate arrest of his political opponents and critics. Among those arrested were Senate President Jovito Salonga
Jovito Salonga
Jovito "Jovy" Reyes Salonga is a Filipino nationalist politician and lawyer, as well as a leading opposition leader during the Marcos regime from 1972, when Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law, until 1986, when Marcos was deposed as a result of a bloodless revolution...

, Senator Jose Diokno
José Diokno
Jose "Pepe" Wright Diokno was a Filipino nationalist. He served as Senator of the Philippines, Secretary of Justice, founding chair of the Commission on Human Rights, and founder of the Free Legal Assistance Group....

, and Senator Benigno Aquino Jr., the staunchest of his critics and the man who was groomed by the opposition to succeed Marcos after the 1973 elections. Marcos would also abolish the Philippines' 1935 constitution and replace it with a parliamentary-style government (the Batasang Pambansa
Batasang Pambansa
The Batasang Pambansa , also known by its nickname, the Batasan, was the former parliament of the Philippines, established as an interim assembly in 1978 and finally as an official body in 1984. Under the 1973 constitution, it replaced the former Congress established under the 1935 Commonwealth...

) along with a new constitution written by him. With practically all of his political opponents arrested and in exile, Marcos' pre-emptive declaration of martial law in 1972, and the ratification of his new constitution through political coercion, enabled him to effectively legitimize his government and hold on to power for another 14 years beyond his first two terms as president. At a period when the Cold War
Cold War
The Cold War was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World—primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies—and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States...

 was still a political reality, Marcos's dictatorship ensured the political support of the United States by Marcos' promise to stamp out communism in the Philippines and by assuring the United States of its continued use of military and naval bases in the Philippines.

Throughout his presidency, Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. was a Filipino leader and an authoritarian President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He was a lawyer, member of the Philippine House of Representatives and a member of the Philippine Senate...

 had set up a regime in the Philippines that would give him ultimate power over the military and the national treasury, as well as set up a personality cult
Cult of personality
A cult of personality arises when an individual uses mass media, propaganda, or other methods, to create an idealized and heroic public image, often through unquestioning flattery and praise. Cults of personality are usually associated with dictatorships...

. Following his declaration of martial law on September 21, 1972, Marcos immediately began to embezzle
Embezzlement
Embezzlement is the act of dishonestly appropriating or secreting assets by one or more individuals to whom such assets have been entrusted....

 money from the government and order the military to kill any political competition against him. As a result, the Philippine economy
Economy of the Philippines
The Economy of the Philippines is the 43rd largest in the world, according to the World Bank with an estimated 2010 gross domestic product of $200 billion, it is estimated that by 2015, the ranking of the Philippines would go up to the 18th and by the year 2050 it will land on the 14th...

 began to tumble greatly, and the nation lost its competitive edge in Southeast Asia. He also ordered many stores, hotels, schools, universities, and other public places to place his Presidential picture prominently or otherwise their facilities were shut down. The media frequently "eulogized" Marcos through public service announcements and news reports. Even billboard advertisements across the country were replaced with his propaganda
Propaganda
Propaganda is a form of communication that is aimed at influencing the attitude of a community toward some cause or position so as to benefit oneself or one's group....

 messages on justifying his regime's actions. Marcos also ordered the shutdown and takeovers of businesses in the country, then put these businesses either under the government control, or under the control of Marcos cronies.

Several groups of people, however, even within the government, conspired throughout the term of the Marcos regime to overthrow him. They were led by the popular public figure, incarcerated opposition senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr, who Marcos accused as leaning to a left-wing
Left-wing politics
In politics, Left, left-wing and leftist generally refer to support for social change to create a more egalitarian society...

 solution. While gaining popularity amongst the Filipino people for his stance against Marcos, Aquino was eventually forced to seek exile in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 for health and safety reasons. However, in 1983, Ninoy Aquino announced of his plans to return to the Philippines as a challenge to Marcos's government.

Within the military and the police, disillusioned junior officers silently conveyed their grievances. This led to the formation of the Reform the Armed Forces Movement
Reform the Armed Forces Movement
The Reform the Armed Forces Movement, also referred to by the acronym RAM, is a cabal of officers of the Armed Forces of the Philippines that attempted to seize power in the Philiipines during the 1980s and 1990s...

 (RAM), Soldier of the Filipino People (SFP), and Young Officers Union (YOU). RAM, which was led by graduates of the Philippine Military Academy
Philippine Military Academy
The Philippine Military Academy or PMA, is the Philippine military school for the Armed Forces of the Philippines . PMA was established on December 21, 1936 by the virtue of Commonwealth Act No. 1 . PMA is located in Baguio, Benguet province...

 Class of '71, Lt. Col. Gringo Honasan, Lt. Col. Victor Batac
Victor Batac
Victor Batac was the former Director of the Directorate for Logistics of the Philippine National Police.-Early years:Vic Batac entered the Philippine Military Academy as plebe on April 1, 1967 in Class of '71 - which is a graduating class known for prominent politicians such as Senators Gregorio...

, and Lt. Col. Eduardo Kapunan, found an ally and mentor in the Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile
Juan Ponce Enrile
Juan Ponce Enrile is a Filipino politician. As a protege of President Ferdinand Marcos, he served as Justice Secretary and then Defense Secretary under the Marcos regime. He later became one of the leaders of the 1986 People Power Movement that drove Marcos from power...

.

Assassination of Ninoy Aquino

Despite warnings from the military and other pro-Marcos groups, Ninoy Aquino was determined to return to the Philippines. Asked what he thought of the death threats, Ninoy Aquino responded "The Filipino is worth dying for."

On August 21, 1983, after a three-year exile in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, as he disembarked from a commercial flight at the then-Manila International Airport
Ninoy Aquino International Airport
The Ninoy Aquino International Airport or NAIA , also known as Manila International Airport , is the airport serving the general area of Manila and its surrounding metropolitan area...

 (now named after him), Aquino was assassinated
Assassination
To carry out an assassination is "to murder by a sudden and/or secret attack, often for political reasons." Alternatively, assassination may be defined as "the act of deliberately killing someone, especially a public figure, usually for hire or for political reasons."An assassination may be...

. His assassination shocked and outraged many Filipinos, most of whom by then had lost confidence in the Marcos administration. The event led to more suspicions on the government, triggered non-cooperation among Filipinos that eventually caused more civil disobedience
Civil disobedience
Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal to obey certain laws, demands, and commands of a government, or of an occupying international power. Civil disobedience is commonly, though not always, defined as being nonviolent resistance. It is one form of civil resistance...

. It also shook the Marcos government, which was by then deteriorating, in part due to Marcos' worsening health condition due to an eventual fatal illness (lupus erythematosus
Lupus erythematosus
Lupus erythematosus is a category for a collection of diseases with similar underlying problems with immunity . Symptoms of these diseases can affect many different body systems, including joints, skin, kidneys, blood cells, heart, and lungs...

