Yang di-Pertuan Agong
Overview
 
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is the head of state of Malaysia. The office was established in 1957 when the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
The Federation of Malaya is the name given to a federation of 11 states that existed from 31 January 1948 until 16 September 1963. The Federation became independent on 31 August 1957...

 (now Malaysia) gained independence.

A literal English translation of the title is "He who is made Lord". However, common alternatives are "King", "Supreme Ruler", "Paramount Ruler", or "Supreme Head of State".
Encyclopedia
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is the head of state of Malaysia. The office was established in 1957 when the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
The Federation of Malaya is the name given to a federation of 11 states that existed from 31 January 1948 until 16 September 1963. The Federation became independent on 31 August 1957...

 (now Malaysia) gained independence.

A literal English translation of the title is "He who is made Lord". However, common alternatives are "King", "Supreme Ruler", "Paramount Ruler", or "Supreme Head of State". Malaysia is a constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of a constitution, whether it be a written, uncodified or blended constitution...

 with an elected monarch
Monarch
A monarch is the person who heads a monarchy. This is a form of government in which a state or polity is ruled or controlled by an individual who typically inherits the throne by birth and occasionally rules for life or until abdication...

 as head of state. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is one of the few elected monarchs
Elective monarchy
An elective monarchy is a monarchy ruled by an elected rather than hereditary monarch. The manner of election, the nature of the candidacy and the electors vary from case to case...

 in the world.

Since 1993, the full title in Malay has been, Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong (His Conqueror Majesty The Supreme Lord of the Federation). Prior to that, the honorific Ke Bawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia (The Dust Under The Feet Of His Majesty) was also used. The consort of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is called the Raja Permaisuri Agong
Raja Permaisuri Agong
Raja Permaisuri Agong, or in full, Seri Paduka Baginda Raja Permaisuri Agong, is the title given to the Queen of Malaysia, consort of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong.The holders of this office have been:...

(Queen Lady Consort). The couple are addressed in English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 as "His Majesty" and "Her Majesty".

In Malaysia's constitutional monarchy, the role of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is largely ceremonial. The constitution specifies that the executive power of the Federal government is vested in the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and is exercised by him on the advice of the federal Council of Ministers. The latter is headed by the Prime Minister
Prime Minister of Malaysia
The Prime Minister of Malaysia is the indirectly elected head of government of Malaysia. He is officially appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the head of state, who in HM's judgment is likely to command the confidence of the majority of the members of that House of Representatives , the...

, appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong from among the elected members of Parliament
Parliament of Malaysia
The Parliament of Malaysia is the national legislature of Malaysia, based on the Westminster system. The bicameral parliament consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The King as the Head of State is the third component of Parliament....

.

The 13th and current Yang di-Pertuan Agong is Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin, the Sultan of Terengganu
Terengganu
Terengganu is a sultanate and constitutive state of federal Malaysia. The state is also known by its Arabic honorific, Darul Iman...

. His reign began on 13 December 2006 after his election by the Conference of Rulers
Conference of Rulers
The Conference of Rulers in Malaysia is a council comprising the nine rulers of the Malay states, and the governors or Yang di-Pertua Negeri of the other four states...

. He was formally enthroned on 26 April 2007. Sultan Abdul Halim of Kedah has been elected to succeed him from 13 December 2011.

Election of Yang di-Pertuan Agong

The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is formally elected to a five-year term by and from among the nine Rulers of the Malay states (nine of the thirteen states of Malaysia that have hereditary royal rulers), who form the Conference of Rulers
Conference of Rulers
The Conference of Rulers in Malaysia is a council comprising the nine rulers of the Malay states, and the governors or Yang di-Pertua Negeri of the other four states...

 (Majlis Raja-raja). The Yang di-Pertuan Agong may not be re-elected after his term has expired.

In the event of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong's death in office, the Conference of Rulers elects a new Yang di-Pertuan Agong as if the previous term had expired. The new Yang di-Pertuan Agong is elected for a full five-year term. After his term expires, the Conference holds a new election, in which the incumbent would not be re-elected.

The position de facto rotates among the nine Rulers. The selection of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong initially followed an order based on the seniority (calculated by length of reign) of each Ruler in 1957 at the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
The Federation of Malaya is the name given to a federation of 11 states that existed from 31 January 1948 until 16 September 1963. The Federation became independent on 31 August 1957...

's independence from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

. The Conference of Rulers, which has the power to disqualify a candidate, has sometimes varied the original seniority order. Minors are automatically disqualified from office. After each of the nine Rulers of the states had served as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the order of seniority was based on the order of the states whose rulers have been elected the Yang di-Pertuan Agong.

The Conference of Rulers has met regularly since 1895. The membership of the council includes the four governors (Yang di-Pertua Negeri
Yang di-Pertua Negeri
The Yang di-Pertua Negeri is the official title of the ceremonial heads of state of the Malaysian states without hereditary rulers, namely Penang, Malacca, Sabah and Sarawak...

), but only royal rulers are allowed to vote and stand for election as Yang di-Pertuan Agong.

Qualifications

  • Only a royal ruler may be elected.
  • Only the royal rulers may vote.
  • Rulers are elected in turn.


