from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that, 4th President of Pakistan
from 1971 to 1973. Bhutto was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party
(PPP)— the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan— and served as its chairman until his execution in 1979.
Pakistan was once called the most allied ally of the United States. We are now the most non-allied.
They are going to kill me. It doesn't matter what evidence you or anyone comes up with. They are going to murder me for murder I didn't commit.
If things do not change, there will be nothing left to change. Either power must pass to the people or everything will perish.
Your grand-father taught me the politics of pride, your grandmother taught me the politics of poverty. I am beholden to both for the fine synthesis. To you, my darling daughter, I give only one message. It is the message of the morrow, the message of history. Believe only in the people, work only for their emancipation and equality. The paradise of God lies under the feet of your mother. The paradise of politics lies under the feet of the people.
The favourite slogan, the one that caught on during the May 1968 fête in France was "it is forbidden to forbid". There is nothing to forbid the youth of Europe to reject both communism and capitalism. What will they build in the absence of both systems? Will their concept of building a new structure with a new philosophy mean willful self-destruction? This sounds insane but the youth of Europe is not insane.
from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that, 4th President of Pakistan
from 1971 to 1973. Bhutto was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party
(PPP)— the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan— and served as its chairman until his execution in 1979. His elder daughter, Benazir Bhutto
, would also serve as Prime minister, while his son Murtaza Bhutto
, served as member of Parliament of Pakistan.
Educated at the University of California, Berkeley
in the United States and the University of Oxford
in the United Kingdom, Bhutto was noted for his progressive economic initiatives
, industrialization, education
, energy and foreign policy, and his intellectualism. In addition to national security issues, Bhutto promoted his policies on the nationalization
, health care, and social reforms. Under his premiership, Pakistan's Parliament gave approval and passed unanimously the 1973 Constitution
of Pakistan, a supreme law that provides a parliamentary system
to Pakistan, strengthened the Sino-Pak and Saudi-Pak relations, recognition
, and hosted the second Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC) in 1974 where he delegated and invited leaders from the Muslim world
, Punjab Province
of Pakistan. In July 1972, Bhutto successfully proceeded the Shimla treaty, signed with Indira Gandhi
of India, brought 93,000 Prisoners of War back to Pakistan, and secured 5000 sq mi (12,949.9 km²) held by India. In January 20 of 1972, weeks after the Indo-Pakistani 1971 winter war
, Bhutto orchestrated, authorized, and administrated the scientific research on nuclear weapons; for this, he is colloquially known in the world as "Father of the Pakistan's nuclear deterrent programme".
A serious secessionist and rebellious conflict occurred in Balochistan province in 1973. In response, Bhutto ordered Pakistan Armed Forces an armed action, which was quelled by the Pakistan Armed Forces successfully in 1978 and speeded up economic and political reform in the region. Bhutto and his party won the parliamentary elections
held in 1977. However, in a successful coup d'état
led by General Zia-ul-Haq under codename Operation Fair Play
; Bhutto was removed from the office and was held in Central Jail Rawalpindi
(CJR) as General Zia-ul-Haq proclaimed himself as Chief Martial Law Administrator
of Pakistan. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was executed in 1979 after the Supreme Court of Pakistan
controversially sentenced him to death
for authorizing the murder of a political opponent, in a move that many believe was done under the directives of General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq.
Early lifeZulfikar Ali Bhutto was born in a prominent Sindhi arain
family. to Khursheed Begum née Lakhi Bai and Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto
. His mother converted from Hinduism
before her marriage. Bhutto's father was a prominent political figure in the Indian colonial government. Bhutto was born in his parent's residence near Larkana
in what later became the province of Sindh
. He was their third child — their first one, Sikandar Ali, died from pneumonia
at age seven in 1914 and the second child, Imdad Ali, died of cirrhosis
at the age of 39 in 1953. His father was the prime minister of Junagadh State, and enjoyed an influential relationship with the officials of the British Raj
. As a young boy, Bhutto moved to Worli Seaface in Bombay (now Mumbai
) to study at the Cathedral and John Connon School
. During this period, he also became a student activist in the social movement and nationalist league, the Pakistan Movement
. In 1943, his marriage was arranged with Shireen Amir Begum (died 19 January 2003 in Karachi). He later left her, however, in order to remarry. In 1947, Bhutto was admitted to the University of Southern California
to study political science.
In 1949, as college sophomore, Bhutto transferred to the University of California, Berkeley
, where he earned an B.A.
(honours) degree in Political science
in 1950. Here, Bhutto would become interested in the theories of socialism
, delivering a series of lectures on the feasibility of socialism in Islamic countries. During this time, Bhutto's father, Sir Shahnawaz, played a controversial role in the affairs of the state of Junagadh
(now in Gujarat). Coming to power in a palace coup as the dewan
, he secured the accession of the state to Pakistan, which was ultimately negated by Indian intervention in December 1947. In June 1950, Bhutto traveled to the United Kingdom to study law at Christ Church
— a constituent college
of the University of Oxford
— and received a LLB
, followed by another advanced LLM
degree in Law and M.Sc.
(honours) degree in Political science. Upon finishing his studies, he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn
in the year 1953 (the same school at which Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Bhutto married his second wife, the Iranian-Kurdish Begum Nusrat Ispahani
who was a Shi'a Muslim, in Karachi
on 8 September 1951. Their first child, his daughter Benazir
, was born in 1953. She was followed by Murtaza
in 1954, a second daughter, Sanam
, in 1957, and the youngest child, Shahnawaz Bhutto
, in 1958. He accepted the post of lecturer
at the Sindh Muslim College, from where he was also awarded an honorary doctorate
, —honoris causa— in law by the then college President, Hassanally Rahmann before establishing himself in a legal practice in Karachi. He also took over the management of his family's estate and business interests after his father's death.
Political careerIn 1957, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto became the youngest member of Pakistan's delegation to the United Nations
. He would address the United Nations Sixth Committee on Aggression
on 25 October 1957 and lead Pakistan's deputation to the first United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea in 1958. In the same year, Bhutto became the youngest Pakistan cabinet
minister when he was given charge of the Energy ministry
by President Field Marshal Ayub Khan, who had seized power, through a successful coup d'état
, and declared martial law in the country. In 1960, he was subsequently promoted to minister of the Commerce Ministry
, and Ministry of Information
and Industry Ministry
. Throughout this time, Bhutto became a close and trusted political advisor to Field Marshal Ayub Khan, rising in influence and power despite his youth and relative inexperience in politics. Bhutto aided Ayub Khan in negotiating the Indus Water Treaty in India in 1960.In 1961, Bhutto negotiated an oil exploration agreement
with the Soviet Union
, which also agreed to provide economic and technical aid to Pakistan.
Foreign MinisterBhutto was a nationalist
-socialist, with a views of democracy needed in Pakistan. The socialist views influenced Bhutto — as he was became Foreign Minister in 1963 — to build close relationships with neighboring China
. Bhutto developed the One-China policy
and established a bridge to China. During this time, rest of the world had accepted Taiwan
as the legitimate single government, despite the existence of two governments that claim to be "China"
In 1964, the Soviet Union
and its satellite states had broken off
the relations with Beijing
over ideological differences, and only Albania
and Pakistan supported People's Republic of China, as Bhutto staunchly supported Beijing in the UN
, and in the UNSC, while Bhutto continued to keep building bridges to the United States
. Bhutto's was a strong advocate of developing ties with China ,this policy came under severe criticism from the United States ,President Johnson
wrote a letter to President Khan calling on him to fire Mr Bhutto and to only maintain ties with the "free world". As vibrant he was, Bhutto addresses the speeches in a demagogic style and headed Ministry of Foreign Affairs
with an aggressive leadership. His style of leading the Foreign ministry swift to rise to power also brought him national prominence and popularity. Bhutto visited Beijing and, Bhutto and his staff was received by Chinese with warm welcome and Bhutto greeted Mao Zedong with great respect. There, Bhutto helped Ayub negotiate trade and military agreements with the Chinese regime, which agreed to help Pakistan in a large number of military and industrial projects. Bhutto also signed the Sino-Pakistan Boundary Agreement on 2 March 1963 that transferred 750 square kilometres of territory from Pakistan-administered Kashmir
to Chinese control. Bhutto asserted his belief in non-alignment
, making Pakistan an influential member in non-aligned organizations. Believing in Pan-Islamic unity
, Bhutto developed closer relations with nations such as Indonesia
, Saudi Arabia
and other Arab states. Bhutto significantly transformed Pakistan's hitherto pro-Western foreign policy
. While maintaining a prominent role for Pakistan within the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
and the Central Treaty Organization
, Bhutto began asserting a foreign policy course for Pakistan that was independent of U.S. influence
. Meanwhile, Bhutto visited both East and West-Germany and established a strong link between two countries. Bhutto proceeded economical, technological, industrial and military agreements with Germany. Bhutto strengthened Pakistan's strategic alliance with Germany. Bhutto addressed a farewell speech at the University of Munich where he sighted the importance of Pakistan and German relations. Bhutto then also visited Poland
and established diplomatic relationship with Poland in 1962. Bhutto used Pakistan Air Force
's Brigadier-General Władysław Józef Marian Turowicz to established the military and economical link between Pakistan and Poland. Bhutto sought and reached to the Polish-Pakistan community
in Pakistan and made a tremendous effort for a fresh avenues for mutual cooperation.
In 1962, a territorial differences increased between India and People's Republic of China, the Beijing was planning to stage an invasion
in northern territories of India. Zhou Enlai
, Chinese Premier
and Mao Zedong
invited Pakistan to join the raid and extricate the rest of Indian-held Kashmir from Indian control. Bhutto advocated for the plan, but President Ayub Khan oppose to plan he was feared of retreat by Indian troops. Instead Ayub Khan proposed a "joint defence union" with India ,Bhutto was shocked by such statement and felt Ayub Khan was unlettered in international affairs . Bhutto was conscious that despite pakistan's membership of anti-communist western alliances, China had refrained from criticising Pakistan. In 1962, the United States
assured Pakistan that Kashmir will be resolved according to the wishes of Pakistanis and the Kashmiris. Therefore, Ayub Khan prevented Pakistan not took participate in Chinese plans. Bhutto criticized the U.S. for providing military aid to India during and after the Sino-Indian War
of 1962, which was seen as an abrogation of Pakistan's alliance with the United States
Meanwhile, Indian Prime minister
reneged on his policies. When Ayub Khan recognized his mistake, Khan commenced the Gibraltar
, a failed airborne operation. The operation brutally failed and Indian Armed Forces
with a full-scale war.
