Weber (unit)

Encyclopedia

In physics

, the

unit of magnetic flux

. A

.

The weber is named for the German

physicist Wilhelm Eduard Weber

(1804–1891).

, which relates a changing magnetic flux

through a loop to the electric field

around the loop. A change in flux of one weber per second

will induce an electromotive force

of one volt

(produce an electric potential difference of one volt across two open-circuited terminals).

Officially,

In SI base unit

s, the dimensions of the weber are (kg·m

(known as "The BA") established a committee under William Thomson (later Lord Kelvin) to study electrical units. In a February 1902 manuscript, with handwritten notes of Oliver Heaviside

, Giovanni Giorgi

proposed a set of rational units of electromagnetism including the weber, noting that "the product of the volt into the second has been called the

began work on terminology in 1909 and established Technical Committee 1 in 1911, its oldest established committee, "to sanction the terms and definitions used in the different electrotechnical fields and to determine the equivalence of the terms used in the different languages."

In 1930, TC1 decided that the magnetic field strength (

In 1935, TC 1 recommended names for several electrical units, including the weber for the practical unit of magnetic flux (and the maxwell

for the CGS unit).

Also in 1935, TC1 passed responsibility for "electric and magnetic magnitudes and units" to the new TC24. This "led eventually to the universal adoption of the Giorgi system, which unified electromagnetic units with the MKS

dimensional system of units, the whole now known simply as the SI

system (Système International d’unités)."

In 1938, TC24 "recommended as a connecting link [from mechanical to electrical units] the permeability of free space

with the value of

, ampere

, volt

, henry, farad

, coulomb, and weber), could equally serve as the fourth fundamental unit. "After consultation, the ampere was adopted as the fourth unit of the Giorgi system in Paris in 1950."

Physics

Physics is a natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through spacetime, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.Physics is one of the oldest academic...

, the

**weber**(symbol: Wb; icon, ˈ, or ˈ) is the SISi

Si, si, or SI may refer to :- Measurement, mathematics and science :* International System of Units , the modern international standard version of the metric system...

unit of magnetic flux

Magnetic flux

Magnetic flux , is a measure of the amount of magnetic B field passing through a given surface . The SI unit of magnetic flux is the weber...

. A

*flux density*of one Wb/m^{2}(one weber per square meter) is one teslaTesla (unit)

The tesla is the SI derived unit of magnetic field B . One tesla is equal to one weber per square meter, and it was defined in 1960 in honour of the inventor, physicist, and electrical engineer Nikola Tesla...

.

The weber is named for the German

Germany

Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

physicist Wilhelm Eduard Weber

Wilhelm Eduard Weber

Wilhelm Eduard Weber was a German physicist and, together with Carl Friedrich Gauss, inventor of the first electromagnetic telegraph.-Early years:...

(1804–1891).

## Definition

The weber may be defined in terms of Faraday's lawFaraday's law of induction

Faraday's law of induction dates from the 1830s, and is a basic law of electromagnetism relating to the operating principles of transformers, inductors, and many types of electrical motors and generators...

, which relates a changing magnetic flux

Magnetic flux

Magnetic flux , is a measure of the amount of magnetic B field passing through a given surface . The SI unit of magnetic flux is the weber...

through a loop to the electric field

Electric field

In physics, an electric field surrounds electrically charged particles and time-varying magnetic fields. The electric field depicts the force exerted on other electrically charged objects by the electrically charged particle the field is surrounding...

around the loop. A change in flux of one weber per second

Second

The second is a unit of measurement of time, and is the International System of Units base unit of time. It may be measured using a clock....

will induce an electromotive force

Electromotive force

In physics, electromotive force, emf , or electromotance refers to voltage generated by a battery or by the magnetic force according to Faraday's Law, which states that a time varying magnetic field will induce an electric current.It is important to note that the electromotive "force" is not a...

of one volt

Volt

The volt is the SI derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference, and electromotive force. The volt is named in honor of the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta , who invented the voltaic pile, possibly the first chemical battery.- Definition :A single volt is defined as the...

(produce an electric potential difference of one volt across two open-circuited terminals).

Officially,

Weber (unit of magnetic flux) — The weber is the magnetic flux which, linking a circuit of one turn, would produce in it an electromotive force of 1 volt if it were reduced to zero at a uniform rate in 1 second.

In SI base unit

SI base unit

The International System of Units defines seven units of measure as a basic set from which all other SI units are derived. These SI base units and their physical quantities are:* metre for length...

s, the dimensions of the weber are (kg·m

^{2})/(s^{2}·A). The weber is commonly expressed in terms of other derived units as the Tesla-square meter (T·m^{2}), volt-seconds (V·s), or joules per ampere (J/A).- 1 Wb = 1 V·s = 1 T·m
^{2}= 1 J/A = 10^{8}Mx (maxwellsMaxwell (unit)The maxwell, abbreviated as Mx, is the compound derived CGS unit of magnetic flux. The unit was previously called a line. The unit name honours James Clerk Maxwell, who presented the unified theory of electromagnetism, and was established by the IEC in 1930.In a magnetic field of strength one...