).

The assassination of Ninoy Aquino in 1983 caused the economic problems of the country to deteriorate even further, and the government plunged further into debt. By the end of 1983, the country was bankrupt, and the economy contracted by 6.8%.

In 1984, Marcos appointed a commission, led by Chief Justice Enrique Fernando
Enrique Fernando
Enrique M. Fernando was the 13th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines. A noted constitutionalist and law professor, he served in the Supreme Court for 18 years, including 6 years as Chief Justice....

, to launch an inquiry and investigation into Aquino's assassination. Despite the commission's conclusions, Cardinal Jaime Sin, the Archbishop of Manila at the time, declined an offer to join the commission, rejecting the government's views on the assassination. In October of that year, Marcos appointed a second commission to investigate. The commission's final report accused the military of staging a conspiracy to assassinate Aquino, dealing another major blow to the already collapsing government. Aquino was shot at Manila International Airport (MIA) which is now called Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA).

Calls for election

On November 23, 1985, after pressures from Washington, Marcos suddenly announced that a presidential snap election would take place the following year, one year ahead of the regular presidential election schedule, to legitimize his control over the country. The snap election was legalized with the passage of Batas Pambansa Blg. 883 (National Law No. 883) by the Marcos-controlled unicameral congress called the Regular Batasang Pambansa
Regular Batasang Pambansa
The Regular Batasang Pambansa or the Second Batasan was the meeting of the parliament of the Philippines from the beginning of its session on July 23, 1984 until it was abolished by President Corazon Aquino on March 25, 1986....

. The growing opposition movement encouraged Ninoy Aquino's widow, Corazon Aquino, to run for the presidency with Salvador Laurel
Salvador Laurel
Salvador Roman Hidalgo Laurel , also known as Doy Laurel, was Vice President of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992 under Corazon Aquino. Before that, he briefly served as Aquino's first Prime Minister from February 25 to March 25 of 1986...

 as running mate for vice-president. Marcos ran for re-election, with Arturo Tolentino
Arturo Tolentino
Arturo Modesto Tolentino was a prominent political figure in the Philippines who briefly held the position of vice president in 1986. He is more well known as the father of the Philippine “archipelagic doctrine” and expert on the Law of the Sea.-Early career:Arturo M. Tolentino was born in Manila...

 as his running mate. The Aquino-Laurel tandem ran under the United Opposition (UNIDO) party, while the Marcos-Tolentino ticket ran under the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (KBL) party.

Snap election



The elections were held on February 7, 1986. The official election canvasser, the Commission on Elections (COMELEC), declared Marcos the winner. The final tally of the COMELEC had Marcos winning with 10,807,197 votes against Aquino's 9,291,761 votes. On the other hand, the final tally of the National Movement for Free Elections (NAMFREL), an accredited poll watcher, had Aquino winning with 7,835,070 votes against Marcos' 7,053,068 points. This electoral exercise was marred by widespread reports of violence and tampering of election results, culminating in the walkout of 29 COMELEC computer technicians to protest the deliberate manipulation of the official election results to favor Ferdinand Marcos. The walkout was considered as one of the early "sparks" of the People Power Revolution. The walkout also served as an affirmation to allegations of vote-buying, fraud, and tampering of election results by the KBL.

Because of reports of alleged fraud, the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines
Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines
The Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines is the official organization of the Catholic episcopacy in the Philippines. Archbishop Jose S. Palma of Cebu is the current president while Archbishop Socrates B. Villegas of Lingayen-Dagupan is the current Vice President. The CBCP has 99 active...

 (CBCP) issued a statement condemning the elections. The United States Senate also passed a resolution stating the same condemnation. US president Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Ronald Wilson Reagan was the 40th President of the United States , the 33rd Governor of California and, prior to that, a radio, film and television actor....

 issued a statement calling the fraud reports as "disturbing". In response to the protests, COMELEC claimed that Marcos with 53 percent won over Aquino. However, NAMFREL countered that the latter won over Marcos with 52 percent of votes.

On February 15, Marcos was proclaimed by COMELEC and Batasang Pambansa as the winner amidst the controversy. All 50 opposition members of the Parliament walked out in protest. The Filipino people refused to accept the results, however, asserting that Aquino was the real victor. Both "winners" took their oath of office in two different places, with Aquino gaining greater mass support. Aquino also called for coordinated strikes and mass boycott of the media and businesses owned by Marcos's cronies. As a result, the crony banks, corporations, and media were hit hard, and their shares in the stock market plummeted to record levels.

Events of the revolution

Appalled by the bold and apparent election irregularities, the Reform the Armed Forces Movement
Reform the Armed Forces Movement
The Reform the Armed Forces Movement, also referred to by the acronym RAM, is a cabal of officers of the Armed Forces of the Philippines that attempted to seize power in the Philiipines during the 1980s and 1990s...

 set into motion a coup attempt against Marcos. The initial plan was for a team to assault Malacañang Palace and arrest Ferdinand Marcos. Other military units will be taking over key strategic facilities, such as the airport
Ninoy Aquino International Airport
The Ninoy Aquino International Airport or NAIA , also known as Manila International Airport , is the airport serving the general area of Manila and its surrounding metropolitan area...

, military bases, TV and radio stations, the GHQAFP in Camp Aguinaldo
Camp Aguinaldo
Camp Aguinaldo is the military headquarters of the Philippine Army and the Armed Forces of the Philippines and is located in Quezon City in the Philippines. It is along Epifanio de los Santos Ave. , in front of Camp Crame, the national headquarters of the Philippine National Police...

, and major highway junctions to restrict counteroffensive by Marcos-loyal troops.

Lt.Col Gregorio Honasan was to lead the team that was going to assault Malacañang Palace.

However, after Marcos learned about the plot, he ordered their leaders' arrest, and presented to the international and local press some of the captured plotters, Maj. Saulito Aromin and Maj. Edgardo Doromal.

Threatened with their impending imprisonment, Enrile and his fellow coup plotters decided to ask for help from then AFP Vice Chief of Staff Lt. Gen Fidel Ramos, who was also the chief of the Philippine Constabulary (now the Philippine National Police). Ramos agreed to resign from his position and support the plotters. Enrile also contacted the highly influential Cardinal Archbishop of Manila Jaime Sin for his support.

At about 6:30pm, February 22, Enrile and Ramos held a press conference at Camp Aguinaldo, where they announced that they had resigned from their positions in Marcos's cabinet and were withdrawing support from his government. Marcos himself later conducted his own news conference calling on Enrile and Ramos to surrender, urging them to "stop this stupidity."