This war was an aftermath of brief skirmishes that took place between March and August 1965 on the international boundaries in the Rann of Kutch
. Bhutto joined Ayub in Tashkent
to negotiate a peace treaty with the Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri
. Ayub and Shastri agreed to exchange prisoners of war and withdraw respective forces to pre-war boundaries. This agreement was deeply unpopular in Pakistan, causing major political unrest against Ayub's regime. Bhutto's criticism of the final agreement caused a major rift between him and Ayub Khan. Initially denying the rumors, Bhutto resigned in June 1966 and expressed strong opposition to Ayub's regime. During his term, Bhutto was known to be formulating aggressive geostrategic and foreign policies towards India. In 1965, Bhutto's friend Munir Ahmad Khan
had notified the status of Indian nuclear programme
and an ambitious intention to build a nuclear weapon, which it did in 1974 (see Operation Smiling Buddha), Bhutto, in 1965, reportedly saying, unofficially:
In his book, The Myth of Independence, published in 1969. One of the notable thesis in the book was the necessity for Pakistan to acquire the fission weapon, and start a deterrence programme to be able to stand against the industrialized states, and against a nuclear armed India. Bhutto obtained a manifesto and made a future policy on how the programme would be developed and which individual scientists would be carry upon the starting of the programme, Bhutto selected Munir Ahmad Khan and Abdus Salam
as the first and main basis of the programme.
Pakistan Peoples PartyFollowing his resignation, large crowds gathered to listen to Bhutto's speech upon his arrival in Lahore on 21 June 1967. Tapping a wave of anger and opposition against Ayub, Bhutto began travelling across the country to deliver political speeches. In a speech in October 1966 Bhutto declared the PPP's beliefs, "Islam
is our faith, democracy is our policy, socialism is our economy. All power to the people." On 30 November 1967, in a residence of Dr. Mubashir Hassan
, Bhutto, along with J.A. Rahim and Dr. Mubashir Hassan
, founded the Pakistan Peoples Party
(PPP) in Lahore, establishing a strong base of political support in Punjab, Sindh and amongst the Muhajir communities.
Dr. Hassan, a professor of civil engineering
at the UET Lahore, was the main brain and hidden hand behind the success and the rise of Bhutto. Under Hassan's guidance and Bhutto's leadership, Bhutto's People's Party became a part of the pro-democracy movement involving diverse political parties from all across Pakistan. The PPP activists staged large protests and strikes in different parts of the country, increasing pressure on Ayub to resign. Dr. Hassan and Bhutto's arrest on 12 November 1969, sparked greater political unrest. After his release, Bhutto, joined by key leaders of PPP, attended the Round Table Conference called by Ayub Khan in Rawalpindi
, but refused to accept Ayub's continuation in office and the East-Pakistan
i politician Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
's Six point movement
for regional autonomy.
Following Ayub's resignation, his successor, General Yahya Khan
promised to hold parliamentary elections
on 7 December 1970. Bhutto's party won a large number of seats from constituencies in West Pakistan. However, Sheikh Mujib's Awami League won an absolute majority in the legislature, largely because an electoral reform had given East-Pakistan a substantial majority of the seats in the chamber. Bhutto refused to accept an Awami League government and famously promised to "break the legs" of any elected PPP member who dared to attend the inaugural session of the National Assembly
. Capitalising on West Pakistani fears of East Pakistani separatism, Bhutto demanded that Sheikh Mujib form a coalition with the PPP. According to terrorism expert Hamid Mir
, Bhutto sent his most trusted companion to East Pakistan to meet with Mujib and his inner circle, played a major role convincing Mujib to meet Bhutto. After Dr. Hassan achieved this task, Bhutto and Mujib agreed upon a coalition government for the sake of keeping Pakistan united. Under the terms of the deal, Mujib would have become prime minister and Bhutto would have succeeded Yahya as president. Yahya was unaware of these talks, and both Bhutto and Mujib kept substantial pressure on Yahya Khan. After his own talks with Sheikh Mujib failed, Yahya postponed the opening session of the National Assembly and ordered an army action
against Mujib. Amidst popular outrage in East Pakistan, Sheikh Mujib declared the independence of "Bangladesh
". On 26 March 1971 after Mujib was arrested by the Pakistan Army, which had been ordered by Yahya to suppress political activities. While supportive of the army's actions and working to rally international support, Bhutto distanced himself from the Yahya regime and began to criticized Khan for mishandling the situation. He refused to accept Yahya's scheme to appoint Bengali politician Nurul Amin
as Prime minister, with Bhutto as deputy prime minister. Soon after his refusal and continuous resentment toward General Yahya Khan's mishandling of situation, General Yahya Khan ordered Military Police to arrest Bhutto for a treason charges, a quiet similar to Mujib. Bhutto was situated at the Adiala Jail along with Mujib where he was set to face the charges. The Indian intervention
in East Pakistan led to the very bitter defeat of Pakistani forces, who surrendered on 16 December 1971. Bhutto and others condemned Yahya for failing to protect Pakistan's unity. Isolated, Yahya resigned on 20 December and transferred power to Bhutto, who became president, commander-in-chief and the first civilian chief martial law administrator. He was the country's first civilian leader since 1958, as well as the country's first civilian president.
Leader of PakistanBy the time Bhutto had assumed control of what remained of Pakistan, the nation was completely isolated, angered, and demoralized. As President, Bhutto addressed the nation via radio and television, saying:
As President, Bhutto faced with mounted and eminent challenges in both internal and foreign fronts. The trauma was severe in Pakistan, a psychological setback and emotional breakdown for Pakistan. The Two-Nation Theory
— the theoretical base in which Pakistan was found and established — was brutally failed, and Pakistan's foreign policy collapsed when no moral support was found anywhere, including from her own long standing allies, particularly the United States
and the People's Republic of China
. Since her creation, the physical and moral existence of Pakistan was in great danger. At an internal front, the Baloch
, and the Pashtun nationalism was at its peak point, calling for their independence from Pakistan. Founding as difficult as to keep remaining Pakistan as united, Bhutto launched full fledged intelligence and extensive military operations. By the end of 1978, these nationalist organizations were brutally quelled by Pakistan Armed Forces.
Bhutto immediately placed General Yahya Khan under house arrest, brokered a ceasefire and ordered the release of Sheikh Mujib, who was held prisoner by the Pakistan Army. To implement this, Bhutto reversed the verdict of Mujib's court-martial trial that had taken place earlier, in which the presiding by the JAG
Branch's military judge Brigadier-General Rahimuddin Khan
(later 4-star General) had sentenced Mujib to death. Appointing a new cabinet, Bhutto appointed Lieutenant-General Gul Hasan as Chief of Army Staff. On 2 January 1972 Bhutto announced the nationalization of all major industries, including iron and steel, heavy engineering, heavy electricals, petrochemicals, cement and public utilities. A new labour policy was announced increasing workers rights and the power of trade unions. Although he came from a feudal background himself, Bhutto announced reforms limiting land ownership and a government take-over of over a million acres (4,000 km²) to distribute to landless peasants. More than 2,000 civil servants were dismissed on charges of corruption. Bhutto also dismissed the military chiefs on 3 March after they refused orders to suppress a major police strike in Punjab. He appointed General Tikka Khan
as the new Chief of the Army Staff in March 1972 as he felt the General would not interfere in political matters and would concentrate on rehabilitating the Pakistan Army. Bhutto convened the National Assembly on 14 April, rescinded martial law on 21 April and charged the legislators with writing a new constitution.
Bhutto visited India to meet Prime Minister Indira Gandhi
and negotiated a formal peace agreement and the release of 93,000 Pakistani prisoners of war. The two leaders signed the Shimla Agreement, which committed both nations to establish a new yet temporary Cease-fire Line
in Kashmir and obligated them to resolve disputes peacefully through bilateral talks. Bhutto also promised to hold a future summit for the peaceful resolution of the Kashmir dispute and pledged to recognise Bangladesh
. Although he secured the release of Pakistani soldiers held by India, Bhutto was criticised by many in Pakistan for allegedly making too many concessions to India. It is theorised that Bhutto feared his downfall if he could not secure the release of Pakistani soldiers and the return of territory occupied by Indian forces. Bhutto established an atomic power development programme and inaugurated the first Pakistani atomic reactor, built in collaboration with Canada
on 28 November. On 30 March, 59 military officers were arrested by army troops for allegedly plotting a coup against Bhutto, who appointed then-Brigadier Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq
to head a military tribunal to investigate and try the suspects. The National Assembly approved the new constitution, which Bhutto signed into effect on 12 April. The constitution proclaimed an "Islamic Republic
" in Pakistan with a parliamentary form of government. On 10 August, Bhutto turned over the post of president to Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry
, assuming the office of prime minister instead.
Bhutto officially recognised Bangladesh
in July. Making an official visit to Bangladesh
, Bhutto was criticised in Pakistan for laying flowers at a memorial for Bangladeshi freedom fighters
. Bhutto continued to develop closer relations with China as well as Saudi Arabia and other Muslim nations. Bhutto hosted the Second Islamic Summit of Muslim nations in Lahore between 22 February and 24 February in 1974.
Bhutto, however, faced considerable pressure from Islamic religious leaders to declare the Ahmadiya communities as non-Muslims. Failing to restrain sectarian violence and rioting, Bhutto and the National Assembly amended the constitution to that effect. Bhutto intensified his nationalisation programme, extending government control over agricultural processing and consumer industries. Bhutto also started the planning of Port Qasim
, designed to expand harbour and naval facilities near Karachi. However, the performance of the Pakistani economy declined amidst increasing bureaucracy and a decline in private sector confidence. Bhutto re-organized and re-established the Pakistan Armed Forces as he had promised to his nation to build a professional and well-trained military. Bhutto disbanded the ranks of Commander-in-Chief in the Pakistan Armed Forces as well as re-organized country's intelligence services. As part of this vision, Bhutto upgraded naval rank for Chief of Naval Staff, and appointed Admiral Mohammad Shariff
's first 4-star admiral. Bhutto did the same for the Air Force
, and appointed Zulfiqar Ali Khan
as first 4-star general in the Air Force. In meantime, Bhutto also created the office of Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee
and the chairmanship of this post was given to 4-star General Muhammad Shariff
. In a surprise move in 1976, Bhutto appointed General Zia-ul-Haq
to replace General Tikka Khan as Chief of Army Staff, surpassing five generals senior to Zia.
