Wudu
Overview
Wuḍhu (Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

: الوضوء , Chechen
Chechen language
The Chechen language is spoken by more than 1.5 million people, mostly in Chechnya and by Chechen people elsewhere. It is a member of the Northeast Caucasian languages.-Classification:...

 Lamaz etsar, Albanian
Albanian language
Albanian is an Indo-European language spoken by approximately 7.6 million people, primarily in Albania and Kosovo but also in other areas of the Balkans in which there is an Albanian population, including western Macedonia, southern Montenegro, southern Serbia and northwestern Greece...

: avdes, Bosnian
Bosnian language
Bosnian is a South Slavic language, spoken by Bosniaks. As a standardized form of the Shtokavian dialect, it is one of the three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina....

: abdest, Kurdish
Kurdish language
Kurdish is a dialect continuum spoken by the Kurds in western Asia. It is part of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian group of Indo-European languages....

: destnivêj, Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

:آبدست ābdast, Turkish
Turkish language
Turkish is a language spoken as a native language by over 83 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Its speakers are located predominantly in Turkey and Northern Cyprus with smaller groups in Iraq, Greece, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo,...

: abdest, Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

: وضو wazū, Somali
Somali language
The Somali language is a member of the East Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. Its nearest relatives are Afar and Oromo. Somali is the best documented of the Cushitic languages, with academic studies beginning before 1900....

: weeso) is the Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

ic procedure for washing parts of the body using water often in preparation for formal prayers (salah). The Qur'an
Qur'an
The Quran , also transliterated Qur'an, Koran, Alcoran, Qur’ān, Coran, Kuran, and al-Qur’ān, is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God . It is regarded widely as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language...

 says "For Allah
God in Islam
In Islamic theology, God is the all-powerful and all-knowing creator, sustainer, ordainer, and judge of the universe. Islam puts a heavy emphasis on the conceptualization of God as strictly singular . God is unique and inherently One , all-merciful and omnipotent. According to the Islamic...

 loves those who turn to Him constantly and He loves those who keep themselves pure and clean."

Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

s are also required to be clean when handling and reading the Qur'an.
Encyclopedia
Wuḍhu (Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

: الوضوء , Chechen
Chechen language
The Chechen language is spoken by more than 1.5 million people, mostly in Chechnya and by Chechen people elsewhere. It is a member of the Northeast Caucasian languages.-Classification:...

 Lamaz etsar, Albanian
Albanian language
Albanian is an Indo-European language spoken by approximately 7.6 million people, primarily in Albania and Kosovo but also in other areas of the Balkans in which there is an Albanian population, including western Macedonia, southern Montenegro, southern Serbia and northwestern Greece...

: avdes, Bosnian
Bosnian language
Bosnian is a South Slavic language, spoken by Bosniaks. As a standardized form of the Shtokavian dialect, it is one of the three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina....

: abdest, Kurdish
Kurdish language
Kurdish is a dialect continuum spoken by the Kurds in western Asia. It is part of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian group of Indo-European languages....

: destnivêj, Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

:آبدست ābdast, Turkish
Turkish language
Turkish is a language spoken as a native language by over 83 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Its speakers are located predominantly in Turkey and Northern Cyprus with smaller groups in Iraq, Greece, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo,...

: abdest, Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

: وضو wazū, Somali
Somali language
The Somali language is a member of the East Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. Its nearest relatives are Afar and Oromo. Somali is the best documented of the Cushitic languages, with academic studies beginning before 1900....

: weeso) is the Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

ic procedure for washing parts of the body using water often in preparation for formal prayers (salah). The Qur'an
Qur'an
The Quran , also transliterated Qur'an, Koran, Alcoran, Qur’ān, Coran, Kuran, and al-Qur’ān, is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God . It is regarded widely as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language...

 says "For Allah
God in Islam
In Islamic theology, God is the all-powerful and all-knowing creator, sustainer, ordainer, and judge of the universe. Islam puts a heavy emphasis on the conceptualization of God as strictly singular . God is unique and inherently One , all-merciful and omnipotent. According to the Islamic...

 loves those who turn to Him constantly and He loves those who keep themselves pure and clean."

Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

s are also required to be clean when handling and reading the Qur'an. The Qur'an says "Which none shall touch but those who are clean." Purification of the body and clothes is called taharah. The Islamic prophet
Prophets of Islam
Muslims identify the Prophets of Islam as those humans chosen by God and given revelation to deliver to mankind. Muslims believe that every prophet was given a belief to worship God and their respective followers believed it as well...

 Muhammad
Muhammad
Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

 said that "Cleanliness is half of faith". To have taharah for the body, one should do either ghusl
Ghusl
Ghusl is an Arabic term referring to the full ablution required in Islam for various rituals and prayers. The ablution becomes mandatory for any adult Muslim after having sexual intercourse, any sexual discharge , completion of the menstrual cycle, giving birth, and death by natural causes.Islam...

 or wudu. Wudu is often translated as "partial ablution
Ritual purification
Ritual purification is a feature of many religions. The aim of these rituals is to remove specifically defined uncleanliness prior to a particular type of activity, and especially prior to the worship of a deity...

", as opposed to ghusl, or "full ablution
Ritual purification
Ritual purification is a feature of many religions. The aim of these rituals is to remove specifically defined uncleanliness prior to a particular type of activity, and especially prior to the worship of a deity...

".



It is recommended to recite Durood and Ayatul Kursi  after ablution

Permitted water types

  • Rain water
  • Well water
  • Spring, sea or river water
  • Water of melting snow or hail
  • Water of a big tank or pond

Mostly pure water

The acts of wudu

There are four fard
Fard
also is an Islamic term which denotes a religious duty. The word is also used in Persian, Turkish, and Urdu in the same meaning....

(obligatory) acts. If one of these acts is omitted, it must be returned to and then completion of the successive acts are to be performed.

There are other acts that are performed during wudu (coming from the sunnah
Sunnah
The word literally means a clear, well trodden, busy and plain surfaced road. In the discussion of the sources of religion, Sunnah denotes the practice of Prophet Muhammad that he taught and practically instituted as a teacher of the sharī‘ah and the best exemplar...

of Islamic prophet
Prophets of Islam
Muslims identify the Prophets of Islam as those humans chosen by God and given revelation to deliver to mankind. Muslims believe that every prophet was given a belief to worship God and their respective followers believed it as well...

 Muhammad
Muhammad
Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

 and Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam is the largest branch of Islam. Sunni Muslims are referred to in Arabic as ʾAhl ūs-Sunnah wa āl-Ǧamāʿah or ʾAhl ūs-Sunnah for short; in English, they are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnis or Sunnites....

ic scholars) and the detailed acts of the wudu can be classed into 3 types:

Farā'id according to Sunni Muslims

According to Sunni Muslims the Qur'anic mandate for wudu comes in the sixth ayat
Ayah
Ayah or Aayah is the Arabic word for sign or proof:"These are the Ayat of Allah, which We recite to you with truth...

of sura
Sura
A sura is a division of the Qur'an, often referred to as a chapter. The term chapter is sometimes avoided, as the suras are of unequal length; the shortest sura has only three ayat while the longest contains 286 ayat...

5. The ayat
Ayah
Ayah or Aayah is the Arabic word for sign or proof:"These are the Ayat of Allah, which We recite to you with truth...

 has been translated by Abdullah Yusuf Ali
Abdullah Yusuf Ali
Hafiz Abdullah Yusuf Ali, CBE, FRSL was an Indian Islamic scholar who translated the Qur'an into English. His translation of the Qur'an is one of the most widely-known and used in the English-speaking world....

, Pickthal
Marmaduke Pickthall
Marmaduke Pickthall was a Western Islamic scholar, noted as an English translator of the Qur'an into English. A convert from Christianity, Pickthall was a novelist, esteemed by D. H. Lawrence, H. G. Wells, and E. M. Forster, as well as a journalist, headmaster, and political and religious leader...

 and Maulana Muhammad Ali
Maulana Muhammad Ali
Muhammad Ali was a Pakistani writer, scholar, and leading figure of the Ahmadiyya Movement.-Biography:Ali was born in Punjab, British India, in 1874. He obtained an English and Law in 1899...