The Constitution provides that a Ruler is not eligible for election as Yang di-Pertuan Agong if:
  • The Ruler is a minor.
  • The Ruler has notified the Keeper of the Rulers’ Seal that he does not wish to be elected.
  • The Conference of Rulers by a secret ballot resolves that the Ruler is unsuitable by reason of infirmity of mind or body, or for any other cause, to exercise the functions of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. The resolution requires at least five members of the Conference to vote in favour of it.

Election proceedings

The election is carried out by a secret ballot. The ballot papers used are not numbered, but marked with the same pen and ink, and are inserted into a ballot box. Only the Rulers participate in the election.

A Ruler may appoint another Ruler as his proxy to vote on his behalf if he is unable to attend the Election Meeting.

During the election process, the Keeper of the Rulers’ Seal distributes the ballot with only one candidate (the most senior Ruler). Each Ruler is requested to indicate whether the most senior Ruler is suitable or not to be elected as Yang di-Pertuan Agong.

The most junior Ruler, who is not listed as nominee for the office of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, or the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is appointed to count the ballot papers together with the Keeper of the Rulers’ Seal.

The nominee must have obtained a majority of five votes before the Ruler presiding over the Election Meeting offers him the office of Yang di-Pertuan Agong. If the successful nominee declines the offer or the nominated Ruler fails to secure the required majority votes, the voting process is repeated with the nomination of the second most senior Ruler in the Seniority List of Rulers.

The process is completed only after the Ruler has accepted the offer of the office of Yang di-Pertuan Agong. The Conference declares the Ruler as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong to hold office for a term of five years. The ballot papers are destroyed in the presence of the Rulers as soon as the result of the election result is announced.

On taking office as Yang di-Pertuan Agong, he appoints a regent
Regent
A regent, from the Latin regens "one who reigns", is a person selected to act as head of state because the ruler is a minor, not present, or debilitated. Currently there are only two ruling Regencies in the world, sovereign Liechtenstein and the Malaysian constitutive state of Terengganu...

 for the duration of his five-year term for the state which he rules. Usually, but not always, the Regent is a close relative.

See also: Installation of the Malaysian Sovereign
Installation of the Malaysian Sovereign
Since 1957, the Installation Ceremony of the Malaysian Sovereign has been a part of Malaysian history in general, with 13 such ceremonies held, first at the Prime Minister's Residential Function Hall at Jalan Ampang in Kuala Lumpur, and in the State Palace from 1980 onwards...

 for the installation ceremony

Order of seniority of states

After the first cycle of nine Yang di-Pertuan Agong (1957–1994), the order among the eligible, all peninsular, state rulers has followed the order established by that cycle, namely:
  1. the Yang di-Pertuan Besar (or Yamtuan Besar
    Yamtuan Besar
    Yamtuan Besar, also known as Yang di-Pertuan Besar, is the royal title of the ruler of the Malaysian state of Negeri Sembilan. The ruler of Negeri Sembilan is selected by a council of ruling chiefs in the state, or the datuk-datuk undang. This royal practice has been followed since 1773...

    ) of Negeri Sembilan
    Negeri Sembilan
    Negeri Sembilan, one of the 13 states that constitutes Malaysia, lies on the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia, just south of Kuala Lumpur and borders Selangor on the north, Pahang in the east, and Malacca and Johor to the south....

     (itself an elective monarchy)
  2. the Sultan of Selangor
    Sultan of Selangor
    Sultan of Selangor is the title of the constitutional ruler of Selangor, Malaysia.-Bugis bloodline:The Sultans of Selangor are descended from a Bugis dynasty that claim descent from the rulers of Luwu in the southern part of Celebes...

  3. the Raja of Perlis
  4. the Sultan of Terengganu
    Sultan of Terengganu
    Sultan of Terengganu is the title of the constitutional head of Terengganu state in Malaysia. The current sultan, Mizan Zainal Abidin, is the seventeenth Sultan of Terengganu...

  5. the Sultan of Kedah
  6. the Sultan of Kelantan
    Sultan of Kelantan
    The Sultan of Kelantan is the constitutional head of Kelantan state in Malaysia. The current sultan, Muhammad V, is the 29th Sultan of Kelantan. He is the figurehead of Islam in the state and the source of all titles, honours and dignities of its people....

  7. the Sultan of Pahang
    Sultan of Pahang
    Sultan of Pahang is the title of the constitutional head of Pahang, Malaysia. The current sultan is Ahmad Shah. He is the Head of the Islam in the state and the source of all titles, honours and dignities in the state.-History:...

  8. the Sultan of Johor
    Sultan of Johor
    Sultan of Johor is a hereditary seat and the nominal ruler of the Malaysian state of Johor. In the past, the sultan held absolute power over the state and was advised by a bendahara...

  9. the Sultan of Perak
    Sultan of Perak
    Sultan of Perak is one of the oldest hereditary seats among the Malay states.When the Sultanate of Malacca empire fell to Portugal in 1511, Sultan Mahmud Syah I retreated to Kampar, Sumatra and died there in 1528. He left behind two princes named Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah II and Sultan Muzaffar...