President of PakistanA Pakistan International Airlines
flight was sent to fetch Bhutto from New York, who at that time was presenting Pakistan's case before the United Nations Security Council
on the East Pakistan Crises. Bhutto returned home on 18 December 1971. On 20 December, he was taken to the President House in Rawalpindi where he took over two positions from Yahya Khan, one as President and the other as first civilian Chief Martial Law Administrator, thus he was the first civilian Chief Martial Law Administrator of the dismembered Pakistan.
The new President inherited a disheartened war-weary nation. In this dark hour, he addressed the nation and promised to fight back. Bhutto's intentions to restore national confidence were in several shapes. He spoke about democracy, a new Constitution, and a modified federal and parliamentary system. He reached out to opposition leaders Abdul Wali Khan and Mufti Mahmud
, signing an agreement regarding lifting the emergency and allowing opposition governments to be formed. He took steps to stabilise the situation by successfully negotiating the return of the 93,000 prisoners of war and a peaceful settlement with India
. He took steps to ameliorate poverty and to revitalise the economy, industry and agriculture.
He gave the third Constitution to the country and established civilian authority over the armed forces in the political setup. In early 1972, Bhutto nationalised ten categories of major industries and withdrew Pakistan from the Commonwealth of Nations and S.E.A.T.O. On 1 March, he introduced extensive land reforms. On 2 July 1972, he signed the Simla Agreement with India outmanoeuvring the Indian Delegation and secured the exchange of the occupied territories and release of Prisoners of War.
After the 1973 Constitution
was promulgated, Pakistan changed from a presidential system to a parliamentary one. Bhutto was duly elected by the House to be the Prime Minister, and he was sworn in on 14 August 1973.
Father of the Nuclear weapons program
Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was the founder of Pakistan's nuclear weapons programme, and due to his administrative and aggressive leadership to lead this nuclear deterrence programme, Bhutto is often known as Father of Nuclear deterrence programme. In October 1965, as Foreign Minister
, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto visited Vienna where a Pakistani nuclear engineer working at a senior technical post at the IAEA, Mr. Munir Ahmad Khan
informed him of the status of Indian nuclear programme and the options Pakistan had to develop its own nuclear capability. Both agreed on the need for Pakistan to develop a nuclear deterrent to meet India's nuclear capacity. While, Munir Ahmad Khan had failed to convince Ayub Khan, Bhutto had said to Munir Ahmad Khan: Don't worry, our turn will come. Shortly, after the 1965 war, Bhutto in a press conference, famously declared that "even if we have to eat grass, we will make nuclear bomb. We have no other choice." as he saw India was making its way to develop the bomb.
After India's nuclear test — codename Smiling Buddha — in May 1974, Bhutto sensed and saw this test as final anticipation for Pakistan
's death. In a press conference, held shortly after India's nuclear test, Bhutto said, "India's nuclear program is designed to intimidate Pakistan and establish "hegemony in the subcontinent". On 20 January 1972, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto rallied a conference of nuclear
scientists and engineers at Multan
. While at the Multan meeting, arranged by Bhutto's Science Advisor Abdus Salam, scientists were wondering why the President who had so much on his hands in those trying days was paying so much attention to the scientists and engineers in the nuclear field. Bhutto said:" Look, we're going to have the bomb. He asked them: "Can you give it to me? And how long will it take it to make a bomb?". The academic scientists replied: "Oh, yes, yes, You can have it." There was a lively debate on the time needed to make the bomb, and finally one scientist dared to say that maybe it could be done in five years. Prime Minister Bhutto smiled, lifted his hand, and dramatically thrust forward three fingers and said: "Three years, I want it in three years". The atmosphere suddenly became electric. It was then that one of the junior scientist-dr. S.A.Butt (a theoretical physicist
), who under Munir Ahmad Khan
's guiding hand would come to play a major role in making the fission weapon possible — jumped to his feet and clamoured for his leader's attention. Dr. S.A Butt replied: "It can be done in three years". Bhutto was very much amused and he said: "Well, much as I appreciate your enthusiasm, this is a very serious political decision, which Pakistan must make, and perhaps all Third World
countries must make one day, because it is coming. So can you do it?" And the scientist replied, "Yes, we can do it, given the resources and given the facilities". Bhutto's answer was simple, "I shall find you the resources and I shall find you the facilities". Despite Pakistan limited financial resources, Bhutto was so enthusiastic about Pakistan nuclear energy project, that he is reported to have said "Pakistanis will eat grass but make a nuclear bomb."
Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
's militarisation was initiated in January 20 of 1972 and, in its initial years, was implemented by Pakistan Army's Chief of Army Staff General Tikka Khan. The Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP-I) was inaugurated by Bhutto during his role as President
of Pakistan at the end of 1972. Long before, as Minister for Fuel, Power
, and National Resources
, he has played a key role in setting up of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
. The nuclear weapons programme was set up loosely based on Manhattan Project
of 1940s under the administrative control of Bhutto. And, senior academic scientists had a direct access to Bhutto, who kept him informed about every inch of the development. Bhutto's Science Advisor, Abdus Salam
's office was also sat up in Bhutto's Prime minister Secretariat. On Bhutto's request, Salam had established and led the Theoretical Physics Group (TPG) that marked the beginning of the nuclear detterence programme. The TPG designed and developed the nuclear weapons as well as the entire programme. Later, Munir Ahmad Khan
had him personally approved the budget for the development of the programme.
Wanting a capable administrator, Bhutto sought Lieutenant-General Rahimuddin Khan
to chair the commission, which Rahimuddin declined, in 1971. Instead, in January 1972, Bhutto chose a U.S.
trained nuclear engineer
Munir Ahmad Khan
as chairman of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
) as Bhutto realized that he would wanted an administrator who understood the scientific and economical needs of this such technologically giant and ambitious programme. Since 1965, Khan had developed extremely close and trusted relationship with Bhutto, and even after his death, Benazir and Murtaza Bhutto were instructed by their father to keep in touch with Munir Ahmed Khan. In spring of 1976, Kahuta Research Facility
, then known as Engineering Research Laboratories (ERL), as part of codename Project-706
, was also established by Bhutto, and brought under nuclear scientist dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan
and the Pakistan Army Corps of Engineers
' Lieutenant-General Zahid Ali Akbar. As Bhutto was the main architect of Project-706, Lieutenant-General Zahid Ali Akbar Khan kept informed Bhutto about the progressed was made by dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan.
Because Pakistan, under Bhutto, was not a signatory or party of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
(NPT), the Nuclear Suppliers Group
(NSG), Commissariat à l'énergie atomique
(CEA), and British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) had immediately cancelled fuel reprocessing plant projects with PAEC. And, according to Causar Nyäzie
, the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission officials had misled Bhutto and he sought on a long journey to try to get Nuclear fuel reprocessing plant from France. It was on the advice of A.Q. Khan that no fuel existed to reprocess and urged Bhutto to follow his pursuit of uranium enrichment. Bhutto tried to show he was still interested in that expensive route and was relieved when Kissinger persuaded the French to cancel the deal. Bhutto had trusted Munir Ahmad Khan's plans to develop the programme ingeniously, and the mainstream goal of showing such interest in French reprocessing plant was to give time to PAEC scientists to gain expertise in building its own reprocessing plants. By the time France's CEA cancelled the project, the PAEC had acquired 95% of the detailed plans of the plant and materials.
And, Munir Ahmad Khan and Ishfaq Ahmad
believed that since PAEC had acquired most of the detailed plans, work, plans, and materials; the PAEC, based on that 95% work, could build the plutonium reprocessing reactors on its own, Pakistan should stick to its original plan, the plutonium route. Bhutto did not disagree but saw an advantage in establishing another parallel programme, the uranium enrichment programme under Abdul Qadeer Khan. Both Munir Khan and Ahmed had shown their concern over on Abdul Qadeer Khan's suspected activities but Bhutto backed Khan when Bhutto maintained that: "No less than any other nation did what Abdul Qadeer Khan (is) doing; the Soviets and Chinese ; the British and the French; the Indians and the Israelis; stole the nuclear weapons designs previously in the past and no one questioned them but rather tend to be quiet. We are not stealing what they (illegally) stole in the past (as referring the nuclear weapon designs) but we're taking a small machine which is not useful for making the atomic bomb but for a fuel". International pressure was difficult to counter at that time, and Bhutto, with the help of Munir Ahmad Khan and Aziz Ahmed, tackled the intense heated criticism and diplomatic war with the United States at numerous fronts— while the progress on nuclear weapons remained highly classified. During this pressure, Aziz Ahmed played a significant role by convincing the consortium industries to sell and export sensitive electronic components before the United States could approach to them and try and prevent the consortium industries to export such equipments and components. Bhutto slowly reversed and thwarted United States' any attempt to infiltrate the programme as he had expelled many of the American diplomatic officials
in the country, under Operation Sun Rise, authorized by Bhutto under ISI. On the other hand, Bhutto intensified his staunch support and eye-blindly backed Abdul Qadeer Khan to quietly bring the Urenco's weapon-grade technology to Pakistan, keeping the Kahuta Laboratories hidden from the outside world. Regional rivals such as India and Soviet Union, had no basic intelligence on Pakistan's nuclear energy project during the 1970s, and Bhutto's intensified clandestine efforts seemed to be paid off in 1978 when the programme was fully matured.
By the time Bhutto was ousted, this crash programme had fully matured in terms of technical development as well as scientific efforts. By the 1977, PAEC and KRL had built their uranium enrichment and plutonium reprocessing plants, and selection for test sites, at Chagai Hills
, was done by the PAEC. The feasibility reports were submitted by both organizations on their works. In 1977, the PAEC's Theoretical Physics Group had finished the designing of the first fission weapon, and KRL scientists succeeded in electromagnetic isotope separation of Uranium fissile isotopes. In spite of this, still little had been done in the development of weapons, and Pakistan's nuclear arsenal were actually made by General Zia-ul-Haq's military regime, under the watchful eyes of several Naval admirals, Army and Air Force's generals including Ghulam Ishaq Khan
. In 1983, Bhutto's decision later proved to be right, when PAEC had conducted a cold test, near Kirana Hills, evidently made from non-fissioned plutonium. It has been speculated recently in the press that Dr. Khan's uranium enrichment designs were used by the Chinese in exchange for (UF6)
and some highly enriched weapons grade uranium. Later on this weapons grade uranium was offered back to the Chinese as the Pakistanis used their own materials. In all, Bhutto knew that Pakistan had became nuclear weapon state in 1978 when his friend Munir Ahmad Khan paid a visit to him in his jail cell. There, Munir Ahmad Khan told Bhutto that the process of weapon designing is finished and a milestone in the complex and difficult enrichment of weapon-grade fuel has been achieved by the PAEC and dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan of ERL. Bhutto called for an immediate nuclear test to be conducted, no response was issued by General Zia or any member of his government.