 as follows. Note these scholars translation refers to washing the feet.
  • Washing the face once.
  • Washing both the arms including the elbows once.
  • Performing masah
    Masah
    Masah refers to the act of ritually cleaning the head or feet with a small amount of water, running the wet hands over the head or feet before prayer in the Islamic faith...

    of one fourth of the head.
  • Washing both the feet once up to and including the ankles. It's not sufficient for one to pass wet hand over the feet or shoes. Under certain conditions masah can be done over leather socks known as khuffs.
  1. Narrated by Abd-Allah ibn Amr
    'Abd Allah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'As
    Abd Allah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'As , the son of 'Amr ibn al-'As, was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He was the author of "Al-Sahifah al-Sadiqah" , a hadith compilation document which recorded about one thousand of Muhammad's narrations.He embraced Islam in the year 7 AH a year before his...

    : "...we were just passing wet hands over our feet (not washing them thoroughly) so he addressed us in a loud voice saying twice or thrice, 'Save your heels from the fire.'."
  2. Narrated by 'Ubaid Ibn Juraij: "...and he used to perform ablution while wearing the shoes (i.e. wash his feet and then put on the shoes)."
  3. Narrated by Yahya Al-Mazini: " 'Can you show me how Allah's Apostle used to perform ablution?' ...and washed his feet (up to the ankles)."
  4. Narrated by 'Amr: "...and then he washed his feet up to the ankles."
  5. Narrated by Humran: "...and washed his feet up to the ankles..."
  6. Narrated by 'Amr bin Yahya: "...and washed his feet up to the ankles..."
  7. Narrated by 'Abdullah bin Zaid: "...and washed his feet (up to the ankles)."

Farā'id according to Shia Muslims

According to Shia Muslims the Qur'anic mandate for wudu comes in the sixth ayat of sura 5. The ayat
Ayah
Ayah or Aayah is the Arabic word for sign or proof:"These are the Ayat of Allah, which We recite to you with truth...

 has been translated by Muhammad Habib Shakir as follows. Note this scholars translation refers to wiping the feet.
  • Washing the face once.
  • Washing both the arms including the elbows once.
  • Wiping one fourth of the head.
  • Wiping both the feet once up to and including the ankles

Sunnah

Sunnah (optional - practised by Muhammad and according to Sunni Hadiths
Hadith
The term Hadīth is used to denote a saying or an act or tacit approval or criticism ascribed either validly or invalidly to the Islamic prophet Muhammad....

) acts.
  • Reciting bismillah
    Basmala
    Basmala or Bismillah is an Arabic noun used as a collective name for the whole of the recurring Islamic phrase b-ismi-llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīmi, It is sometimes translated as "In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful"...

    .
  • Intention of performing wudu.
  • Washing both the hands up to the wrists.
  • Rinsing the inner mouth.
  • Sniffing water and blowing it out
  • Passing of wet fingers between the fingers of the hand and feet.
  • Passing of wet fingers into the beard.
  • Brushing the teeth, preferably with a miswak
    Miswak
    The miswak is a teeth cleaning twig made from a twig of the Salvadora persica tree . It has a long, well-documented history and is reputed for its medicinal benefits...

    .
  • Wudu is done systematically.
  • Washing of each part one after the other without pause, so no part dries up before wudu is completed.
  • Washing each limb thrice.
  • Performing wudu towards the Qiblah

Mustahabbāt (recommended acts)

A handful of mustahabb
Mustahabb
Mustahabb is an Islamic term referring to recommended, favored or virtuous actions.-Definition:Mustahabb actions are those whose status of approval in Islamic law falls between mubah and wajib...

(recommended) acts that are considered to make the wudu better. If one of these acts is omitted, the wudu is still considered valid.
  • Reciting the shahadah
    Shahada
    The Shahada , means "to know and believe without suspicion, as if witnessed"/testification; it is the name of the Islamic creed. The shahada is the Muslim declaration of belief in the oneness of God and acceptance of Muhammad as God's prophet...

    after the ablution.
  • During wudu one should not engage in worldly talk.
  • Choosing a clean place for ablution.
  • Not wasting water in ablution.
  • Starting from the right side and then the left.