At about 9 p.m., in a message aired over Radio Veritas
Radio Veritas
Radio Veritas Asia is the Catholic shortwave station broadcasting to Asia; based in Quezon City, Philippines.-History:On December 1958, the delegates of the Southeast Asian Bishops' Conference unanimously resolved to establish a radio station that will serve the countries of Southeast Asia...

, Cardinal Sin exhorted Filipinos to come to the aid of the rebel leaders by going to EDSA between Camp Crame
Camp Crame
Camp Crame is the national headquarters of the Philippine National Police and is located in along Epifanio de los Santos Avenue, Quezon City...

 and Aguinaldo
Camp Aguinaldo
Camp Aguinaldo is the military headquarters of the Philippine Army and the Armed Forces of the Philippines and is located in Quezon City in the Philippines. It is along Epifanio de los Santos Ave. , in front of Camp Crame, the national headquarters of the Philippine National Police...

 and giving emotional support, food and other supplies. For many, this seemed an unwise decision since civilians would not stand a chance against a dispersal by government troops. Nevertheless, many people, especially priests and nuns, trooped to EDSA.

Radio Veritas played a critical role during the mass uprising. Former University of the Philippines
University of the Philippines
The ' is the national university of the Philippines. Founded in 1908 through Act No...

 president Francisco Nemenzo stated that: "Without Radio Veritas, it would have been difficult, if not impossible, to mobilize millions of people in a matter of hours." Similarly, a certain account in the event said that: "Radio Veritas, in fact, was our umbilical cord to whatever else was going on."

Rising mass support

At dawn, Sunday, government troops arrived to knock down the main transmitter of Radio Veritas, cutting off broadcasts to people in the provinces. The station switched to a standby transmitter with a limited range of broadcast. The station was targeted because it had proven to be a valuable communications tool for the people supporting the rebels, keeping them informed of government troop movements and relaying requests for food, medicine, and supplies.

Still, people came to EDSA until it swelled to hundreds of thousands of unarmed civilians. The mood in the street was actually very festive, with many bringing whole families. Performers entertained the crowds, nuns and priests led prayer vigils, and people set up barricades and makeshift sandbags, trees, and vehicles in several places along EDSA and intersecting streets such as Santolan and Ortigas Avenue. Everywhere, people listened to Radio Veritas on their radios. Several groups sang Bayan Ko
Bayan Ko
"Bayan Ko" is one of the most recognizable patriotic songs in the Philippines that, because of its popularity, is sometimes assumed to be a folk song and the unofficial national anthem of the Philippines...

(My Homeland), which, since 1980, had become a patriotic anthem of the opposition. People frequently flashed the LABAN (fight) sign, which is an "L" formed with their thumb and index finger.

Shortly after lunch on February 23, Enrile and Ramos decided to consolidate their positions. Enrile crossed EDSA from Camp Aguinaldo
Camp Aguinaldo
Camp Aguinaldo is the military headquarters of the Philippine Army and the Armed Forces of the Philippines and is located in Quezon City in the Philippines. It is along Epifanio de los Santos Ave. , in front of Camp Crame, the national headquarters of the Philippine National Police...

 to Camp Crame
Camp Crame
Camp Crame is the national headquarters of the Philippine National Police and is located in along Epifanio de los Santos Avenue, Quezon City...

 amidst cheers from the crowd.

In the mid-afternoon, Radio Veritas
Radio Veritas
Radio Veritas Asia is the Catholic shortwave station broadcasting to Asia; based in Quezon City, Philippines.-History:On December 1958, the delegates of the Southeast Asian Bishops' Conference unanimously resolved to establish a radio station that will serve the countries of Southeast Asia...

 relayed reports of Marines
Philippine Marine Corps
The Philippine Marine Corps is the marine corps of the Philippines, and is part of the Philippine Navy.- History :...

 massing near the camps in the east and LVT-5
LVT-5
The LVTP-5 was a family of amphibious armored fighting vehicles used by the United States Marine Corps. It was designed by the BorgWarner company and built by FMC along with a few other companies. It was first accepted into service in 1956...

 tanks approaching from the north and south. A contingent of Marines with tanks and armored vans, led by Brigadier General Artemio Tadiar, was stopped along Ortigas Avenue, about two kilometers from the camps, by tens of thousands of people. Nuns holding rosaries knelt in front of the tanks and men and women linked arms together to block the troops. Tadiar asked the crowds to make a clearing for them, but they did not budge. In the end, the troops retreated with no shots fired.

By evening, the standby transmitter of Radio Veritas failed. Shortly after midnight, the staff were able to go to another station to begin broadcasting from a secret location under the moniker "Radyo Bandido"
DZRJ-AM
DZRJ-AM , also known by its tagline The Voice of the Philippines, is an AM radio station of the Rajah Broadcasting Network, Inc. in the Philippines. The station was located on the roofdeck and tower of the J&T Building along Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard...

 (Bandit Radio). June Keithley, with Angelo Castro, was the radio broadcaster who continued Radio Veritas' program throughout the night and in the remaining days.

More defections

At dawn on Monday, February 24, the first serious encounter with government troops occurred. Marines marching from Libis, in the east, lobbed tear gas at the demonstrators, who quickly dispersed. Some 3,000 Marines then entered and held the east side of Camp Aguinaldo.

Later, helicopters manned by the 15th Strike Wing of the Philippine Air Force
Philippine Air Force
The Philippine Air Force is the air force of the Republic of the Philippines, and one of the three main services of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. Its official name in Filipino is Hukbong Himpapawid ng Pilipinas....

, led by Colonel Antonio Sotelo, were ordered from Sangley Point in Cavite (South of Manila) to head to Camp Crame. Secretly, the squadron had already defected and instead of attacking Camp Crame, landed in it, with the crowds cheering and hugging the pilots and crew members. A Bell 214
Bell 214
|-See also:-External links:...

 helicopter piloted by Major Deo Cruz of the 205th Helicopter Wing and Sikorsky S-76
Sikorsky S-76
The Sikorsky S-76 is an American medium-size commercial utility helicopter. The S-76 is powered by two turboshaft engines, which drive both the main and tail rotors, each with four blades...

 gunships piloted by Colonel Charles Hotchkiss of the 20th Air Commando Squadron joined the rebel squadron earlier in the air. The presence of the helicopters boosted the morale of Enrile and Ramos who had been continually encouraging their fellow soldiers to join the opposition movement. In the afternoon, Aquino arrived at the base where Enrile, Ramos, RAM officers and a throng were waiting.

The capture of Channel 4

At around that time, June Keithley received reports that Marcos had left Malacañang Palace and broadcast this to the people at EDSA. The crowd celebrated and even Ramos and Enrile came out from Crame to appear to the crowds. The jubilation was however short-lived as Marcos later appeared on television on the government-controlled Channel 4
DWGT-TV
DWGT-TV, channel 4, is the flagship station of Philippine television network People's Television Network. Its studios and transmitter are located at Broadcast Complex, Visayas Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City.-History:...