Furthermore, in a thesis written in The Myth of Independence, Bhutto argued that nuclear weapons would allow India to use its [Air Force]
warplanes that with the use of small battlefield
nuclear devices against the Pakistan Army cantonments, armored and infantry columns and PAF bases and nuclear and military industrial facilities. The Indian Air Force would not meet with an adverse reaction from the world community as long as civilian casualties could be kept to a minimum. This way, India would defeat Pakistan, force its Armed Forces into a humiliating surrender and occupy and annex the Northern Areas
of Pakistan and Azad Kashmir
. India would then carve up Pakistan into tiny states based on ethnic divisions and that would be the end of the “Pakistan problem” once and for all.
Ordering military operation in BalochistanFollowing the secession of East Pakistan, calls for the independence of Balochistan
by Baloch nationalists grew immensely. The existence of Pakistan was still in danger with Balochistan's tribal leaders demanding independence from Pakistan. Surveying the political instability, Bhutto's central government sacked two provincial governments within six months, arrested the two chief ministers, two governors and forty-four MNAs
and MPAs, obtained an order from the Supreme Court
banning the National People's Party
on the recommendation of Akbar Bugti, and charged everyone with high treason to be tried by a specially constituted Hyderabad tribunal
of handpicked judges.
In January 1973, Bhutto ordered and authorized the military operations led by Pakistan Armed Forces to suppress a rising insurgency in the province of Balochistan and dismissed the governments in Balochistan and the North-West Frontier Province
once more. Following the alleged discovery of Iraqi arms in Islamabad in February 1973, Bhutto dissolved the Provincial Assembly of Balochistan
. The operation, under General Tikka Khan
, soon took shape in a five-year conflict with the Baloch separatists
. The sporadic fighting between the insurgency
and the army started in 1973 with the largest confrontation taking place in September 1974. Later on, Pakistan Navy, under Vice-Admiral Patrick Julius Simpson, also jumped in the conflict as it had applied naval blockades to Balochistan's port. The Navy began its separate operations to seized the shipments sent to aid Baloch separatists. Pakistan Air Force also launched air operations, and with the support of navy and army, the air force had pounded the mountainous hidden heavens of the Separatists. The Iranian military, also fearing a spread of the greater Baloch resistance in Iran, also aided the Pakistani military. Among Iran's contribution were 30 Huey cobra attack helicopters and $200 million in aid. The Iraqi government provided support for Baluchi separatists in Pakistan, hoping that their conflict would spread into rival ran. Iraq provided the Baluchis with arms, and it opened an office for the Baluchistan Liberation Front in Baghdad. Bhutto began a series of economic and political reform. The government abolished the Sardari System , the sardars continued to appropriate to themselves a generous share of government developmental funds whilst At the same time they opposed and blackmailed the government whenever they could.Gradually the tribesmen started coming out of the Sardars' quarantine. Modern amenities, like medical aid, automobiles for passenger transport and schooling of children became available in the interior of Baluchistan for the first time.The government also constructed 564 miles of new roads, including the key link between Sibi and Maiwand creating new trade and commerce centres. Bhutto also took steps to aggressive steps carrot and sticks approach with afghanistan which was exploiting the insurgency and provided training and refuge to the fighters.
Prime Minister of PakistanAfter the promulgation of the 1973 Constitution, the elections for the President, Prime Minister, Chairman of Senate
of Senate—the upper house
of Pakistan Parliament— Speaker
, and Deputy Speaker of the National Assembly
—the Lower house
of Parliament of Pakistan—were to be undertaken. The 1973 Constitution had adopted a federal parliamentary system for the country in which the President was only a figurehead and the administrative power lay with the Prime Minister.
Bhutto was sworn in as the Prime Minister of the country on August 14, 1973, after he had secured 108 votes in a house of 146 members. Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry
was elected as the President under the new Constitution.
Constitutional reformsBhutto is considered the main architect of 1973 constitution as part of his vision to put Pakistan to road to parliamentary democracy. One of the major achievement in Bhutto's life was drafting of Pakistan's first ever consensus constitution to the country. Bhutto supervised the promulgation of 1973 constitution that triggered an unstoppable constitutional revolution hrough his politics wedded to the emancipation of the downtrodden masses by first giving people a voice in the Parliament, and introducing radical changes in the economic sphere for their benefit .
During his period in office the Government carried out seven major amendments to the 1973 Constitution. The First Amendment led to Pakistan's recognition of and diplomatic ties with Bangladesh. The Second Amendment in the constitution declared the Ahmadis as non-Muslims, and defined the term non-Muslim. The rights of the detained were limited under the Third Amendment while the powers and jurisdiction of the courts for providing relief to political opponents were curtailed under the Fourth Amendment. The Fifth Amendment passed on 15 September 1976, focused on curtailing the power and jurisdiction of the Judiciary. This amendment was highly criticised by lawyers and political leaders. The main provision of the Sixth Amendment extended the term of the Chief Justices of the Supreme Court and the High Courts beyond the age of retirement. This Amendment was made in the Constitution to favour the then Chief Justice of the Supreme Court who was supposed to be a friend of Bhutto.
Domestic reformsThe Bhutto Government carried out a number of reforms in the industrial sector. His reforms were twofold; nationalisation, and the improvement of workers' rights. In the first phase, basic industries like steel, chemical and cement were nationalised. This was done in 1972. The next major step in nationalisation took place on 1 January 1974, when Bhutto nationalised all banks. The last step in the series was the most shocking; it was the nationalisation of all flour, rice and cotton mills throughout the country. This nationalisation process was not as successful as Bhutto expected. Most of the nationalised units were small businesses that could not be described as industrial units, hence making no sense for the step that was taken. Consequently, a considerable number of small businessmen and traders were ruined, displaced or rendered unemployed. In the concluding analysis, nationalisation caused colossal loss not only to the national treasury but also to the people of Pakistan.
Land reformsDuring his period as the Prime Minister, a number of land reforms were also introduced. The important land reforms included the reduction of land ceilings and introducing the security of tenancy to tenant farmers. The land ceiling was fixed to 150 acre (0.607029 km²) of irrigated land and 300 acres (1.2 km²) of non-irrigated land. Another step that Bhutto took was to democratise Pakistan's Civil Service.
Economic policyBhutto introduced socialist economics
policies while working to prevent any further division of the country. Major heavy mechanical, chemical, and electrical engineering industries were immediately nationalized by Bhutto, and all of the industries came under direct control of government. Industries, such as KESC were under complete government control with no private influence in KESC decision. Bhutto abandoned Auyb Khan's Capitalist
policies, and introduced socialist policies in a move to reduced the rich get richer and poor get poorer ratio
. Bhutto also established the Port Qasim
, Pakistan Steel Mills
, the Heavy Mechanical Complex (HMC) and several cement factories such Dera Ghazi Khan Cement, Kohat Cement, Dandot Cement, Thatta Cement and expansion of Javedan and Mustehkam cement units as a part of country's road to industrialization program. However, the growth rate of economy relative to that of early 1960s when East Pakistan was still part of Pakistan and Pakistan was still receipt of generous United States' aid and loans
declined the 1973 oil crisis
also had a negative impact on the economy. Despite the initiatives undertaken by Bhutto's government to boost the country's economy. On its effect on Pakistan's society, the level of absolute poverty was sharply reduced, with the percentage of the population estimated to be living in absolute poverty falling from 46.50% by the end of 1979-80, under the General Zia-ul-Haq's military rule, to 30.78%. The land reform programme provided increased economic support to landless tenants, and development spending was substantially increased, particularly on health and education, in both rural and urban areas, and provided "material support" to rural wage workers, landless peasants, and urban wage workers.
Bhutto's nationalization policies were initiated with an aim to put workers in control of the tools of production and to protect workers and small businesses. However, critics on the right argued that the nationalization program initially effected the small industries and they believed it it had devastating effects on Pakistan's economy and this in their view that shrinked Bhutto's credibility. they also believed that nationalization policies had the investor's confidence damaged by the government, and government corruption in nationalized industries grew. However Zulfikar Ali Bhutto said foreign companies in pakistan where except from nationalisation policies and his government would be willing to receive foreign investment to put up factories While commenting on his policies in 1973, Bhutto told the group of investors that belonged to the Lahore Chamber of Commerce and Industary (LCCI), that "activity of public sector or state sector
prevents the concentration of economic power in few hands
, and protects the small and medium entrepreneurs from the clutches of giant enterprises and vested interests".
Banking reforms were introduced to provide more opportunities to small farmers and business such as forcing banks to ensure 70% of institutional lending should be for small land holders of 12.5 acres or less, which was a revolutionary idea at a time when banks only clients where the privileged classes. The number of bank branches rose by 75% from the period December 1971 to November 1976. In 1971, the sum of the branches of the banks in the country increased from 3,295 to 5,727 on November 30, 1976. It was one of the most radical move made by Bhutto, and the Bank infrastructure was expanded covering all towns and villages with a population of 5,000 in accordance with targets set after the nationalization of banks.
By end of the Bhutto government concentration of wealth had declined compared to height of the Ayub Khan era when 22 families owned 66% of industrial capital, and also controlled banking and 97% of insurance.
Measures taken in the first few months of 1972 set a new framework for the revival of the economy. The diversion of trade from East Pakistan to international markets was completed within a short period. By 1974 , exports exceeded one billion dollars, showing a 60 per cent increase over the combined exports of East and West Pakistan before separation. This happened at a time when the world was in the midst of the major 1973 oil crisis
and in the middle of global recession
the national income of Pakistan increased by 15 per cent and industrial production by as much as 20 per cent in 4 years.
Agricultural PolicyBhutto believed people would not feel safe psychologically unless pakistan achieved self-sufficiency in food. He embarked on programs to make pakistan self sufficient in rice,sugar,wheat and the strategically important self sufficient in fertiliser Not a single Fertilizer factory has been set up in post-Bhutto era
Flood PolicyFollowing the 1976 floods Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto established the Federal Flood Commission (FFC) . The responsibility assigned to the FFC is to prepare national flood protection plans, and flood forecasting and research to harness floodwater. On a Visit to Sukkur
Mr Bhutto accompanied by Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi the chief engineer witnessed the 1976 flood carrying more than 1.0 million cusec water passing through the Lloyd Barrage .The Bhutto Government in the aftermath took steps to improve strengthen and raise flood defences the embankments on both sides of the Indus River .Since then no government has taken such steps to improve flood defences.