).

## History

In 1861, the British Association for the Advancement of ScienceBritish Association for the Advancement of Science

frame|right|"The BA" logoThe British Association for the Advancement of Science or the British Science Association, formerly known as the BA, is a learned society with the object of promoting science, directing general attention to scientific matters, and facilitating interaction between...

(known as "The BA") established a committee under William Thomson (later Lord Kelvin) to study electrical units. In a February 1902 manuscript, with handwritten notes of Oliver Heaviside

Oliver Heaviside

Oliver Heaviside was a self-taught English electrical engineer, mathematician, and physicist who adapted complex numbers to the study of electrical circuits, invented mathematical techniques to the solution of differential equations , reformulated Maxwell's field equations in terms of electric and...

, Giovanni Giorgi

Giovanni Giorgi

Giovanni Giorgi was an Italian electrical engineer who invented the Giorgi system of measurement, the precursor to the International System ....

proposed a set of rational units of electromagnetism including the weber, noting that "the product of the volt into the second has been called the

*weber*by the B. A." The International Electrotechnical CommissionInternational Electrotechnical Commission

The International Electrotechnical Commission is a non-profit, non-governmental international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology"...

began work on terminology in 1909 and established Technical Committee 1 in 1911, its oldest established committee, "to sanction the terms and definitions used in the different electrotechnical fields and to determine the equivalence of the terms used in the different languages."

It was not until 1927 that TC1 dealt with the study of various outstanding problems concerning electrical and magnetic quantities and units. Discussions of a theoretical nature were opened at which eminent electrical engineers and physicists considered whether magnetic field strength and magnetic flux density were in fact quantities of the same nature. As disagreement continued, the IEC decided on an effort to remedy the situation. It instructed a task force to study the question in readiness for the next meeting.

In 1930, TC1 decided that the magnetic field strength (

**H**) is of a different nature than the magnetic flux density (**B**), and took up the question of naming the units for these fields and related quantities, among them the integral of magnetic flux density.In 1935, TC 1 recommended names for several electrical units, including the weber for the practical unit of magnetic flux (and the maxwell

Maxwell (unit)

The maxwell, abbreviated as Mx, is the compound derived CGS unit of magnetic flux. The unit was previously called a line. The unit name honours James Clerk Maxwell, who presented the unified theory of electromagnetism, and was established by the IEC in 1930.In a magnetic field of strength one...

for the CGS unit).

It was decided to extend the existing series of practical units into a complete comprehensive system of physical units, the recommendation being adopted in 1935 "that the system with four fundamental units proposed by Professor Giorgi be adopted subject to the fourth fundamental unit being eventually selected". This system was given the designation of "Giorgi system".

Also in 1935, TC1 passed responsibility for "electric and magnetic magnitudes and units" to the new TC24. This "led eventually to the universal adoption of the Giorgi system, which unified electromagnetic units with the MKS

Mks system of units

The MKS system of units is a physical system of units that expresses any given measurement using fundamental units of the metre, kilogram, and/or second ....

dimensional system of units, the whole now known simply as the SI

Si

Si, si, or SI may refer to :- Measurement, mathematics and science :* International System of Units , the modern international standard version of the metric system...

system (Système International d’unités)."

In 1938, TC24 "recommended as a connecting link [from mechanical to electrical units] the permeability of free space

Vacuum permeability

The physical constant μ0, commonly called the vacuum permeability, permeability of free space, or magnetic constant is an ideal, physical constant, which is the value of magnetic permeability in a classical vacuum...

with the value of

*µ*_{0}= 4π H/m. This group also recognized that any one of the practical units already in use (ohmOhm

The ohm is the SI unit of electrical resistance, named after German physicist Georg Simon Ohm.- Definition :The ohm is defined as a resistance between two points of a conductor when a constant potential difference of 1 volt, applied to these points, produces in the conductor a current of 1 ampere,...

, ampere

Ampere

The ampere , often shortened to amp, is the SI unit of electric current and is one of the seven SI base units. It is named after André-Marie Ampère , French mathematician and physicist, considered the father of electrodynamics...

, volt

Volt

The volt is the SI derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference, and electromotive force. The volt is named in honor of the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta , who invented the voltaic pile, possibly the first chemical battery.- Definition :A single volt is defined as the...

, henry, farad

Farad

The farad is the SI unit of capacitance. The unit is named after the English physicist Michael Faraday.- Definition :A farad is the charge in coulombs which a capacitor will accept for the potential across it to change 1 volt. A coulomb is 1 ampere second...

, coulomb, and weber), could equally serve as the fourth fundamental unit. "After consultation, the ampere was adopted as the fourth unit of the Giorgi system in Paris in 1950."