, (using the foreclosed ABS-CBN
ABS-CBN
ABS–CBN Corporation is a Philippine-based media conglomerate. It is the Philippines' largest media and entertainment conglomerate. The corporation was the merger of Alto Broadcasting System which at that time owned by James Lindenberg and Antonio Quirino, and the Chronicle Broadcasting Network ...

 facilities, transmitter and compound) declaring that he would not step down. It was thereafter speculated that the false report was a calculated move against Marcos to encourage more defections.

During this broadcast, Channel 4 suddenly went off the air. A contingent of rebels, under Colonel Mariano Santiago, had captured the station. Channel 4 was put back on line shortly after noon, with Orly Punzalan announcing, "Channel 4 is on the air again to serve the people." By this time, the crowds at EDSA had swollen to over a million. (Some estimates placed them at two million.) This broadcast was considered the "return" of ABS-CBN
ABS-CBN
ABS–CBN Corporation is a Philippine-based media conglomerate. It is the Philippines' largest media and entertainment conglomerate. The corporation was the merger of Alto Broadcasting System which at that time owned by James Lindenberg and Antonio Quirino, and the Chronicle Broadcasting Network ...

 on air because this was the time when former employees of ABS-CBN
ABS-CBN
ABS–CBN Corporation is a Philippine-based media conglomerate. It is the Philippines' largest media and entertainment conglomerate. The corporation was the merger of Alto Broadcasting System which at that time owned by James Lindenberg and Antonio Quirino, and the Chronicle Broadcasting Network ...

 were inside the complex after 14 years of closure since Marcos took it over during the Martial law of 1972. The people who were manning this broadcast were the likes of June Keithley, Fr. Aris Sison, Fr. Efren Datu, Fr. Bong Bongayan, Jose Mari Velez, Orly Punzalan and were directed by Johnny Manahan with former ABS employees. Also this was the first time when the late Eugenio "Geny" Lopez Jr.'s cousin Augusto "Jake" Lopez stepped into ABS-CBN
ABS-CBN
ABS–CBN Corporation is a Philippine-based media conglomerate. It is the Philippines' largest media and entertainment conglomerate. The corporation was the merger of Alto Broadcasting System which at that time owned by James Lindenberg and Antonio Quirino, and the Chronicle Broadcasting Network ...

 after it had been closed.

In the late afternoon, rebel helicopters attacked Villamor Airbase
Villamor Airbase
Villamor Air Base is home of the Philippine Air Force. It is chiefly used as an air base for PAF transport and helicopter flights. It is also the military base that the Philippine president uses when departing for foreign or domestic trips abroad, though foreign departures are mostly done at the...

, destroying presidential air assets. Another helicopter went to Malacañang, fired a rocket and caused minor damage. Later, most of the officers who had graduated from the Philippine Military Academy
Philippine Military Academy
The Philippine Military Academy or PMA, is the Philippine military school for the Armed Forces of the Philippines . PMA was established on December 21, 1936 by the virtue of Commonwealth Act No. 1 . PMA is located in Baguio, Benguet province...

 (PMA) defected. The majority of the Armed Forces had already changed sides.

AFP holds fire

The actual dialogue on TV between Marcos and then AFP Chief of Staff General Fabian Ver went as follows:

Fabian Ver: The Ambush there is aiming to mount there in the top, very quickly, you must immediately leave to conquer them, immediately, mr. president.

Ferdinand Marcos: Just wait,come here.

Ver: Please your honor, so we can immediately strike them. We have to immobilize the helicopters that they've got. We have two fighter planes flying now to strike at any time, sir.

Marcos: My order is not to attack. No, no, no! Hold on. My order is not to attack

Ver: They are massing civilians near our troops and we cannot keep on withdrawing. You asked me to withdraw yesterday....

Marcos (interrupting): Uh yes, but ah...My order is to disperse without shooting them.

Ver: We cannot withdraw all the time...


The said dialogue was staged to save face after orders to attack the civilians were not followed. The orders on the military frequency were monitored by RAM officers. This type of staged dialogue is known in the Philippines as "moro-moro".

Two inaugurations

On the morning of Tuesday, February 25, at around 7 a.m., a minor clash occurred between loyal government troops and the reformists. Snipers stationed atop the government-owned Channel 9 tower, near Channel 4, began shooting at the reformists. Many rebel soldiers surged to the station.

Later in the morning, Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco-Aquino was the 11th President of the Philippines and the first woman to hold that office in Philippine history. She is best remembered for leading the 1986 People Power Revolution, which toppled Ferdinand Marcos and restored democracy in the Philippines...

 was inaugurated as President of the Philippines in a simple ceremony at Club Filipino in Greenhills, about a kilometer from Camp Crame. She was sworn in as President by Senior Associate Justice Claudio Teehankee, and Laurel as Vice-President by Justice Vicente Abad Santos. The Bible on which Aquino swore her oath was held by Aurora Aquino, the mother of Ninoy Aquino
Benigno Aquino, Jr.
Benigno Simeon "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr. was a Filipino Senator and a former Governor of Tarlac. Aquino, together with Gerry Roxas and Jovito Salonga, formed the leadership of the opposition to the Marcos regime in the years leading to the imposition of martial law in the Philippines...

. Attending the ceremonies were Ramos, who was then promoted to General, Enrile, and many politicians. Outside Club Filipino, all the way to EDSA, hundreds of people cheered and celebrated. Bayan Ko
Bayan Ko
"Bayan Ko" is one of the most recognizable patriotic songs in the Philippines that, because of its popularity, is sometimes assumed to be a folk song and the unofficial national anthem of the Philippines...

(My Country, a popular folk song and the unofficial National Anthem of protest) was sung after Aquino's oath-taking. Many people wore yellow, the color of Aquino's campaign for presidency.

An hour later, Marcos conducted the inauguration at Malacañang. Loyalist civilians attended the ceremony, shouting "Marcos, Marcos, Marcos pa rin! (Marcos, Marcos, still Marcos!)". On the Palace balcony, Marcos took his oath as the President of the Philippines, broadcast by IBC-13
Intercontinental Broadcasting Corporation
Intercontinental Broadcasting Corporation is a Philippine VHF television network of the Government Communications Group headed by the Press Secretary. Its studios are located at Broadcast City, Old Balara, Capitol Hills, Diliman, Quezon City and its transmitter is located at the Coca Cola plant,...

 and GMA-7
GMA Network
GMA Network is a major commercial television & radio network in the Philippines. GMA Network is owned by GMA Network, Inc. a publicly listed company...