School PolicyDuring his period of four years, 6,500 new primary schools, 900 middle schools, 407 high schools, 51 Intermediate Colleges and 21 Degree Colleges where been opened with special emphasis on the areas which were hitherto denied of these facilities.
Pakistan was a virtual desert as far as books in general when the Bhutto government came to power, foreign text-books in particular were concerned. They were not only scarce but highly expensive. This situation was changed by importing and locally reprinting hundreds of thousands of copies of essential books and making them available to students at heavily subsidized rates. To cater to the requirements of poorer students, Book Banks have been set up in most institutions and over 400,000 copies of text-books have already been supplied to them.
Higher Education PolicyBhutto is credited for establishing the world class Quaid-e-Azam University in Islamabad and Allama Iqbalin 1974.As well as establishing Gomal University Dera Ismail Khan in 1973
As his role as Foreign Minister, and in 1967 with the help of Abdus Salam, established the Institute of Theoretical Physics. As Prime Minister, Bhutto made revolutionary efforts to expand the web of education. Bhutto established the Allama Iqbal Medical College
in 1975].A further four new Universities which have been established at Multan, Bahawalpur, and Khairpur. The People’s Open University is another innovative venture which has started functioning from Islamabad.The Government's Education Policy provides for the remission of fees and the grant of a number of scholarships for higher education to the children of low-paid employees
New facilities for students
7,000 new hostel seats where planned to be added to the existing accommodation after the 1977 election. Bhutto said in 1975 he was aware "of the difficulties and deficiencies faced by college students in many of the existing hostels. Directions have, therefore, been issued that fans, water-coolers and pay-telephones must be provided in each and every hostel in as short a time as physically possible.
Then there is the chronic difficulty of student transport. The problem is vast and the physical means to solve it are essentially limited. However, we are determined to solve it in a phased programme on a priority basis."
In 1974, with the help of Abdus Salam, Bhutto gave authorization of the International Nathiagali Summer College on Contemporary Physics (INSC) at the Nathiagali and as even as of today, INSC conference is still held on Pakistan where thousands of scientists from all over the world are delegated to Pakistan to interact with Pakistan's academic scientists. In 1976, Bhutto established the Engineering Council
, Institute of Theoretical Physics
, and the Pakistan Academy of Letters
Pension PolicyIn 1972 the Bhutto government initially provided for some old age benefits for workers through group insurance, increased rates of compensation and higher rates of gratuity. Later Bhutto came to the conclusion that this is not enough. He therefore, introduced a scheme of old age benefits which would provide a payment of Rs. 75 a month to workers after retirement at the age of 55 for men and 50 for women, on condition that the worker had completed a minimum of 15 years’ insurable employment. This applied to all factories and establishments employing 10 or more workers drawing monthly wages up to Rs. 1,000. Workers who become invalid after 5 years of insurable employment would also be entitled to benefits under this scheme. Those who where too old to complete years of insurable employment at the inception of the scheme , would still benefit from it if they have completed 7 years.
Bhutto did not want to go for the western model where workers generally contribute along with the employers towards their old age benefits. In view of pakistan's conditions,Bhutto did not wish the financial burden of this scheme to fall even partly on the worker. It was decided that the scheme be founded through a contribution from employers to the extent of 5 per cent of the wage bill.
Defence PolicyIncreased defence expenditure from Rs. 3,720 million in 1971-72 to Rs. 7,030 million by 1975
Investment PolicyAs part of his Investment policies, Bhutto founded the National Development Finance Corporation (NDFC)
— a finance institution which was established in 1973. In July 1973, this financial institute began operation with with an initial government investment of 100 million PRs
. It aim was finance public sector industrial enterprises but, later on, its charter was modified to provide finance to the private sector as well . The NDFC is currently the largest development finance institution of Pakistan performing diversified activities in the field of industrial financing and investment banking. 42 projects financed by NDFC have contributed Rs. 10,761 million to Pakistan's GDP and generated Rs. 690.0 million after-tax profits and 40,465 jobs . By the mid 1990s NDFC had a pool of resources amounting to US $ 878 million
The Bhutto government increased the level of investment, private and public, in the economy from less than Rs. 7,000 million in 1971-72 to more than Rs. 17,000 million in 1974-75
Expatriate Pakistanis PolicyHe gave the right of a passport to every citizen of Pakistan and facilitated millions of skilled and non-skilled Pakistanis to seek employment in the Middle Eastern countries through a singing a number combination of bilateral agreements. From Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, alone 35,000 workers where given the opportunity to work in the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia
. Bhutto used the Pakistani community of London
to lobby and influence European governments
to improve the rights of expatriate Pakistani communities in Europe.
The remittances from overseas Pakistanis, which are now in the vicinity of $25 billion per anum, constitute a dependable source of foreign exchange for Pakistan.
Labour PolicyThe International Labour Organization Seminar on Industrial Relations held in Karachi paid tributes to comprehensive labour reforms initiated by the Bhutto government .
In 1972, the government imposed some conditions on the dismissal of a worker. In 1973, the government instituted Labour Courts for the speedy redress of workers’ grievances. The Government also introduced a scheme for workers’ participation in management. This scheme provided for 20 per cent participation by workers in management committees set up at factory level.
Prior to 1972, there was no statutory provision for the payment of any bonus to workers. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's Government passed a law making the grant of a minimum bonus compulsory under certain conditions. The Government abolished the workers’ contribution to the Social Security Fund; instead, the employers were made to increase their contribution from 4 to 6 per cent. The government enhanced compensation rates under the Workmen’s Compensation Act. The Government imposed a cess on all employers for the education of workers’ children. The Government's Education Policy provides for the remission of fees and the grant of a number of scholarships for higher education to the children of low-paid employees . The Government also introduced an allowance for called the cost-of-living allowances: Rs. 35 in 1973, Rs. 50 in 1974 but was cut to Rs. 25 1975 due to financial stringencies
Foreign PolicySince 1960s, Bhutto rose to very great heights in the international politics, his knowledge of the global affairs and role in the foreign relations were unequaled by anyone, which also was admired by the world's leaders. After assuming power, Bhutto sought to diversify Pakistan's relations away from the United States and, soon Pakistan left CENTO
and SEATO. Bhutto developed close and strengthened the Arab relations
, and Sino-Pak relations
. Bhutto in believed an independent Foreign Policy which had hitherto been the hand maiden of the Western Power, particularly independent from the United State's sphere of influence
. With Bhutto as Foreign minister, and Prime minister, Pakistan and Iran had cemented a special relationship, as Iran had provided military assistance to Pakistan. The Sino-Pak relations were immensely improved, and Pakistan, under Bhutto, had built a strategic relationship with People's Republic of China, when PRC was isolated. In 1974, Bhutto hosted the second Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC) in 1974 where he delegated and invited leaders from the Muslim world
, Punjab Province
of Pakistan. Bhutto was a strong advocate of Afro-Asian Solidarity and had cemented ties with Afro-Asian and Islamic countries and by 1976 had emerged as the Leader of the Third World .
Bhutto sought a peace agreement—Simla Agreement— with Indira Gandhi
, Premier of India, and brought back 93,000 P.O.Ws to Pakistan and secured 5000 sq mi (12,949.9 km²) held by India with out compromising on Kashmir stance or recognizing Bangladesh which where the key Indian demands. Negotiating with a power that has dismembered the country was an open-challenge to Bhutto who smoothly convinced India to return the territory and the POWs back to Pakistan. Before this conference, Bhutto and his colleagues did the comprehensive homework as Bhutto had realized that Arabs
have still not succeeded in regaining territory lost in the 1967 war
with Israel. Therefore, capturing of land does not cry out for international attention
the same way as the prisoners do. According to Benazir Bhutto, Bhutto demanded the control of the territory in the first stage of the Agreement which surprised and shocked the Indian delegation. In Bhutto's point of view, the POW problem was more of a humanitarian problem
that could be tackled at any time, but the territorial problem was something that could be integrated in India as time elapses. Indian Premier Gandhi was stunned and astonished at Bhutto's demand and reacted immediately by refusing Bhutto's demand. However, Bhutto calmed her and negotiated with economic packages dealed with Gandhi. Bhutto's knowledge and his intellectualism impressed Gandhi personally that Gandhi agreed to give the territory back to Bhutto in a first stage of the agreement. Signing of this agreement with Pakistan paying small price is still considered Bhutto's one of the huge diplomatic success.
Bhutto sought to improved Pakistan's ties with the Arab world, and sided with the Arab world during the Arab-Israeli conflict. Colonel Gaddafi of former Socialist Libya, considered Bhutto as one of his greatest inspiration and was said to be very fond of Bhutto's intellectualism. In 1973, during the Yom Kippur War
, Pakistan's relations with the Arab world represented a watershed. Both in Pakistan and the Arab world, Pakistan's swift, unconditional and forthright offer of assistance to the Arab states was deeply appreciated.
In 1974, pressured by other Muslim nations, Pakistan eventually recognized Bangladesh as Mujib stated he would only go to the OIC conference in Lahore if Pakistan recognised Bangladesh. In 1976, Pakistan established full diplomatic relations with Bangladesh on January 18, 1976 and relations improved in the following decades.
However, Pakistan's relationship
with United States severed as United States was opposing Pakistan's nuclear detterrence programme. In 1974, with India carried out the test of nuclear test near the Pakistan's eastern border, codename Smiling Buddha
, Bhutto sought United States to impose economic sanctions in India. Though it was unsuccessful approach, with an advise from Bhutto, Pakistan's Ambassador to United States convened a meeting with Secretary of State Henry Kissinger
, Kissingers told Pakistan’s ambassador to Washington that the test is “a fait accompli and that Pakistan would have to learn to live with it,” although he was aware this is a “little rough” on the Pakistanis. In 1976, the ties were further severed with Bhutto as Bhutto had continued to administer the research on weapons. In 1976, Kissinger immediately traveled to Pakistan to hold a meeting with Bhutto. At Prime minister Secretariat, Kissinger used unorthodox language and threatened Bhutto while using a inhumane language with many witnessed and surprised with the language used by Kissinger. In a meeting, Kissinger had told to Bhutto, "that if you [Bhutto] do not cancel, modify or postpone the Reprocessing Plant Agreement, we will make a horrible example from you". Dr. Mubashir Hassan
came forward to defend Bhutto and an extensive exchange of acrimonious words were made between dr. Hassan and Kissinger. The meeting was ended by Bhutto as he had replied: For my country’s sake, for the sake of people of Pakistan, I did not succumb to that black-mailing and threats. Bhutto and his cabinet left Kissinger and his delegation alone in the room while Bhutto and his cabinet walk away from the room.