Four of the states of Malaysia have no hereditary royal rulers. These are Penang
Penang
Penang is a state in Malaysia and the name of its constituent island, located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia by the Strait of Malacca. It is bordered by Kedah in the north and east, and Perak in the south. Penang is the second smallest Malaysian state in area after Perlis, and the...

 and Malacca
Malacca
Malacca , dubbed The Historic State or Negeri Bersejarah among locals) is the third smallest Malaysian state, after Perlis and Penang. It is located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, on the Straits of Malacca. It borders Negeri Sembilan to the north and the state of Johor to the south...

 in Peninsular Malaysia
Peninsular Malaysia
Peninsular Malaysia , also known as West Malaysia , is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula. Its area is . It shares a land border with Thailand in the north. To the south is the island of Singapore. Across the Strait of Malacca to the west lies the island of Sumatra...

, and Sabah
Sabah
Sabah is one of 13 member states of Malaysia. It is located on the northern portion of the island of Borneo. It is the second largest state in the country after Sarawak, which it borders on its southwest. It also shares a border with the province of East Kalimantan of Indonesia in the south...

 and Sarawak
Sarawak
Sarawak is one of two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo. Known as Bumi Kenyalang , Sarawak is situated on the north-west of the island. It is the largest state in Malaysia followed by Sabah, the second largest state located to the North- East.The administrative capital is Kuching, which...

 on the island of Borneo
East Malaysia
East Malaysia, also known as Malaysian Borneo, is the part of Malaysia located on the island of Borneo. It consists of the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak, and the Federal Territory of Labuan. It lies to the east from Peninsular Malaysia , which is located on the Malay Peninsula. The two are...

. These four states, along with Malaysia's three federal territories, never supply the Yang di-Pertuan Agong.

Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong

A Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong (Deputy Yang di-Pertuan Agong) is elected by the same process immediately after the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. The Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong exercises the functions of the head of state during the Yang di-Pertuan Agong's absence, or inability to exercise functions owing to illness or infirmity.

The Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong does not automatically advance to become the Yang di-Pertuan Agong when a vacancy occurs in the office. The Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong acts as the head of state before the elections of the new Yang di-Pertuan Agong and Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong.

Roles

The Yang di-Pertuan Agong's role is that of a constitutional monarch. The Federal Constitution and Parliamentary Acts made in accordance with it define the extent of his powers as the Federal Head of State. The executive power of the federal government is vested in him.

The monarch's powers are basically divided into two broad categories:
  • the powers that he exercises on the advice of the Prime Minister, a Minister, the Cabinet, the Conference of Rulers, or some other officer or institution; and
  • the powers that he exercises at his discretion (without the consent of any other authority).


The discretionary powers of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong pertain chiefly to appointing the Prime Minister, dissolving Parliament, and calling meetings with the Conference of Rulers
Conference of Rulers
The Conference of Rulers in Malaysia is a council comprising the nine rulers of the Malay states, and the governors or Yang di-Pertua Negeri of the other four states...

 "concerned solely with the privileges, position, honours and dignities of Their Royal Highnesses." Under the Westminster System
Westminster System
The Westminster system is a democratic parliamentary system of government modelled after the politics of the United Kingdom. This term comes from the Palace of Westminster, the seat of the Parliament of the United Kingdom....

, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is expected to appoint a Prime Minister who will command the confidence of a majority of the elected lower house of Parliament, the Dewan Rakyat
Dewan Rakyat
The Dewan Rakyat is the lower house of the Parliament of Malaysia. All bills must usually be passed by both the Dewan Rakyat and the Dewan Negara , before they are given Royal Assent by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong...

. Should the Prime Minister be or become unacceptable, he may be forced out by a vote of no confidence, which would require the Yang di-Pertuan Agong to appoint someone else. Conventionally, the Prime Minister is the head of the party with a majority in Parliament. Since independence in 1957, this has been the Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional is a major political coalition in Malaysia, formed in 1973 as the successor to the Alliance . Along with its predecessor, it has been Malaysia's federal ruling political force since independence...

(National Front, formerly known as the Alliance).

The Yang di-Pertuan Agong renews the appointment of a Prime Minister after every general election until the minister decides to step down. Whenever the Prime Minister chooses to dissolve Parliament, he calls for a general election. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong may choose to refuse a Prime Minister's request to dissolve Parliament, as one of his discretionary powers.

Residences

The official residence of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is Istana Negara (the National Palace) located in Jalan Syed Putra in the federal capital Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the second largest city in Malaysia by population. The city proper, making up an area of , has a population of 1.4 million as of 2010. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million...

. Other residences include the royal retreat, Istana Melawati (Melawati Palace) in the federal administrative capital Putrajaya
Putrajaya
Putrajaya is a planned city, located 25km south of Kuala Lumpur, that serves as the federal administrative centre of Malaysia. The seat of government was shifted in 1999 from Kuala Lumpur to Putrajaya, due to the overcrowding and congestion in the Kuala Lumpur areas...

. It is also the venue of meetings of the Conference of Rulers (Malay: Majlis Raja-raja), which elects the Yang di-Pertuan Agong.

Appointments

The Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints numerous high-ranking office holders in the Federation under the terms of the Constitution and various Acts passed by Parliament. The constitution established procedures for such appointments.