. None of the invited foreign dignitaries attended the ceremony for security reasons. The couple finally stepped out in the balcony of the palace in front of the 3000 KBL loyalists who were shouting to Marcos: "Capture the snakes!" First Lady Imelda Marcos sang one more rendition of "Dahil Sa Iyo" (Because of You), the couple's theme song, rather tearfully, chanting her trademark Tagalog
Tagalog language
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a third of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by most of the rest. It is the first language of the Philippine region IV and of Metro Manila...

 entreaties:


Because of you I attained happiness

I offer you my love

If it is true that you shall enslave me

All of this is because of you.


After the inauguration, the Marcos family and their close associates hurriedly rushed to leave the Palace. The broadcast of the event was also cut off as rebel troops successfully captured the other stations.

By this time, hundreds of people had amassed at the barricades along Mendiola, only a hundred meters away from Malacañang. They were prevented from storming the Palace by loyal government troops securing the area. The angry demonstrators were pacified by priests who warned them not to be violent.

Marcos' departure

At 3:00 p.m., Monday, (EST
Eastern Time Zone
The Eastern Time Zone of the United States and Canada is a time zone that falls mostly along the east coast of North America. Its UTC time offset is −5 hrs during standard time and −4 hrs during daylight saving time...

) Marcos talked to United States Senator
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the United States House of Representatives comprises the United States Congress. The composition and powers of the Senate are established in Article One of the U.S. Constitution. Each...

 Paul Laxalt
Paul Laxalt
Paul Dominique Laxalt of Nevada was a former Republican District Attorney, Lieutenant Governor, Governor and U.S. Senator. In the media, the words "son of a Basque sheepherder" often accompanied his name. He was one of Ronald Reagan's closest friends in politics...

, asking for advice from the White House
White House
The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the president of the United States. Located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D.C., the house was designed by Irish-born James Hoban, and built between 1792 and 1800 of white-painted Aquia sandstone in the Neoclassical...

. Laxalt advised him to "cut and cut cleanly", to which Marcos expressed his disappointment after a short pause. In the afternoon, Marcos talked to Enrile
Juan Ponce Enrile
Juan Ponce Enrile is a Filipino politician. As a protege of President Ferdinand Marcos, he served as Justice Secretary and then Defense Secretary under the Marcos regime. He later became one of the leaders of the 1986 People Power Movement that drove Marcos from power...

, asking for safe passage for him and his family including his close allies like General Ver. Finally, at 9:00 p.m., the Marcos family was transported by four US Navy SH-3 helicopter
Helicopter
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by one or more engine-driven rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, and to fly forwards, backwards, and laterally...

s to Clark Air Base
Clark Air Base
Clark Air Base is a former United States Air Force base on Luzon Island in the Philippines, located 3 miles west of Angeles City, about 40 miles northwest of Metro Manila. Clark Air Base was an American military facility from 1903 to 1991...

 in Angeles City
Angeles City
The City of Angeles , located within the province of Pampanga in the Philippines, is locally classified as a first-class, highly-urbanized city. Its name is derived from El Pueblo de los Ángeles in honor of its patron saints, Los Santos Ángeles de los Custodios , and the name of its founder, Don...

, Pampanga, about 83 kilometers north of Manila, before boarding US Air Force C-130 planes bound for Andersen Air Force Base in Guam
Guam
Guam is an organized, unincorporated territory of the United States located in the western Pacific Ocean. It is one of five U.S. territories with an established civilian government. Guam is listed as one of 16 Non-Self-Governing Territories by the Special Committee on Decolonization of the United...

, and finally to Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii is the newest of the 50 U.S. states , and is the only U.S. state made up entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of...

 where Marcos arrived on February 26.

When the news of Marcos' departure reached the people, many rejoiced and danced in the streets. Over at Mendiola, the demonstrators were finally able to enter Malacañang Palace
Malacañang Palace
The Malacañan Palace, commonly known simply as Malacañang, is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the Philippines. Located at 1000 J. P. Laurel Street, San Miguel, Manila, the house was built in 1750 in Spanish Colonial style. It has been the residence of every...

, long denied to Filipinos
Filipino people
The Filipino people or Filipinos are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the islands of the Philippines. There are about 92 million Filipinos in the Philippines, and about 11 million living outside the Philippines ....

 in the past decade. Looting by overly angry protesters occurred, but mostly people wandered inside, looking at the place where all the decisions that changed the course of Philippine history had been made.

Many people around the world rejoiced and congratulated Filipinos they knew. Bob Simon
Bob Simon
Bob Simon is a CBS News television correspondent.From 1964–67, Simon served as an American Foreign Service officer and was a Fulbright Scholar in France and a Woodrow Wilson scholar. From 1969–71, he served a tour in the CBS News London bureau. From 1971–77, he was based in the London and Saigon...

, an anchorman at CBS
CBS
CBS Broadcasting Inc. is a major US commercial broadcasting television network, which started as a radio network. The name is derived from the initials of the network's former name, Columbia Broadcasting System. The network is sometimes referred to as the "Eye Network" in reference to the shape of...

 said, "We Americans
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 like to think we taught the Filipinos democracy
Democracy
Democracy is generally defined as a form of government in which all adult citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. Ideally, this includes equal participation in the proposal, development and passage of legislation into law...

. Well, tonight they are teaching the world."

Aftermath

In her speech before the United States Congress
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C....

 which she delivered on September 18, 1986, seven months after assuming the presidency, President Aquino observed that "ours must have been the cheapest revolution ever".

Despite the People Power Revolution, however, the democratic political system of the Philippines is still fragile and flawed. Patronage politics still hinders the development of democracy and natural resources are now mostly exploited by Western nations. The 1987 Constitution's third article titled the "bill of rights" is guaranteed by the state, but in most instances is largely ignored by the government, and is viewed by foreign sources as "coded to ensure tyranny of the majority
Tyranny of the majority
The phrase "tyranny of the majority" , used in discussing systems of democracy and majority rule, is a criticism of the scenario in which decisions made by a majority under that system would place that majority's interests so far above a dissenting individual's interest that the individual would be...

". The revolution also provided the restoration of democratic institutions after thirteen years of authoritarian rule. These institutions have been used by political and social actors to challenge the entrenched political clans and develop Philippine democracy, however.

The revolution had an effect on democratization movements in places such as Taiwan and South Korea; other effects include the restoration of the freedom of the press, adoption of a new constitution, and the subordination of the military to civilian rule, despite several coup attempts during the Aquino administration.

While democracy as Filipinos knew it was restored, rampant corruption plagued the government that led to the 2001 EDSA Revolution
2001 EDSA Revolution
The EDSA Revolution of 2001, also called by the local media as EDSA II or the Second People Power Revolution, is the common name of the four-day revolution that peacefully overthrew Philippine President Joseph Estrada from January 17–20, 2001...