Bhutto intensified Pakistan's foreign policy towards more onto Movement of Non-Aligned Countries, and sought to developed relations with both Soviet Union and the United States. Bhutto was keenly aware of Great Britain
’s policy of “Divide and Rule”, and American
’s policy of “Unite and Rule”. In 1974, Bhutto, as Prime minister, visited Soviet Union. Prime Minister Bhutto made a deliberate attempt to warm relations with Russia as he was trying to improve relations with the Communist bloc. Bhutto sought to developed and alleviated the Soviet-Pak Relations, with Soviet Union established Pakistan Steel Mills
in 1972. The foundation stone for this gigantic project was laid on 30 December 1973 by the then Prime minister Mr. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. Facing inexperience for the erection work of the integrated steel mill, Bhutto requested Soviet Union to send its experts. Soviet Union sends dozens of advisors and experts, under Russian scientist Mikhail Koltokof, who supervised the construction of this integrated Steel Mills, with a number of industrial and consortium companies financing this mega-project.
Bhutto initially tried to build friendly ties with Afghanistan. However such attempts where rebuffed. Soviet Afghanistan's began covert involvement in Pakistan's North-West Frontier Province
began increasingly disturbing for the Bhutto's government. Afghan President
's controversial pashtunization
policies resulted in Pakistan with gruesome violence and civil disturbances. Daud was also providing safe havens and training camps to anti Pakistan militants.Afghan Intelligence was heavily involved in Pakistan. Therefore, Bhutto's government decided to retaliate, and Bhutto launched a covert counter-operation in 1974 under the command of Major-General Naseerullah Babar
, who was then Director-General of the M.I.
Directorate-General for Western Fronts (DGWI). According to General Baber, it was an excellent idea and it had hard-hitting impact on Afghanistan. The aim of this operation was to arm the Islamic fundamentalists and to instigate an attack in different parts of Afghanistan. In 1974, Bhutto authorized a covert operation in Kabul
and the Pakistan Air Force
and the members of AI
and the ISI successfully extradited Burhanuddin Rabbani
, Jan Mohammad Khan, Gulbadin Hekmatyar, and Ahmad Shah Massoud to Peshawar
, in a amid fear that Rabbani may be assassinated. This move was done in order to teach Dauod Khan a lesson after he continuously interfered in Pakistan's internal matter. By the end of 1974, Bhutto gave final authorization of covert operation to train Afghan mujaheddin to take on Daoud Khan's government. This operation was an ultimate success and it forced Daoud Khan to approached to Bhutto to solve the problems. By 1976 Daud had become concerned about his country over dependence on the Soviet Union and the Rising Insurgency and pakistan assertive foreign policy against Afghan interference. In 7 June 1976 Bhutto went on a 3 day tour of Afghanistan. August 20–24, 1976 Daud Khan paid a 5 day visit to Pakistan. Bhutto and Daud came to an agreement an tentative agreement wherby Bhutto agrees to introduce more autonomy to Pakistani Provinces and release some prisoners while Daud agreed to recognise the Durand Line as a boundary between Pakistan and Afghanistan.On March 2, 1977 Agreement on the resumption of air communications between Afghanistan and Pakistan is reached, as relations continue to improve . However, before such an agreement was signed, Bhutto was removed by General Zia-ul-Haq in a 1977 military coup d'éta whilst a few months later Daud is overthrown in a Communist Coup by soviet sympathisers.Robert Wirsing a specialist on South Asian politics said Bhutto "astute policy in regards to the border question clearly increased pressure of the afghanistan and very likely helped stimulate afghan governments move towards accommodation" . Whilst the Deputy Afghan Foreign Minister Abdul Samad Ghaus also admitted before the compromise afghanistan had been heavily involved inside pakistan.
Popular unrest and military coupBhutto began facing considerable criticism and increasing unpopularity as his term progressed. Initially targeting leader of the opposition Abdul Vali Khan and his opposition National People's Party
(NAP), a democratic socialist party. Despite the ideological similarity of the two parties the clash of egos both inside and outside the National Assembly became increasingly fierce and started with the Federal government's decision to oust the NAP provincial government in Balochistan for alleged secessionist activities and culminating in the banning of the party and arrest of much of its leadership after the death of Hyatt Scherpaoi, a close confident and lieutenant of Bhutto, in a bomb blast in Peshawar, the capital of the then North-West Frontier Province
, now Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. Another notable figure, Chief Justice Hamoodur Rahman
died due to a cardiac arrest while in the office. Between the 1974 and 1976, many of Bhutto's original members had left Bhutto due to political differences or natural death causes. In 1974, Bhutto's trusted Science Advisor Abdus Salam
also left Pakistan when Parliament declared Ahmadiyyah Muslims as non-Muslims. With Salam's departure, the research on nuclear weapons slowed down the progress as Dr. Mubaschir Hassann
, now a Bhutto's appointed Science Advisor, would focus on politics more than the science research. Many civil bureaucrats and military officers loyal to Bhutto were replaced by new faces. Bhutto founded himself with new advisers and collaborators.
Dissidence also increased within the PPP and the murder of dissident leader Ahmad Raza Casuri
's father led to public outrage and intra-party hostility as Bhutto was accused of masterminding the crime. Powerful PPP leaders such as Ghulam Mustafa Khar, former Governor of Punjab, openly condemned Bhutto and called for protests against his regime. The political crisis in the North-West Frontier Province and Balochistan Province intensified as civil liberties remained suspended and an estimated 100,000 troops deployed there were accused of human rights abuses and killing large numbers of civilians.
On 8 January 1977, many opposition political parties grouped to form the Pakistan National Alliance
(PNA). It was a 9 party alliance against government of Bhutto and his colleagues. Bhutto called fresh elections and the PNA participated in those elections with full force and managed to contest the elections jointly even though they had grave differences in their opinions and views. The PNA faced defeat but did not accept the results, accusing their opponents of rigging the election. They first claimed rigging on 14 seats and finally on 40 seats in the national assembly and boycotted provisional elections turn out in national elections was of highest degree. Provincial elections were held amidst low voter turnout and an opposition boycott, violent PNA declare the newly-elected Bhutto government as illegitimate. Hard-line Islamist leaders such as Maulana Maududi called for the overthrow of Bhutto's regime. Mubashir Hassan
, Science Advisor of Bhutto, feared a possible coup against Bhutto. Therefore, Hassan jumped in the conflict and attempted made a unsuccessful attempt to reach an agreement with PNA. The hard-line Islamist refused to meet with Hassan as they saw him as a main brain behind Bhutto's success. The same year, an intensive crackdown was initiated on Pakistan Muslim League
, a conservative front. The People's National Party
's President and former Leader of the Opposition Khan Vali Khan saw Bhutto's actions as his last stand and power struggle between PNA, Pakistan Armed Forces and Bhutto, including his colleagues, was triggered. In an open public seminar, Vali Khan quoted that "There is one possible grave for two people ... let us see who gets in first". The Federal Security Force
allegedly either arrested or extrajudicially killed members of the Muslim League. Following this, amid protest and civil distress felt in the Lahore
, and People's Party lost the administrative control over the Lahore.
Intensifying political and civil disorder prompted Bhutto to hold talks with PNA leaders, which culminated in an agreement for the dissolution of the assemblies and fresh elections under a form of government of national unity. However on 5 July 1977 Bhutto and members of his cabinet were arrested by troops under the order of General Zia. It is generally believed that the coup took place on the pretext of unrest despite Bhutto having reached an agreement with the opposition. Bhutto had a very good intelligence in the deep circles of Army, and many officers such as Major-General Tajamül Hussain Malik
were loyal to Bhutto and supported him till the end. However, General Zia-ul-Haq signed a training programme act with the officers from Special Air Service
(SAS). General Zia-ul-Haq ordered many of Bhutto's loyal officers to attend the first course. The teaching of senior officers were delayed until the midnight. None of the officers were allowed to let away from classes till late in the evening before coup. During this time, arrangements for the coup was made.
General Zia announced that martial law had been imposed, the constitution suspended and all assemblies dissolved and promised elections within ninety days. Zia also ordered the arrest of senior PPP and PNA leaders but promised elections in October. Bhutto was released on 29 July and was received by a large crowd of supporters in his hometown of Larkana. He immediately began touring across Pakistan, delivering speeches to very large crowds and planning his political comeback. Bhutto was arrested again on 3 September before being released on bail on 13 September. Fearing yet another arrest, Bhutto named his wife, Nusrat
, president of the Pakistan People's Party. Bhutto was imprisoned on 16 September and a large number of PPP leaders, notably dr. Mubascher Hasan
and activists arrested and disqualified from contesting in elections.
Trial of the Prime MinisterBhutto's trial began on 24 October on charges of "conspiracy to murder" of Ahmed Raza Kasuri
. On 5 July 1977 the military, led by General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq
, staged a coup. Zia relieved prime minister Bhutto of power, holding him in detention for a month. Zia pledged that new elections would be held in 90 days. He kept postponing the elections and publicly retorted during successive press conferences that if the elections were held in the presence of Bhutto his party would not return to power again.
Upon his release, Bhutto traveled the country amid adulatory crowds of PPP supporters. He used to take the train traveling from the south to the north and on the way, would address public meetings at different stations. Several of these trains were late, some by days, in reaching their respective destinations and as a result Bhutto was banned from traveling by train. The last visit he made to the city of Multan
in the province of Punjab marked the turning point in Bhutto's political career and ultimately, his life. In spite of the administration's efforts to block the gathering, the crowd was so large that it became disorderly, providing an opportunity for the administration to declare that Bhutto, along with dr. Hassan, had been taken into custody because the people were against him and it had become necessary to protect him from the masses for his own safety.