The Council of Ministers (cabinet)

  • Prime Minister (Chairman of the Cabinet), at his discretion from among the elected members of the House of Representatives who belong to the majority party or coalition.
  • Ministers and Deputy Ministers (the second in command of a Ministry), on the advice of the Prime Minister.
  • Directors (in charge of the different sections in the various Ministries), on the advice of the Prime Minister.

Commissions and committees

  • The Election Commission, on the advice of the Conference of Rulers.
  • The Judicial and Legal Service Commission, after consultation with the Chief Justice
  • The Malaysian Public Service Commission
    The Malaysian Public Service Commission
    The Public Service Commission of Malaysia is established by Article 139 of the Constitution of Malaysia. It is responsible for the general administration of the Public Service of Malaysia's Federal government. It establishes the rules and regulations for the conduct of all members of the Federal...

     at his discretion, after considering the advice of the Prime Minister and after consultation with the Conference of Rulers.

Judges

  • The Chief Justice of Malaysia
    Chief Justice of Malaysia
    The Chief Justice of Malaysia , also known as the Chief Justice of the Federal Court, is the office and title of the head of the Malaysian judiciary system. The title has been in use since 1994, and prior to this it was known as the Lord President of the Federal Court. The Chief Justice is the head...

    , on the advice of the Prime Minister and the Conference of Rulers.
  • The Chief Judge of Malaya, on the advice of the Prime Minister and the Conference of Rulers.
  • The Chief Judge of Sabah and Sarawak, on the advice of the Prime Minister and the Conference of Rulers.

Senators

The Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints 44 members of the Dewan Negara
Dewan Negara
The Dewan Negara is the upper house of the Parliament of Malaysia. The Dewan Negara consists of 70 members, of which 26 are indirectly elected by the states, with two senators for every state in the Federation, and the other 44 being appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong .The Dewan Negara...

, the Malaysian Senate
Senate
A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature or parliament. There have been many such bodies in history, since senate means the assembly of the eldest and wiser members of the society and ruling class...

.

State governors

The Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints the Yang di-Pertua Negeri
Yang di-Pertua Negeri
The Yang di-Pertua Negeri is the official title of the ceremonial heads of state of the Malaysian states without hereditary rulers, namely Penang, Malacca, Sabah and Sarawak...

(Governors), of the states of Penang
Penang
Penang is a state in Malaysia and the name of its constituent island, located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia by the Strait of Malacca. It is bordered by Kedah in the north and east, and Perak in the south. Penang is the second smallest Malaysian state in area after Perlis, and the...

, Malacca
Malacca
Malacca , dubbed The Historic State or Negeri Bersejarah among locals) is the third smallest Malaysian state, after Perlis and Penang. It is located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, on the Straits of Malacca. It borders Negeri Sembilan to the north and the state of Johor to the south...

, Sabah
Sabah
Sabah is one of 13 member states of Malaysia. It is located on the northern portion of the island of Borneo. It is the second largest state in the country after Sarawak, which it borders on its southwest. It also shares a border with the province of East Kalimantan of Indonesia in the south...

 and Sarawak
Sarawak
Sarawak is one of two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo. Known as Bumi Kenyalang , Sarawak is situated on the north-west of the island. It is the largest state in Malaysia followed by Sabah, the second largest state located to the North- East.The administrative capital is Kuching, which...

, at his discretion, after considering the advice of the state's Chief Minister.

The Yang di-Pertuan Agong also appoints the Mayor and City Council of Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the second largest city in Malaysia by population. The city proper, making up an area of , has a population of 1.4 million as of 2010. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million...

, which is a Federal Territory
Federal Territory
The Federal Territories in Malaysia comprise three territories: Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya and Labuan, governed directly by the federal government of Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital of Malaysia, Putrajaya is the administrative capital, and Labuan is an offshore international financial...

.

Head of Islam

In addition, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is the Head of Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

 in the four states ruled by appointed Governors: the three Federal Territories, as well as in his own state. In this role, he is advised by the State Islamic Affairs Council in each of the States.

The Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints the Chairman and members of each council. He also appoints the State Mufti
Mufti
A mufti is a Sunni Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law . In religious administrative terms, a mufti is roughly equivalent to a deacon to a Sunni population...

 in each of these states. There is a single Islamic Affairs Council with jurisdiction for the three Federal Territories. This council is also appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong.

Duties as Commander-in-Chief

In accordance with Article 41 of the Federal Constitution, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
A commander-in-chief is the commander of a nation's military forces or significant element of those forces. In the latter case, the force element may be defined as those forces within a particular region or those forces which are associated by function. As a practical term it refers to the military...

 of the Federation's Armed Forces. As such, he is the highest-ranking officer in the military chain of command.

As the Supreme Commander of the Malaysian Armed Forces
Supreme Commander of the Malaysian Armed Forces
The Supreme Commander or Commander-in-Chief of the Malaysian Armed Forces is the highest ranking office in the command structure of the Malaysian military. The office dates to the 1957 creation of the Malay federation. Its current role, duties and powers are regulated by the Constitution of...

, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints the Chief of the Armed Forces Staff, on the advice of the Armed Forces Council
Malaysian Armed Forces Council
The Malaysian Armed Forces Council is a Malaysian military body established under Article 137 of the Constitution of Malaysia and is the constitutional body responsible for the command, discipline and administration of Malaysia's armed forces...