, which deposed President Joseph Estrada
Joseph Estrada
Joseph "Erap" Ejercito Estrada was the 13th President of the Philippines, serving from 1998 until 2001. Estrada was the first person in the Post-EDSA era to be elected both to the presidency and vice-presidency.Estrada gained popularity as a film actor, playing the lead role in over 100 films in...

. While the Marcoses fled, and the former president died in exile in Hawaii, his wife Imelda
Imelda Marcos
Imelda R. Marcos is a Filipino politician and widow of 10th Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos. Upon the ascension of her husband to political power, she held various positions to the government until 1986...

 later won a seat in the House of Representatives
House of Representatives of the Philippines
The House of Representatives of the Philippines is the lower chamber of the...

 and his son Ferdinand Jr.
Ferdinand Marcos, Jr.
Ferdinand Romualdez Marcos, Jr. , also known as Bongbong Marcos is a Filipino politician and a senator to the 15th Congress. He is the only son of Ferdinand E. Marcos, the former president of the Philippines , and former First Lady Imelda Romualdez-Marcos...

 was elected senator in 2010
Philippine Senate election, 2010
Election to the Senate of the Philippines was held on Monday, May 10, 2010. This is to elect 12 of the 24 seats in the Senate. Together with those elected in 2007, they will comprise the 15th Congress. The senators elected in 2007 will serve until June 30, 2013, while the senators elected in this...

. The revolution may have had brought changes to the leadership in the country, the power "remained concentrated among a small rich elite." The perception of the public about the Marcos regime is changing, with some people "focusing on his investments, infrastructure and public works, rather than the human rights abuses and claims of lavish personal spending."

Criticism

There are political writers, especially those living outside of Metro Manila
Metro Manila
Metropolitan Manila , the National Capital Region , or simply Metro Manila, is the metropolitan region encompassing the City of Manila and its surrounding areas in the Philippines...

, who associate the People Power Revolution with what they term as "Imperial Manila
Imperial Manila
Imperial Manila is a pejorative epithet used by certain sectors of Filipino society to express the idea that all the affairs of the Philippines—whether in politics, business, economy, or culture—are decided by what is happening in the capital region Metro Manila without considering the rest of the...

" because it was believed that Marcos was toppled from his position without the participation of Filipinos living in areas outside of the capital region. In an article published in Philippine Daily Inquirer
Philippine Daily Inquirer
The Philippine Daily Inquirer, popularly known as the Inquirer, is the most widely read broadsheet newspaper in the Philippines, with a daily circulation of 260,000 copies. It is one of the Philippines' newspapers of record...

, Amando Doronila wrote that:

People power movements have been an Imperial Manila phenomenon. Their playing field is EDSA
Epifanio de los Santos Avenue
Epifanio de los Santos Avenue , formerly known as Highway 54, is the main circumferential road and highway of Metro Manila in the Philippines. It is an important commuting artery between the northern and southern parts of the metropolitan area...

. They have excluded the provincianos
Provinces of the Philippines
The Provinces of the Philippines are the primary political and administrative divisions of the Philippines. There are 80 provinces at present, further subdivided into component cities and municipalities. The National Capital Region, as well as independent cities, are autonomous from any provincial...

from their movement with their insufferable arrogance and snobbery ... ignoring the existence of the toiling masses and peasants in agrarian Philippines.

1983

  • August 21 - Ninoy Aquino is assassinated
  • September 21 - As the government celebrates Barangay Day/National Thanksgiving Day to commemorate the declaration of martial law, thousands of Ninoy supporters hold a "National Day of Sorrow" and call for unity in the ranks to topple the Marcos regime.

1984

  • May 14 - Elections for the Batasang Pambansa
    Philippine parliamentary election, 1984
    Parliamentary elections were held on May 14, 1984 in the Philippines. Like any other elections, charges of bribery, protests and complaints on irregularity of the elections. But supported the campaign of boycotting the elections like Former Publisher of the Manila Times Chino Roces and Former...

     (parliament) are held. The United Nationalist Democratic Organization (UNIDO) and the Pilipino Democratic Party-Lakas ng Bayan (PDP-LABAN) coalition decide to take part. Cory Aquino, Ninoy's widow, throws her support behind the opposition candidates. They surprise Marcos by winning 56 seats out of the 183 amid familiar allegations of fraud.
  • October 24 - The Agrava Board, tasked with investigating the Aquino assassination, concludes that there was a military conspiracy
    Conspiracy (crime)
    In the criminal law, a conspiracy is an agreement between two or more persons to break the law at some time in the future, and, in some cases, with at least one overt act in furtherance of that agreement...

     behind the killing and implicates AFP Chief of Staff Fabian Ver.

1985

  • February 22 - General Ver, 24 soldiers, and one civilian stand trial before the Sandiganbayan
    Sandiganbayan
    The Sandiganbayan is a special court in the Philippines which was established under Presidential Decree No. 1606. Its rank is equivalent to the Court of Appeals. The court consists of 14 Associate Justices and 1 Presiding Justice...

     for the Aquino murder. Ver takes a leave of absence as Armed Forces Chief of Staff.
  • August - Opposition MPs file a motion for impeachment against Marcos in the Batasan, citing culpable violation of the Constitution and "hidden wealth." The majority party squelches the motion.
  • November 3 - Marcos suddenly announces the holding of snap elections after alleged prodding from the United States
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

    .
  • December 2 - General Ver and all his co-accused are acquitted by the Sandiganbayan. Marcos reinstates him as Chief of Staff amid widespread protest.
  • December 3 - Corazon Aquino declares her candidacy for President. Salvador Laurel
    Salvador Laurel
    Salvador Roman Hidalgo Laurel , also known as Doy Laurel, was Vice President of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992 under Corazon Aquino. Before that, he briefly served as Aquino's first Prime Minister from February 25 to March 25 of 1986...

    , who earlier has wanted to run for the same position, agrees to be her running mate.
  • December 5 - The Opposition makes a formal announcement of the Aquino-Laurel tandem for the snap elections.

February 7

  • A heavy voter turnout and the judging of the voters' list create confusion during the presidential elections, resulting in the disenfranchisement of three million voters. Incidents of fraud, vote-buying, intimidation, and violence are reported. Election returns are tampered with. The Commission on Elections (COMELEC) tally board shows Marcos leading while the National Citizen's Movement for the Free Elections (NAMFREL) consistently shows Cory Aquino ahead by a comfortable margin.

February 9

  • Thirty computer workers at the COMELEC tabulation center walk out, protesting the tampering of election results.

February 11

  • Oppositionist ex-Governor Evelio Javier
    Evelio Javier
    Evelio Bellaflor Javier was a Filipino lawyer, civil servant, politician, and an oppositionist during the authoritarian regime of President Ferdinand Marcos. Due to these activities, he was assassinated by the regime on February 11, 1986...

     of Antique is murdered in front of the provincial capitol where canvassing is being held. Primary suspects are the bodyguards of the local KBL leader.