According to Sunni Muslims

Sunni Muslims perform the following:
  • Start by making niyyah
    Niyyah
    Niyyah, Niyyah, Niyyah, (also called niyah, niyya, niyyat or niyat (Arabic: نیّة) is an Islamic concept which is the intention one evokes in his heart to do an act for the sake of Allah (God)....

    (intention) to perform wudu and cleanse the self of impurities.
  • Say bismillah
    Basmala
    Basmala or Bismillah is an Arabic noun used as a collective name for the whole of the recurring Islamic phrase b-ismi-llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīmi, It is sometimes translated as "In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful"...

    .
  • Wash the right hand up to the wrist (and between the fingers) three times, then similarly for the left hand.
  • Rinse the mouth and spit out the water three times and rub the teeth with a miswak. If a miswak is not available then one should use the finger.
  • Gently put water into the nostrils with the right hand, pinch the top of the nose with the left hand to exhale the water. This is performed three times.
  • Wash the face (from the hairline on the forehead to where facial hair begins and ear to ear). This is to be performed three times.
  • Wash the entire right arm, including the hand, up to and including the elbow three times; then the left arm three times. Pass fingers of one hand between the fingers of the other hand. If wearing a ring it should be moved freely to allow water to pass under it.
  • Then perform masah. Wet hands should be passed all over the head; then the first finger of the right and left hand should be moved in the right and left ears respectively and in the same operation thumbs should be passed around the ears; then pass the backs of the hands over the hind part of the neck only. Hands should not be passed around the fore-neck as it is prohibited. This is only done once. One may not make masah over a Muslim head cap. Fresh water need not be taken for performing the masah of the ears.
  • Starting with the right foot, wash both feet from the toes up to and including the ankles thrice. The little finger of the left hand should be passed between the toes of both the feet beginning from the little toe of the right foot and ending with the little toe of the left foot.
  • Recite the shahadah.
  • Offer two-rak'at
    Raka'ah
    Rakaʿah are the prescribed movements and words followed by Muslims during salah .After turning to God in mind and ritual cleansing , the worshipper will stand quietly while reciting the first verses of the Qur'an. The second part of the rak'ah involves bowing low with hands on knees, as if...

     prayer.

According to Shia Muslims

Shia Muslims perform the following:
  • Make the intention to perform wudu in the heart.
  • Shape the right hand like a cup and take water into it. Then pour the water on the top of the forehead and wipe down with the right hand. It is obligatory to wash from the area where the hair normally grows to the chin.
  • Shape the left hand like a cup and take water into it. Afterwards, pour this water onto your right forearm
    Forearm
    -See also:*Forearm flexors*Forearm muscles...

     and wash your right forearm (covering the right forearm in water, leaving no spot dry). Wipe from the elbow to the fingers, and not from the fingers to the elbow.
  • Repeat this process except with the left forearm.
  • Without taking more water, wipe your hair from the middle down to the forehead
    Forehead
    For the Arsenal striker see GervinhoIn human anatomy, the forehead is the fore part of the head. It is, formally, an area of the head bounded by three features, two of the skull and one of the scalp. The top of the forehead is marked by the hairline, the edge of the area where hair on the scalp...

    , or vice versa, using the index finger of your right hand; it is mustahab to use three fingers. If you are balding
    Baldness
    Baldness implies partial or complete lack of hair and can be understood as part of the wider topic of "hair thinning". The degree and pattern of baldness can vary greatly, but its most common cause is male and female pattern baldness, also known as androgenic alopecia, alopecia androgenetica or...

    , you would wash your hair as if it were growing when you had a full head of hair. It is not permissible to wipe the hair over an obstacle (such as wiping a hat or a turban
    Turban
    In English, Turban refers to several types of headwear popularly worn in the Middle East, North Africa, Punjab, Jamaica and Southwest Asia. A commonly used synonym is Pagri, the Indian word for turban.-Styles:...

     instead of the hair/skin). It is not obligatory to wipe the actual skin on the head. If, however, the hair isn't growing from the area you are wiping (such as if you have a comb over
    Comb over
    A comb over or combover is a hairstyle worn by bald or balding men in which the hair on one side of the head is grown long and then combed over the bald area to minimize the display of baldness. A variation of the comb over where baldness is concealed by long hair combed in three separate...