. He also appoints the service heads of each of the three branches of the military forces.

King's Birthday

The first Saturday of June yearly is mandated by the Malaysian Constitution as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong's official birthday.

Trooping the Colour

Trooping the Colour in Malaysia, althrough inherted from the British, has tranformed into amore grander and more Malaysian celebration on the first Saturday of June annually live on Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the second largest city in Malaysia by population. The city proper, making up an area of , has a population of 1.4 million as of 2010. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million...

's Independence Square, which is both open to invited guests and the general public. As the Supreme Commander of the Malaysian Armed Forces, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong takes the salute on this day together with the commanders of the three services of the Malaysian Armed Forces and the MAF Joint Command.

Here are the features that make it truly Malaysian:
  • The Malaysian Royal Armoured Corps
    Malaysian Royal Armoured Corps
    The Royal Armoured Corps or Kor Armor Diraja is the armoured forces of the Malaysian Army.-History of formation:The Royal Malayaian Armoured Corps had its beginning with two army units formed by the British Administration headed by General Sir Gerald Templer who had initiated the formation during...

    's Mounted Ceremonial Squadron plus members of the Royal Malaysian Police
    Royal Malaysian Police
    The Royal Malaysia Police is a part of the security forces structure in Malaysia. The force is a centralised organization with responsibilities ranging from traffic control to intelligence gathering. Its headquarters is located at Bukit Aman, Kuala Lumpur. The police force is led by an...

     provide the Sovereign's Escort for the ceremony. The MCS's fanfare trumpeters sound a fanfare upon the Sovereign's arrival in the Merdeka Square Saluting Base while the MCS itself also has a motorized mounted escort troop and a lancers guard troop ready to accompany them on the way.
  • Instead of being just purely a infantry activity the entire Malaysian Armed Forces go out in full participation in this parade, as seen in the 4 Guard Companies and the Ministry of Defense Combined Band participating in the ceremonial march.
  • An open top Land Rover is used in the inspection segment of the parade.
  • The Saluting Base in Independence Square is more longer in construction in order for more invited guests to attend the ceremony and take the salute.
  • All the commands and salutes are said in Malay, like for example:
    • Royal Salute-Hormat Diraja
    • General Salute-Hormat Sedia
  • The roles of Field Officer, Brigade Majors (the parade has two instead of 1, which is another unique feature), Adjutant and Ensigns are occupied by select officers of the Armed Forces, either Army, Navy or Air Force officers, with Armed Forces NCOs doing the jobs of Regimental Sergeants Major and Colour Sergeants. However the Deputy Brigade Major (coming from the Malaysian Army) is also the concurrent commander of the 1st parade unit, that of the Joint Escort for/to the Colours, which has 5 Sergeants Major with the rank of Warrant Officer 2 or Warrant Officer 1 while the three other units have 3 officers and 2 Warrant Officers each
  • All Warrant Officers in this parade, like their British counterparts, carry pace sticks but the WOs of No.1 Guard Company (Composite) throw them to the Orderlies during the Trooping segment
  • State Flypast
    Flypast
    Flypast is a term used in the United Kingdom, the Commonwealth, and other countries to denote ceremonial or honorific flights by groups of aircraft and, rarely, by a single aircraft...

     by 5 military helicopters of the Flag of Malaysia
    Flag of Malaysia
    -Flag anthem:The Jalur Gemilang flag anthem was introduced in 1997. The lyrics were written by Pak Ngah.-Original lyrics:-Flag anthem:The Jalur Gemilang flag anthem was introduced in 1997. The lyrics were written by Pak Ngah.-Original lyrics:-Flag anthem:...

    , Flag of the Malaysian Armed Forces, and Flags of the Malaysian Army
    Malaysian Army
    The Malaysian Army is the land component of the Malaysian Armed Forces. Steeped in British Army traditions, the Malaysian Army does not carry the title ‘royal’ as do the Royal Malaysian Air Force and the Royal Malaysian Navy...

    , Royal Malaysian Navy
    Royal Malaysian Navy
    The Royal Malaysian Navy is the naval arm of Malaysian Armed Forces. All commissioned ships of the RMN have the prefix KD , which means Royal Ship.-Straits Settlement Naval Volunteer Reserve:...

     and Royal Malaysian Air Force during the performance of Negaraku
    Negaraku
    "Negaraku" is the national anthem of Malaysia. "Negaraku" was selected as a national anthem at the time of the Federation of Malaya's independence from Britain in 1957. The tune was originally used as the state anthem of Perak, which was adopted from a popular French melody titled "La Rosalie"...

    , the National Anthem
  • 21-gun salute
    21-gun salute
    Gun salutes are the firing of cannons or firearms as a military or naval honor.The custom stems from naval tradition, where a warship would fire its cannons harmlessly out to sea, until all ammunition was spent, to show that it was disarmed, signifying the lack of hostile intent...

    s are performed during the National Anthem
  • Negaraku is also performed during the colours obtainment segment by the Joint Escort for the Colors, which becomes the Escort to the Colours after the Colours Party join the Escort


All three branches of the Armed Forces - the Malaysian Army
Malaysian Army
The Malaysian Army is the land component of the Malaysian Armed Forces. Steeped in British Army traditions, the Malaysian Army does not carry the title ‘royal’ as do the Royal Malaysian Air Force and the Royal Malaysian Navy...

 (represented by the Royal Malay Regiment
Royal Malay Regiment
The Royal Malay Regiment is the premier unit of the Malaysian Army's two infantry regiments. At its largest, the Malay Regiment comprised 27 battalions. At present, two battalions are parachute trained and form part of the Malaysian Army Rapid Deployment Force...

 or other units), the Royal Malaysian Navy
Royal Malaysian Navy
The Royal Malaysian Navy is the naval arm of Malaysian Armed Forces. All commissioned ships of the RMN have the prefix KD , which means Royal Ship.-Straits Settlement Naval Volunteer Reserve:...

, and the Royal Malaysian Air Force - participate in the Trooping, in their No. 1 uniforms. The Massed Bands include musicians from the Military band
Military band
A military band originally was a group of personnel that performs musical duties for military functions, usually for the armed forces. A typical military band consists mostly of wind and percussion instruments. The conductor of a band commonly bears the title of Bandmaster or Director of Music...

s of the Army, Navy and the Air Force, similarly in their No. 1 uniforms.

The Colours Party and the Escort for(to) the Colours also reflect the three participant Armed Forces branches. The Colours Party is composed of Ensigns, Colour Sergeants and assistant soldiers making up three Colours Parties from the Army, and there is also a single Colour Party each from the Navy and the Air Force. The Escort for(to) the Colours is a composite company, comprising an Army platoon and a squad each from the Navy and Air Force ready to receive their respective colours during the ceremony. The Parade Field Officer, Brigade Major and Adjutant are also from all the Armed Forces branches, and so too are the Regimental Sergeants-Major and Colour Sergeants.

RTM
RTM
- Computing :* Release to manufacturing - a term used when software is ready for release- Marketing :* Return to manufacturer - of faulty goods* Registered Trademark - Radio and TV :...

 broadcasts this unique ceremony live, with the telecast starting at 7:30 in the morning with a nationwide simulcast.

Details of the Trooping

  • March in of the bands
  • March in of the Linesmen, Orderlies and Markers
  • March in of the Parade
  • Arrival of the Parade Field Officer
  • Hand over of command to the FO
  • Parade stands at ease in preparation
  • Salutes
    • Commander's Salute
    • General Salute
    • Ministerial Salute
    • Prime Minister's Salute
  • Arrival of the Sovereigns and first Royal Salute with 21-gun salute by the Royal Artillery Regiment, Malaysian Army and first State Flypast by helicopters of the Royal Malaysian Air Force carrying the Flag of Malaysia, the Armed Forces Flag and the flags of the Army, Navy and Air Force
  • Parade Inspection
Menjunjung Duli is played during the inspection by the Massed Bands.
  • Trooping and Marchpast of the Massed Armed Forces Bands, in both slow and quick time
    • During the quick march, a lone drummer from the Massed Bands away and goes into the No.1 Guard, and when the music stops he beats the Drummer's Call
  • Trooping Proper
    • Joint Escort for the Colours prepares for march after the Drummer's Call ends and when the drummer marches back to the Massed Bands. The Subaltern then takes change and all the SMs' pace sticks are removed using a single throw (another unique feature of the ceremony) and are then given to the orderlies so that they can draw and use their swords
    • Join Escort marches in quick time to the Joint Colours Party
    • Handover of the Royal Colours to the RSMs
    • Slow March of the Colours Party happens and then the Ensigns, after saluting and drawing swords, receive their Royal Colours
    • Second performance of the National Anthem (in abbreviated form)
    • Joint Escort becomes the Joint Escort to the Colours, and the Colours Party join the latter
    • The FO commands the parade to present arms (Before that, and the handover of the Royal Colours the parade makes way for the Joint Escort)
    • Trooping of the Joint Escort in slow time, accompanied by the Massed Armed Forces Bands
    • After the Colours have been trooped in slow time, the Joint Escort halts in place, turns about, and then presents arms. After this, the parade is told to shoulder arms by the FO, signalling the end of the Trooping proper

Yang di-Pertuan Agong Scholarship

In November 2006, the 10th Yang di-Pertuan Agong awarded, for the first time, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong Scholarship to ten outstanding students to pursue postgraduate studies at high-ranking world universities. The award of scholarships was held at the Istana Negara in conjunction with the Independence Day celebrations and Council of Rulers Conference.

Immunity

In 1993, an amendment to the Malaysian constitution
1993 amendments to the Constitution of Malaysia
The 1993 amendments to the Constitution of Malaysia was passed by the Malaysian parliament with the aim of removing legal immunity of the royalty. The changes, which saw the amendments of Articles 32, 38, 42, 63, 72 and 181 in the Constitution of Malaysia, was implemented in March 1993...

 removed the legal immunity of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and the rulers in their personal capacity. A Special Court (Makhamah Khas Raja-raja) is established where civil and criminal proceedings can be made against a ruler with the approval of the Attorney General. The right to sue a ruler is limited to Malaysian citizens following a precedent. The Special Court also have jurisdiction where a ruler initiates legal actions against any party.

When a ruler is charged with an offence in the Special Court, he is required to stop exercising the functions of a ruler. In the event of a ruler being sentenced to imprisonment, he will cease to be a ruler unless a free pardon is granted.

The Yang di-Pertuan Agong or any ruler cannot pardon himself or his immediate family. In such case, they may request clemency from the Conference of Rulers.

The Yang di-Pertuan Agong cannot be sued in court for his actions while carrying out his official duties. Any claims can be made against the federal government.

History

In August 1957, having rejected the suggested title of Yang di-Pertuan Besar in favour of Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the Council of Rulers met to elect the first occupant of the throne. By seniority, the 84-year old major general Sultan Ibrahim, Sultan of Johor since 1895, was the appropriate candidate, but he declined due to old age. The next in line, Sultan Abu Bakar
Sultan Abu Bakar of Pahang
In full, Sultan Abu Bakar Riayatuddin Al-Muadzam Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdullah Al-Mutassim Billah Shah GCMG, , was the fourth sultan of modern Pahang in Malaysia....

, Sultan of Pahang since 1932, was rejected (five times in total) by his fellow electors. Tuanku Abdul Rahman of Negeri Sembilan, having succeeded to his state throne in 1933, was elected by eight votes to one.

The first Council of Rulers were:
  1. Sultan Abu Bakar Riayatuddin Al-Muadzam Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdullah Al-Mutassim Billah Shah (Sultan of Pahang; 1932–1974);
  2. Tuanku Abdul Rahman ibni Almarhum Tuanku Muhammad (Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan; 1933–1960);
  3. Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah (Sultan of Selangor; 1938–1942, 1945–1960);
  4. Sultan Badlishah ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah (Sultan of Kedah; 1943–1958);
  5. Sultan Ibrahim Petra ibni Almarhum Sultan Muhammad IV (Al-Sultan of Kelantan; 1944–1960);
  6. Tuanku Syed Putra ibni Almarhum Syed Hassan Jamalullail (Raja of Perlis; 1945–2000);
  7. Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Zainal Abidin III (Sultan of Terengganu; 1945–1979);
  8. Sultan Yusuf Izzudin Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Jalil Nasruddin shah (Sultan of Perak; 1948–1963); and
  9. Tunku Ismail ibni Sultan Ibrahim (Crown Prince or Tunku Mahkota of Johor; later Sultan 1959–1981).

List of Yang di-Pertuan Agong

The following Rulers have served as Yang di-Pertuan Agong:
No. Name State Reign Birth Death
1 Tuanku Abdul Rahman
Tuanku Abdul Rahman
Colonel Paduka Sri Sir Tuanku Abdul Rahman ibni Almarhum Tuanku Muhammad, GCMG was the first Supreme Head of State of the Federation of Malaya, eighth Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Seri Menanti and second Yang di-Pertuan Besar of modern Negeri Sembilan.-Early career:Born Tunku Abdul Rahman at Seri...

 
Negeri Sembilan
Negeri Sembilan
Negeri Sembilan, one of the 13 states that constitutes Malaysia, lies on the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia, just south of Kuala Lumpur and borders Selangor on the north, Pahang in the east, and Malacca and Johor to the south....

 
31 August 1957 – 1 April 1960 24 August 1895 1 April 1960
2 Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah  Selangor
Selangor
Selangor also known by its Arabic honorific, Darul Ehsan, or "Abode of Sincerity") is one of the 13 states of Malaysia. It is on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and is bordered by Perak to the north, Pahang to the east, Negeri Sembilan to the south and the Strait of Malacca to the west...

 
14 April 1960 – 1 September 1960 13 May 1898 1 September 1960
3 Tuanku Syed Putra  Perlis
Perlis
Perlis is the smallest state in Malaysia. It lies at the northern part of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and has Satun and Songkhla Provinces of Thailand on its northern border. It is bordered by the state of Kedah to the south...

 
21 September 1960 – 20 September 1965 25 November 1920 16 April 2000
4 Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah  Terengganu
Terengganu
Terengganu is a sultanate and constitutive state of federal Malaysia. The state is also known by its Arabic honorific, Darul Iman...

 
21 September 1965 – 20 September 1970 24 January 1907 20 September 1979
5 Tuanku Abdul Halim  Kedah
Kedah
Kedah is a state of Malaysia, located in the northwestern part of Peninsular Malaysia. The state covers a total area of over 9,000 km², and it consists of the mainland and Langkawi. The mainland has a relatively flat terrain, which is used to grow rice...

 
21 September 1970  – 20 September 1975 28 November 1927
6 Sultan Yahya Petra  Kelantan
Kelantan
Kelantan is a state of Malaysia. The capital and royal seat is Kota Bharu. The Arabic honorific of the state is Darul Naim, ....

 
21 September 1975 – 29 March 1979 10 December 1917 29 March 1979
7 Sultan Ahmad Shah Al-Mustain Billah  Pahang
Pahang
Pahang is the third largest state in Malaysia, after Sarawak and Sabah, occupying the huge Pahang River river basin. It is bordered to the north by Kelantan, to the west by Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, to the south by Johor and to the east by Terengganu and the South China Sea.Its state...

 
29 March 1979 – 25 April 1984 24 October 1930
8 Sultan Iskandar  Johor
Johor
Johor is a Malaysian state, located in the southern portion of Peninsular Malaysia. It is one of the most developed states in Malaysia. The state capital city and royal city of Johor is Johor Bahru, formerly known as Tanjung Puteri...

 
26 April 1984 – 25 April 1989 8 April 1932 22 January 2010
9 Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah  Perak
Perak
Perak , one of the 13 states of Malaysia, is the second largest state in the Peninsular Malaysia bordering Kedah and Yala Province of Thailand to the north, Penang to the northwest, Kelantan and Pahang to the east, Selangor the Strait of Malacca to the south and west.Perak means silver in Malay...

 
26 April 1989 – 25 April 1994 19 April 1928
10 Tuanku Jaafar
Tuanku Jaafar
Duli Yang Maha Mulia Almarhum Tuanku Ja'afar ibni Almarhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman, GCB was the tenth Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia from 26 April 1994 until 25 April 1999 and the fourth Yang di-Pertuan Besar of modern Negeri Sembilan.-Early life and education:The second son of Tuanku Abdul Rahman...

 
Negeri Sembilan
Negeri Sembilan
Negeri Sembilan, one of the 13 states that constitutes Malaysia, lies on the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia, just south of Kuala Lumpur and borders Selangor on the north, Pahang in the east, and Malacca and Johor to the south....

 
26 April 1994 – 25 April 1999 19 July 1922 27 December 2008
11 Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz  Selangor
Selangor
Selangor also known by its Arabic honorific, Darul Ehsan, or "Abode of Sincerity") is one of the 13 states of Malaysia. It is on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and is bordered by Perak to the north, Pahang to the east, Negeri Sembilan to the south and the Strait of Malacca to the west...

 
26 April 1999 – 21 November 2001 8 March 1926 21 November 2001
12 Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin  Perlis
Perlis
Perlis is the smallest state in Malaysia. It lies at the northern part of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and has Satun and Songkhla Provinces of Thailand on its northern border. It is bordered by the state of Kedah to the south...

 
13 December 2001 – 12 December 2006 17 May 1943
13 Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin  Terengganu
Terengganu
Terengganu is a sultanate and constitutive state of federal Malaysia. The state is also known by its Arabic honorific, Darul Iman...

 
13 December 2006 – 12 December 2011 22 January 1962
14 Tuanku Abdul Halim Kedah
Kedah
Kedah is a state of Malaysia, located in the northwestern part of Peninsular Malaysia. The state covers a total area of over 9,000 km², and it consists of the mainland and Langkawi. The mainland has a relatively flat terrain, which is used to grow rice...

 
*13 December 2011 28 November 1927

1. Tuanku Abdul Halim will be the first Yang di-Pertuan Agong to reign twice. He will also be the oldest to ascend the throne.

Royal Standards

The Royal Standard of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is royal yellow with the Coat of arms of Malaysia in the center, surrounded by a rice paddy wreath. The same goes for the Royal Standards of the Raja Permaisuri Agong and the Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong, but the designs are different. The Queen's Standard is green in color, with the coat of arms at the center surrounded by the paddy wreath. The Deputy Yang di-Peruan Agong's standard is bicolored, yellow at the top and light blue at the bottom, with the coat of arms at the center (without the paddy) and below that is the office bearer's title.

Royal Style

Formal address to the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is taken seriously in Malaysia. There are two ways of addressing the Yang di-Pertuan Agong:
  • Malay : Tuanku
  • English : Your Majesty

See also

  • Royal Regalia of Malaysia
    Royal Regalia of Malaysia
    The Royal Regalia of Malaysia includes all the items which are deemed sacred and symbolic of the supremacy and authority of His Majesty Yang di-Pertuan Agong or King of Malaysia and his consort, the Raja Permaisuri Agong...

  • Yang di-Pertuan Negara
    Yang di-Pertuan Negara
    Yang di-Pertuan Negara, meaning "Head of State" in Malay, was used as an official title at various times in Sabah, Singapore and Brunei.-Singapore:...

  • Malay titles
    Malay titles
    The Malay language has a complex system of titles and honorifics, which are still used extensively in Malaysia and Brunei. Singapore, whose Malay royalty was abolished by the British colonial government in 1891, has adopted civic titles for its leaders....

  • Elective monarchy
    Elective monarchy
    An elective monarchy is a monarchy ruled by an elected rather than hereditary monarch. The manner of election, the nature of the candidacy and the electors vary from case to case...

  • Raja Permaisuri Agong
    Raja Permaisuri Agong
    Raja Permaisuri Agong, or in full, Seri Paduka Baginda Raja Permaisuri Agong, is the title given to the Queen of Malaysia, consort of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong.The holders of this office have been:...


Further reading

  • Visu Sinnadurai, "His Majesty Sultan Azlan Shah: The Yang di-Pertuan Agong IX Malaysia", The Supreme Court Journal, Kuala Lumpur, ISSN 0128-066X. (Special issue to commemorate the installation of His Majesty Sultan Azlan Shah as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong IX Malaysia, with a lengthy description of the functions of the office)

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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