February 13

  • The Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines
    Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines
    The Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines is the official organization of the Catholic episcopacy in the Philippines. Archbishop Jose S. Palma of Cebu is the current president while Archbishop Socrates B. Villegas of Lingayen-Dagupan is the current Vice President. The CBCP has 99 active...

     (CBCP) issues a statement condemning the elections as fraudulent.

February 22

  • 2:00 AM
    • Final meeting of the RAM
      Reform the Armed Forces Movement
      The Reform the Armed Forces Movement, also referred to by the acronym RAM, is a cabal of officers of the Armed Forces of the Philippines that attempted to seize power in the Philiipines during the 1980s and 1990s...

       at Minister of Defense Juan Ponce Enrile
      Juan Ponce Enrile
      Juan Ponce Enrile is a Filipino politician. As a protege of President Ferdinand Marcos, he served as Justice Secretary and then Defense Secretary under the Marcos regime. He later became one of the leaders of the 1986 People Power Movement that drove Marcos from power...

      's house in Dasmariñas Village
      Dasmariñas Village
      Dasmariñas Village or simply Dasma, is a private subdivision and gated community in Makati City, Metro Manila, Philippines. It occupies 187.21 hectares and is bounded by Epifanio de los Santos Avenue to the north, McKinley Road to the northeast, Pili Avenue/Forbes Park South to the east, Maricaban...

       before the assault on Malacañang Palace
      Malacañang Palace
      The Malacañan Palace, commonly known simply as Malacañang, is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the Philippines. Located at 1000 J. P. Laurel Street, San Miguel, Manila, the house was built in 1750 in Spanish Colonial style. It has been the residence of every...

    • AFP Chief of Staff Fabian Ver
      Fabian Ver
      Fabian C. Ver was a General and Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines under President Ferdinand Marcos...

       calls in additional units to defend Malacañang.
  • 3:00 AM
    • The final meeting at the Defense Minister's home is concluded. Lt. Col. Honasan and Kapunan begin their recoinnaisance of Malacañang. To their dismay, they discover battle-hardened Marines stationed at their main point of attack.
  • 6:30 AM
    • Maj. Avelino Razon briefs AFP Vice Chief of Staff Gen. Fidel V. Ramos
      Fidel V. Ramos
      Fidel "Eddie" Valdez Ramos , popularly known as FVR, was the 12th President of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998. During his six years in office, Ramos was widely credited and admired by many for revitalizing and renewing international confidence in the Philippine economy.Prior to his election as...

       on the developments of RAM's plans.
  • 9:00 AM
    • Fabian Ver
      Fabian Ver
      Fabian C. Ver was a General and Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines under President Ferdinand Marcos...

       sends Col. Rolando Abadilla to Col. Honasan to inform the latter that their plans have been made known already and that RAM should not make any rash decisions.
  • 10:00 AM
    • Lt. Col. Honasan phones Kapunan and informs him that they are not going to abort the mission, but to simply "freeze" the operation for the next 24 hours.
    • Honasan reviews the situation and assesses the prepositioning of the troops from his office in GHQAFP Camp Aguinaldo
      Camp Aguinaldo
      Camp Aguinaldo is the military headquarters of the Philippine Army and the Armed Forces of the Philippines and is located in Quezon City in the Philippines. It is along Epifanio de los Santos Ave. , in front of Camp Crame, the national headquarters of the Philippine National Police...

    • Cory Aquino leaves for Cebu
      Cebu
      Cebu is a province in the Philippines, consisting of Cebu Island and 167 surrounding islands. It is located to the east of Negros, to the west of Leyte and Bohol islands...

       to continue the Civil Disobedience Campaign.
  • 12:00 NN
    • Navy Capt. Rex Robles was assigned to act as a liaison with the diplomatic community in case the RAM officers will be arrested, and tell the world of their story.
    • U.S. Amb. Stephen Bosworth along with Philip Habib
      Philip Habib
      Philip Charles Habib was a Lebanese-American career diplomat known for work in Vietnam, South Korea and the Middle East...

      , Pres. Ronald Reagan
      Ronald Reagan
      Ronald Wilson Reagan was the 40th President of the United States , the 33rd Governor of California and, prior to that, a radio, film and television actor....

      's personal envoy to Marcos, visit the Palace for a meeting with the President. They discuss the recent elections and the political situation. The U.S. envoys call Marcos to retire Ver.
  • 12:45 PM
    • While Marcos was having his meeting with the U.S. envoys, Capt. Ricardo Morales
      Ricardo Morales
      Ricardo Morales is a classical clarinetist of Puerto Rican descent. Since 2003, he has been the principal clarinetist of the Philadelphia Orchestra. Prior to that, he had been principal clarinetist at the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra...

      , one of Imelda Marcos
      Imelda Marcos
      Imelda R. Marcos is a Filipino politician and widow of 10th Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos. Upon the ascension of her husband to political power, she held various positions to the government until 1986...

      ' close-in security and who is a mole of RAM in the PSG, reconnoiters the defenses of the Palace grounds, and took the initiative to withdraw some firearms from the PSG armory. He is arrested and is brought to the office of the Aide-de-camp
      Aide-de-camp
      An aide-de-camp is a personal assistant, secretary, or adjutant to a person of high rank, usually a senior military officer or a head of state...

       for interrogation.
  • 1:45 PM
    • As the meeting came to a close, barely has Amb. Bosworth left the room, Gen. Ver storms into the Presidential study to convey the recent arrest of four officers in the PSG who are found to be members of RAM.
    • Philip Habib confides as he leaves Malacañang, that "Cory won the election and deserves our support. Marcos is finished, and we ought to offer him asylum in the United States."
  • 2:00 PM
    • With their plans discovered, Enrile and the RAM officers, had to change their direction. They decided that they need to draw the public support if they are going to storm this crisis out.
  • 2:15 PM
    • Cory in the rally in Cebu calls for the boycott of Marcos crony-owned business.
  • 3:45 PM
    • Enrile gets through to Cardinal Sin and seeks his moral and active support, as the former felt that he will not survive the day.
  • 4:30 PM
    • The first military region to go to the rebel side was Regional Unified Command No. 8, which included troops in Mrs. Marcos's own province, Leyte
      Leyte
      Leyte is a province of the Philippines located in the Eastern Visayas region. Its capital is Tacloban City and occupies the northern three-quarters of the Leyte Island. Leyte is located west of Samar Island, north of Southern Leyte and south of Biliran...

      , led by commander, Brig. Gen. Salvador Mison who was in Camp Aguinaldo.
  • 5:30 PM
    • Pres. Marcos first response to the mutiny was to call his family to Malacañang.
  • 6:30 PM
    • Malacañang receives a "report" that Ramos and Enrile were "officially withdrawing their support" of the Marcos administration.
  • 6:45 PM
    • Enrile and Ramos, surrounded by the their staff and guards hold a press conference at the Social Hall of the GHQAFP, and make the official announcement of their withdrawal of support of the Marcos administration.
    • Enrile states in his opening that "We are going to die here fighting."
    • Ramos states "There has become an elite Armed Forces of the Philippines that no longer represents the rank and officers' corps of the Armed Forces. ...The President of 1986 is not the President to whom we dedicated our service. it is clear that he no longer is the able and capable commander-in-chief that we count upon. ... He has put his personal family interest above the interest of the people. We do not consider President Marcos as now being a duly constituted authority."
    • Enrile adds "I cannot in my conscience recognize the President as the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces and I am appealing to the other members of the Cabinet to heed the will of the people expressed during the last elections. Because in my own region, I know that we cheated in the elections to the extent of 350,000 votes. ... No, I will not serve under Mrs. Aquino even if she is installed as a president. ... Our loyalty is to the Constitution and the country. ... You are welcome to join us. We have no food..."
    • Ramos closes "I am not even acting Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces. I think that when he made that announcement to you and to the whole world last Sunday, he was just fooling us, and he was fooling the entire world because he flip-flopped so many times already. ... I would like to appeal to the fair and to the dedicated and people-oriented members of the AFP and the INP to join us in this crusade for better government."
  • 7:00 PM
  • Approximately 7:00 PM
    • Cory receives the news of the withdrawal of support by Enrile and Ramos. She calls Manila to verify the report.
  • 8:15 PM
    • Gen. Ver orders Brig. Gen. Fidel Singson, Chief of the Intelligence Service of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (ISAFP) to "Destroy Radio Veritas
      Radio Veritas
      Radio Veritas Asia is the Catholic shortwave station broadcasting to Asia; based in Quezon City, Philippines.-History:On December 1958, the delegates of the Southeast Asian Bishops' Conference unanimously resolved to establish a radio station that will serve the countries of Southeast Asia...

      !"
    • Unbeknown to Ver, Singson was already in the process of defecting to the rebel group. Singson sends his men to Radio Veritas, not to destroy, but only to reconnoiter the area.
  • 8:30 PM
    • Cardinal Jaime Sin goes on air and calls the people to "Please, do not be alarmed, stay home."
  • 8:45 PM
    • The rebel group was taken aback by the Cardinal's announcement and calls him to clarify their request. They asked him to send the people to the camps.
  • 9:00 PM
    • Cardinal Sin goes on air once more and says "Leave your homes now ...I ask you to support Mr. Enrile and Gen. Ramos, give them food if you like, they are our friends."
    • Inquirer co-chairman Betty Go-Belmonte telephoned Member of Parliament Cecilia Munoz Palma. MP Palma immediately made a call to Radio Veritas
      Radio Veritas
      Radio Veritas Asia is the Catholic shortwave station broadcasting to Asia; based in Quezon City, Philippines.-History:On December 1958, the delegates of the Southeast Asian Bishops' Conference unanimously resolved to establish a radio station that will serve the countries of Southeast Asia...

       and was one of the first opposition leaders to express support for the revolution.
  • 9:30 PM
    • Butz Aquino with the August Twenty-One Movement ATOM Executive Committee deliberate on whether to support Enrile and Ramos. The Executive Committee wants to wait on Cory Aquino for instructions. Butz Aquino finally decided to head to Camp Aguinaldo to support the rebels.
    • Cory Aquino meanwhile is also deciding on what actions to take after receiving the call from ATOM. She requests to speak with Enrile first.
    • Col. Antonio Sotelo, Commander of the 15th Strike Wing, received a call at his Villamor Air Base office from Col. Hector Tarrazona
      Hector Tarrazona
      Hector M. Tarrazona was a colonel of the Philippine Air Force, and a founding member of the Reform the Armed Forces Movement . In the May 10, 2010 elections, Tarrazona ran as a senatorial candidate under Ang Kapatiran Party, and was supported by the Roman Catholic Church along with Rizalito David,...

      , who was also a member of RAM, asking the Commander whether he is with them. Col. Sotelo confirms that he supports RAM, and orders his Squadron Commanders to arm their attack helicopters.

See also

  • Arab Spring
    Arab Spring
    The Arab Spring , otherwise known as the Arab Awakening, is a revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests occurring in the Arab world that began on Saturday, 18 December 2010...

  • People Power Uprising
  • Revolutions of 1989
    Revolutions of 1989
    The Revolutions of 1989 were the revolutions which overthrew the communist regimes in various Central and Eastern European countries.The events began in Poland in 1989, and continued in Hungary, East Germany, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia and...

  • Civil resistance
    Civil resistance
    The term civil resistance, alongside the term nonviolent resistance, is used to describe political action that relies on the use of non-violent methods by civil groups to challenge a particular power, force, policy or regime. Civil resistance operates through appeals to the adversary, pressure and...

  • Color revolution
    Color revolution
    Colour revolutions is a term that was widely used by the media to describe related movements that developed in several societies in the CIS and Balkan states during the early 2000s. The term has also been applied to a number of revolutions elsewhere, including in the Middle East...

  • Nonviolent revolution
    Nonviolent revolution
    A nonviolent revolution is a revolution using mostly campaigns of civil resistance, including various forms of nonviolent protest, to bring about the departure of governments seen as entrenched and authoritarian...

  • Epifanio de los Santos Avenue
    Epifanio de los Santos Avenue
    Epifanio de los Santos Avenue , formerly known as Highway 54, is the main circumferential road and highway of Metro Manila in the Philippines. It is an important commuting artery between the northern and southern parts of the metropolitan area...

     for more information about the road
  • Handog ng Pilipino sa Mundo
    Handog ng Pilipino sa Mundo
    "Handog ng Pilipino sa Mundo" is a 1986 song recorded in Filipino by a supergroup composed of 15 Filipino artists. The song became the anthem of the bloodless People Power Revolution...

  • EDSA Shrine
    EDSA Shrine
    The Shrine of Mary, Queen of Peace, Our Lady of EDSA, or more popularly, the EDSA Shrine is a small church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila located at the intersection of Ortigas Avenue and Epifanio de los Santos Avenue in Quezon City...

  • People Power Monument
    People Power Monument
    The People Power Monument is a sculpture of towering people commemorating the People Power Revolution located corner of Epifanio de los Santos Avenue or EDSA and White Plains Avenue in Quezon City. It was made by Eduardo Castrillo. It is about 0.89 kilometers from the EDSA Shrine, another monument...

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