Re-arrest and trialOn 3 September the Army arrested Bhutto again on charges of authorising the murder of a political opponent in March 1974. A 35-year-old politician Ahmed Raza Kasuri
tried to run as a PPP candidate in elections, despite having previously left the party. The Pakistan Peoples Party
rebuffed him. Three years earlier, Kasuri and his family had been ambushed, leaving Kasuri's father, Nawab Mohammad Ahmad Khan, dead. Kasuri claimed that he was the actual target, accusing Bhutto of being the mastermind. Kasuri later claimed that he had been the victim of 15 assassination attempts. Bhutto's wife Nusrat Bhutto
established the team of premier lawyers of Pakistan and had Fäkhruddien Abraham
, Yahya Bakhtiar and Abdulhafiz Pirzada
as the leader of the Bhutto's legal team.
Bhutto was released 10 days after his arrest due to a judge, Justice KMA Samadani, finding the evidence "contradictory and incomplete." Justice Samadani had to pay for this; he was immediately removed from the court and placed at the disposal of the law ministry. Three days later Zia arrested Bhutto again on the same charges, this time under "martial law." When the PPP organised demonstrations among Bhutto's supporters, Zia cancelled the upcoming elections.
Bhutto was arraigned before the High Court
instead of in a lower court, thus automatically depriving him of one level of appeal. The judge who had granted him bail was removed. Five new judges were appointed, headed by Chief Justice of Lahore High Court Maulvi Mushtaq Hussain
. Hussain had previously served as Bhutto's Foreign secretary during 1965, and is said to have strongly disliked and distrusted Bhutto, and a conspiracy planned by him, Ayub Khan had removed Bhutto from his cabinet. Now, a judge of Bhutto's trial, Hussain was a known in public as Bhutto hater and made no secret of his dislike and enmity with the former Prime Minister, as a result Hussain clearly denied bail. The trial lasted five months, and Bhutto
appeared in court in a dock specially built for the trial.
Proceedings began on 24 October 1977. Masood Mahmood, the director general of the Federal Security Force (since renamed the Federal Investigation Agency
), testified against Bhutto. Mahmood had been arrested immediately after Zia's coup and had been imprisoned for two months prior to taking the stand. In his testimony, he claimed Bhutto had ordered Kasuri's assassination and that four members of the Federal Security Force had organised the ambush on Bhutto's orders.
The four alleged assassins were arrested and later confessed. They were brought into court as "co-accused" but one of them recanted his testimony, declaring that it had been extracted from him under torture. The following day, the witness was not present in court; the prosecution claimed that he had suddenly "fallen ill".
Bhutto's defence team fought the case efficiently and challenged the prosecution with proof from an army logbook the prosecution had submitted. It showed that the jeep allegedly driven during the attack on Kasuri was not even in Lahore at the time. The prosecution had the logbook disregarded as "incorrect". During the defence's cross-examination of witnesses, the bench often interrupted questioning by the plaintiff team. The 706-page official transcript contained none of the objections or inconsistencies in the evidence pointed out by the defence. Former U.S. Attorney General Ramsey Clark
, who attended the trial, called this trail a mock trial
fought in a Kangaroo court
. While witnessing, Clark later wrote:.
When Bhutto began his testimony on 25 January 1978, Chief Justice Maulvi Mushtaq closed the courtroom to all observers. Bhutto responded by refusing to say any more. Bhutto demanded a retrial, accusing the Chief Justice of bias, after Mushtaq allegedly insulted Bhutto's home province. The court refused his demand.
Death sentence and appealOn 18 March 1978, Bhutto wasn't declared guilty of murder but was sentenced to death.
On March 12, 1978, Bhutto's former Legal Minister, A.H. Per-Zadah
sought to Supreme Court for the release of Bhutto's Science Adviser Dr. Mubashir Hassan and to review the death sentence to Bhutto based on the split decision. Supreme Court denied Dr. Hassan's release as he was held by Military Police but agreed to listen to the arguments. During this 12 days long, the Supreme Court concluded that the President of Pakistan can change death sentence into life imprisonment. Per-Zadah filed an application to Presidential Palace to then-Chief Martial Law Administrator. However, General Zia-ul-Haq did not act immediately and claimed that the application has gone missing.
Emotionally shattered, Perzafa informed Bhutto about the development and General Zia-ul-Haq's intention. Therefore, Bhutto did not seek an appeal. While he was transferred to a cell in Rawalpindi
central jail, his family appealed on his behalf, and a hearing before the Supreme Court commenced in May. Bhutto was given one week to prepare. Bhutto issued a thorough rejoinder to the charges, although Zia blocked its publication. Chief Justice S. Anwarul Haq
adjourned the court until the end of July 1978, supposedly because five of the nine appeal court judges were willing to overrule the Lahore verdict. One of the pro-Bhutto judges was due to retire in July.
Chief Justice S. Anwarul Haq presided over the trial, despite being close to Zia, even serving as Acting President when Zia was out of the country. Bhutto's lawyers managed to secure Bhutto the right to conduct his own defence before the Supreme Court. On 18 December 1978, Bhutto made his appearance in public before a packed courtroom in Rawalpindi. By this time he had been on death row for 9 months and had gone without fresh water for the previous 25 days. He addressed the court for four days, speaking without notes.
The appeal was completed on 23 December 1978. On 6 February 1979, the Supreme Court issued a guilty verdict, a decision reached by a bare 4-to-3 majority. The Bhutto family had seven days in which to appeal. The court granted a stay of execution while it studied the petition. By 24 February 1979 when the next court hearing began, appeals for clemency arrived from many heads of state. Zia said that the appeals amounted to "trade union activity" among politicians.
On 24 March 1979 the Supreme Court dismissed the appeal. Zia upheld the death sentence. Bhutto was hanged at Central jail, Rawalpindi, on 4 April 1979, and is buried in Village Cemetery at Garhi Khuda Baksh.
Bhutto's children Murtaza
worked on rallying the international support to release of their father. Libya
's Colonel Gaddafi
sent his Prime minister Abdus Salam Jalloud
on an emergency trip to Pakistan to hold talks with Pakistan's military establishment for the release of Bhutto. In a press conference, Jalloud told the journalists that Gaddafi had offered General Zia to exile him Libya, and Prime minister Jalloud stayed in the Islamabad International where the specially designated Presidential aircraft waited for Bhutto. However, after a week of staying in the airport, General Zia rejected Prime minister Jalloud's request while Jalloud met him in Rawalpindi and held the death sentence. In all, the entire Muslim world
was silenced on Bhutto's execution, and Gaddafi was in shock after his request was denied and publicly sympathized Bhutto's family over the loss.
On April 4, 1979, the day when Bhutto was executed, The New York Times
published its final report when it follows the entire chronological events surrounding Bhutto's trial. " The way they [ISI and CIA] did it, [Zulfikar Ali Bhutto] is going to grow into a legend that will some day backfire ", The New York Times quoted.
Role of United States in ousting BhuttoIn 1998, Benazir Bhutto publicly announced her believe that her father was "sent to the gallows at the instance of the superpower for pursuing the nuclear capability, though she did not disclose the name of the power but many believed in that it was the United States. Many political analysts and scientists widely suspected that the riots and coup against Bhutto was orchestrated with help of Central Intelligence Agency
and the United States Government because United States feared over Bhutto's socialist policies where seen as sympathetic to the Soviet Union
and had built a bridge that allowed Soviet Union to involved in Pakistan. A former U.S. attorney general and Human rights activist, Ramsey Clark, quoted that:
"I [Ramsey Clark] do not believe in conspiracy theories in general, but the similarities in the staging of riots in Chile (where the CIA allegedly helped overthrow PresidentPresident of ChileThe President of the Republic of Chile is both the head of state and the head of government of the Republic of Chile. The President is responsible of the government and state administration...
Salvadore AllandeSalvador AllendeSalvador Allende Gossens was a Chilean physician and politician who is generally considered the first democratically elected Marxist to become president of a country in Latin America....
) and in Pakistan are just too close, Bhutto was removed from power in Pakistan by force on 5 July, after the usual party on the 4th at the U.S. Embassy in Islamabad, with U.S. approval, if not more, by General Zia-ul-Haq. Bhutto was falsely accused and brutalized for months during proceedings that corrupted the Judiciary of PakistanSupreme Court of PakistanThe Supreme Court is the apex court in Pakistan's judicial hierarchy, the final arbiter of legal and constitutional disputes. The Supreme Court has a permanent seat in Islamabad. It has number of Branch Registries where cases are heard. It has a number of de jure powers which are outlined in the...
before being murdered, then hanged. As Americans, we must ask ourselves this: Is it possible that a rational military leader under the circumstances in Pakistan could have overthrown a constitutional government, without at least the tacit approval of the United States?".
Many Pakistan's political scientists and historians and the leading U.S. experts such as Ramsey Clark believed that Bhutto's removal and his execution was a single and most dramatic change in the world politics and a major setback for Soviet Union who failed to realized the effects of Bhutto's executions, in which, will emerged on Soviet Union's future. Bhutto's death was a turning point of Cold war
, and critical and a breakthrough in world power alignment since World War II. After eight months passed since Bhutto's death, Soviet Union intervened in Afghanistan Soviet Socialist Republic
that hampered the Soviet economy and led the dissolution of Soviet Union, and United States emerged as single most powerful country in the world
Re-opening of Bhutto Trial
, Bhutto's former Media adviser, ran series of interviews of those personalities who played a major and controversial role in Bhutto's death which eventually promoted the PPP's to open the trial. This move was initiated by the Federal Cabinet
and backed by the Provincial Government of Punjab led by Chief minister Shahbaz Sharif
Asif Ali Zardari
consented to this presidential reference Article 186 of the Constitution to Supreme Court of Pakistan. The Supreme Court
will take up the reference on 13 April 2011. Chief Justice Iftikhar Chaudhry
is presiding the three-judge-bench, though it may be expanded with law experts from four provinces of Pakistan, and Babar Awan
, Federal minister for Law, is counseling Bhutto's case. Babar Awan has resigned from his ministry post in order to legally counsel the ZAB's case, while Chief Justice Chaudhry praised and appreciated the move by the senior PPP leader and remarked the gesture as "historic".
In a crucial advancement, Supreme Court of Pakistan has ordered to form Larger Bench to hear the case which would be responsible to decided the status of Bhutto's execution.