    ), then you must move the hair to where it belongs and wipe the skin.
  • Without taking more water, wipe the top of your right foot with your right hand. You only wipe once and with a swiping motion. It is not allowed to wipe the shoe, sock, etc. You must always wipe the skin of the feet unless there is an extreme reason.
  • Do the same thing, except using your left hand and wiping your left foot.


Imam
Imamah (Shi'a doctrine)
Imāmah is the Shia doctrine of religious, spiritual and political leadership of the Ummah. The Shīa believe that the A'immah are the true Caliphs or rightful successors of Muḥammad, and further that Imams are possessed of divine knowledge and authority as well as being part of the Ahl al-Bayt,...

 Ali
Ali
' |Ramaḍān]], 40 AH; approximately October 23, 598 or 600 or March 17, 599 – January 27, 661).His father's name was Abu Talib. Ali was also the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and ruled over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661, and was the first male convert to Islam...

 and the other imam
Imam
An imam is an Islamic leadership position, often the worship leader of a mosque and the Muslim community. Similar to spiritual leaders, the imam is the one who leads Islamic worship services. More often, the community turns to the mosque imam if they have a religious question...

s have stated that there are mustahab, or recommended actions to wudu along with the above mentioned method. These acts are recommended:
  • Washing the hands twice.
  • Gargling the mouth three times.
  • Rinsing the nose three times.
  • Washing the face twice and the arms twice. It is not permissible to wipe the head and the feet twice (unless it is because one missed a spot) and that it is not permissible to wash the face and the arms three times.

Invalidation

Theoretically, one can perform one wudu for salaat and this wudu would be considered valid for the rest of the day. However, traditionally Muslims believe that certain acts invalidate the wudu (often referred to as "breaking wudu") and these can be stated generically thus, although Quran does not explain most of these:
  • Defecation, passing gas or urination
  • Emission of semen
  • Sleep while reclining
  • Vomiting
  • Loss of senses
  • Fainting
  • Laughing aloud whilst in Salah
  • Sexual contact with another person (ghusl is required)


Some Muslims consider the below actions will also invalidate wudu, although Quran does not explain this:
  • Touching the private parts
    Intimate part
    An intimate, personal, or private part is a place on the human body which is customarily kept covered by clothing in public venues and conventional settings, as a matter of decency, decorum, and respectfulness...

     with the bare hands
  • Blood or pus leaving the body so that it leaves the point of exit (however if the blood or pus exits from the private parts than any amount breaks wudu)
  • Touching a person of the opposite gender who is not your blood/milk relative (E.g.: your spouse)


According to Quran, Wudu is nullified by the following causes:
  • urinary
  • fecal-related excretion (such as gas)
  • contact with the opposite gender (sexually)

Tayammum

Tayammum is a "dry ablution" using clean soil, rock,to be performed when water is not readily available to perform ablution or when one is defiled (on janabah) and could not perform ghusl, and is authorised under specific circumstances.

Wudu description in Hadith

Wudu in Hadith
Abu Hurayra
Abu Hurairah
Abu Hurairah , was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the narrator of Hadith most quoted in the isnad by Sunnis.-Early life:...

, in reference to the Day of Resurrection, reported that Muhammad, when asked if he would be able to recognise Muslims, said, "Yes, you would have a mark which other people will not have. You would come to me with a white blaze on your foreheads and white marks on your feet because of the traces of ablution."

Abu Hurayra said, "I have heard my Friend (may peace be upon him) say. In a believer adornment would reach the places where ablution reaches."

Uthman ibn Affan stated that Muhammad, said, "He who performed ablution well, his sins would come out from his body, even coming out from under his nails."

'Umar ibn al-Khattab
Umar
`Umar ibn al-Khattāb c. 2 November , was a leading companion and adviser to the Islamic prophet Muhammad who later became the second Muslim Caliph after Muhammad's death....

reported that Muhammad said, "No one among you does wudu and does wudu thoroughly -– or adequately - and then testifies, 'There is no god but Allah Alone with no partner and I testify that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger' without the eight doors of the Garden being opened to him so that he can enter by whichever of them he wishes."

External links

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