CriticismEven after his death, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto remains a controversial figure in Pakistan. While he was hailed for being a nationalist, Bhutto was roundly criticized for intimidating his political opponents by his critics. By the time Bhutto was given the control of his country, his nation was torn apart, isolated, demoralized, and emotionally shattered after a psychological and bitter defeat that came from intense regional rival, India, as a result of Indo-Pak war of 1971. His political rivals had blamed his socialist policies for slowing down Pakistan's economic progress owing to poor productivity and high costs although Bhutto and his colleagues maintained that Bhutto was merely addressing the massive inequality built up over the Ayub Khan years. Bhutto is blamed by some quarters for causing the the Pakistan war in Bangladesh
. In 1977, General Zia-ul-Haq released former general Yahya Khan from Prison and his Lieutenant-General Fazle Haq
gave him the honorary guard of honor when the former general died in 1980. After being released from house arrest after 1977 Coup former Chief Martial Law Administrator General Yahya Khanstated in an undated government affadivit:
It was Bhutto, not Mujib, who broke Pakistan. Bhutto's stance in 1971 and his stubbornness harmed Pakistan's solidarity much more than Sheikh Mujib's six-point demand. It was his high ambitions and rigid stance that led to rebellion in East Pakistan. He riled up the Bengalis and brought an end to Pakistan's solidarity. East Pakistan broke away.
A comprehensive thesis written in "The Power of Mirage" by Dr. Mubashir Hassan, it argued that the Military spectrum's
criticism of Bhutto is an attempt to hide the failure and incompetency of the their [military] government and their [military] performances in the [ 1971 war, and this absolute false narrative was encouraged by the Zia regime , who were hostile towards Bhutto and remnants of the PPP after Bhutto's execution .
Military circles blamed Bhutto for the causes of 1971 Winter war as an attempt to scapegoat Bhutto to conceal their inability to approach to people to gain the support of the military governments.
Bhutto is also often criticized for human rights abuses perpetrated by the Armed Forces in Balochistan, which Hard-line Islamic
and Conservative front
s both have accused him. Many officers from the Pakistan Army
blame Bhutto for the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
notably the former President and former Chief of Army Staff General Pervez Musharaf condemned Bhutto for having caused the crisis that led to the Bangladesh Liberation War
, and Pakistan's bitter defeat. East Pakistan's former Martial Law Administrator
and former Unified Commander of the Eastern Military High Command
Vice-Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan also criticized and held Bhutto sole responsible for creating the hostile atmosphere and hatred among the people in both East and West Pakistan. In his article which was published in 1989, a month before admiral's death, Admiral Ahsan held Bhutto responsible for a transgression which was bound to further fuel "public resentment".
Bhutto's action against the insurgency in Balochistan
is also describes as failing to bring peace to the region.
Image and Praise
with a secular image. In spite of all the criticism—and subsequent media trials—Bhutto still remains the most popular leader of the country. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology is named for him; his daughter was chairman of its board of trustees. Under his democratic premiership, Bhutto was responsible for supervising the promulgation of Pakistan's third 1973 constitution for which he successfully obtained approval from all of political parties in Pakistan. Because of his administrative and aggressive nature to lead the nuclear weapons programme
, Bhutto, in the world
, is often and commonly regarded as the Father of Pakistan's nuclear deterrence programme, in spite of Pakistan's limited financial resources and strong opposition from other countries, particularly the United States
. In order to retrieve 93,000 P.O.Ws held in India and to avoid another major conflict, Bhutto held peace talks with arch-rival neighbor India
and successfully signed Simla Agreement with Indira Gandhi, Premier of India during this time period. In 2006, while globally publishing the article, "The Wrath of Khan
", The Atlantic described Bhutto as demagogic
and extremely populist, but Pakistan's greatest civilian leader. Whereas, the Bombay Times
referred to Bhutto as "genius" and "person with brilliant manner". Despite Henry Kissinger developed differences with Bhutto and his colleagues, Kissinger could not hide his expression in 1979 when he quoted Bhutto as "brilliant, charming, of global stature in his perception, a man of extraordinary abilities, capable of drawing close to any country that served Pakistan`s national interests". While, Bhutto's former Law Minister Mairaj Muhammad Khan described Bhutto as "a great man but cruel". His family remained active and influential in politics, with first his wife and then his daughter becoming leader of the PPP political party. His eldest daughter, Benazir Bhutto
, was twice Prime minister of Pakistan, and was assassinated
on 27 December 2007, while campaigning for 2008 elections
. While his son, Murtaza Bhutto, served as the Member Parliament of Pakistan, and was also assassinated in a controversial police encounter. With all the criticism and opposition, Bhutto remained highly influential and respected figure even after his death. In 2011, in a gallop survey managed and taken by Dawn Newspapers
, Bhutto was voted and listed as Pakistan's one of the few greatest leader, and came in second place while Jinnah
— Pakistan's founder— listed and voted in first place. Bhutto is widely regarded as being among the most influential men in the history
of Pakistan. His supporters gave him the title Quaid-e-Awam (Leader of the people).
- Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and TechnologyShaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and TechnologyShaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology is a Pakistani university, with headquarters at Karachi and campuses at Islamabad, Karachi, Larkana and Dubai...
, a science and engineering institute named after Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, located in Karachi, Sindh of Pakistan.
- ZA Bhutto Agricultural CollegeZA Bhutto Agricultural CollegeThe Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Agriculture College, Dorki, is the affiliated college of Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam. This college is situated in Taluka Bakrani, district Larkana at an elevation of 164 ft above mean sea level...
, an agriculture engineering and science college named after Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, located at Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan.
- F-22P Zulfiquar class frigate, Pakistan Navy Combatant vessel ordered in April 2006, launched July 2009.
- ZulfiqarabadZulfiqarabadZulfiqarabad or Zulfikharabad or Zulfikarabad is a proposed new city in Thatta District, Sindh, Pakistan.The President of Pakistan, Asif Ali Zardari has directed the Sindh government to identify a million acres of land near the coast in Thatta district for the development of the proposed new...
, a planned city in Thatta District of Sindh, Pakistan. The city is named after in the memory of the Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.
Literature and Books written by Bhutto
- Peace-Keeping by the United Nations, Pakistan Publishing House, KarachiKarachiKarachi is the largest city, main seaport and the main financial centre of Pakistan, as well as the capital of the province of Sindh. The city has an estimated population of 13 to 15 million, while the total metropolitan area has a population of over 18 million...
- Political Situation in Pakistan, Veshasher Prakashan, New Delhi, 1968
- The Myth of Independence, Oxford University PressOxford University PressOxford University Press is the largest university press in the world. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the Vice-Chancellor known as the Delegates of the Press. They are headed by the Secretary to the Delegates, who serves as...
, Karachi and LahoreLahoreLahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...
- The Great Tragedy, Pakistan People's Party, Karachi, 1971
- Marching Towards Democracy, (collections of speeches), 1972
- Politics of the People (speeches, statements and articles), 1948–1971
- The Third World: New Directions, Quartet Books, London, 1977
- My Pakistan, Biswin Sadi Publications, New Delhi, 1979
- If I am Assassinated, Vikas, New Delhi, 1979
- My Execution, Musawaat Weekly International, London, 1980
- New Directions, Narmara Publishers, London, 1980
- Movement for Restoration of DemocracyMovement for Restoration of DemocracyThe Movement for the Restoration of Democracy was a major alliance formed by Secular-Socialist democratic political forces aiming to end the General Zia-ul-Haq's martial law and military dictatorship in the country. It was formed in February 1981. The alliance was aimed at restoring democracy and...
- Benazir BhuttoBenazir BhuttoBenazir Bhutto was a democratic socialist who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan in two non-consecutive terms from 1988 until 1990 and 1993 until 1996....
- Murtaza BhuttoMurtaza BhuttoDr. Mir Ghulam Murtaza Bhutto was a Pakistani politician and the Member of the Parliament of Pakistan, representing Pakistan People's Party from the Larkana constituency...
- Ghinwa BhuttoGhinwa BhuttoGhinwa Bhutto is a politician and the widow of Murtaza Bhutto. She is also the sister-in-law of the late Benazir Bhutto. She is of Syrian-Lebanese origin and is the second wife of Murtaza Bhutto and stepmother of Fatima Bhutto....
- Hyderabad tribunalHyderabad tribunalThe Hyderabad tribunal , also known as Hyderabad conspiracy case, is the name of a former judicial tribunal used in Pakistan to prosecute opposition politicians of the National Awami Party on the charges of treason and acting against the ideology of Pakistan.The tribunal was set up on the orders of...
- Constitution of PakistanConstitution of PakistanThe Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is the supreme law of Pakistan. Known as the Constitution of 1973, it was drafted by the government of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and, following additions by the opposition parties, was approved by the legislative assembly on April 10, 1973...
- Asghar KhanAsghar KhanAir Marshal Asghar Khan is a Pakistani 3-star rank general and politician who was the first native Air Force Commander-in-Chief of Pakistan Air Force. A politician and world war II veteran fighter pilot, at the age of 36, he served as the youngest and first Pakistani head of the Pakistan Air Force...
- Mufti MahmudMufti MahmudMaulana Mufti Mahmud , an ethnic Marwat Pashtun hailing from Abdul Khel, was born in January 1919 in Paniala, Dera Ismail Khan District, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, province of Pakistan. He was an Islamic scholar and political activist. Maulana Fazal-ur-Rehman is his son and was the leader of opposition in...
- Malik Anwer Ali NoonMalik Anwer Ali NoonMalik Anwar Ali Noon of Ali Pur Noon, son of Malik Sultan Ali Khan Noon is a popular, prominent politician and a famous landlord of Sargodha in the Noon family. He was a member of the National Assembly of Pakistan in the government of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. His own village is Ali Pur Noon, situated...
- Sherbaz Mazari
- Mausoleum of Zulfiqar Ali BhuttoMausoleum of Zulfiqar Ali BhuttoMazar of Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto is situated at Garhi Khuda Bakhsh, in Larkana District, Sindh, Pakistan.The mazar is notable for containing the graves of the Bhutto family and being the burial place of Zulfiqar, Murtaza, , and Benazir Bhutto....
- Shaheed Bhutto's Official Web Site
- Pakistan Peoples Party Official Website
- Pakistan Peoples Party USA Official Website
- Bhutto Speeches Video (Only for broadband viewers)
- Video clip speech of Prime Minister Z A Bhutto's after the Indian nuclear explosion of 1974
- Video in UN Security Council
- Audio---History Channel
- Zulfikar Ali Bhutto founder of Pakistan Peoples Party
- The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
- Video of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
- Video news report after Bhutto's execution – BBCBBCThe British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters is at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff...
- Alter Ego Productions: The Leopard and The Fox
- Annotated bibliography for Zulfikar Ali Bhutto from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues
- The Phenom; Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto
- Tragedy of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto