Water tank
Overview
 
A Water tank is a container for storing water. The need for a water tank is as old as civilized man, providing storage of water for drinking water
Drinking water
Drinking water or potable water is water pure enough to be consumed or used with low risk of immediate or long term harm. In most developed countries, the water supplied to households, commerce and industry is all of drinking water standard, even though only a very small proportion is actually...

, irrigation
Irrigation
Irrigation may be defined as the science of artificial application of water to the land or soil. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall...

 agriculture, fire
Fire
Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products. Slower oxidative processes like rusting or digestion are not included by this definition....

 suppression, agricultural farming, both for plants and livestock, chemical manufacturing, food preparation as well as many other applications.

Chemical contact tank of FDA and NSF polyethylene construction, allows for retention time for chemical treatment chemicals to "contact" ( chemically treat ) with product water.
Encyclopedia
A Water tank is a container for storing water. The need for a water tank is as old as civilized man, providing storage of water for drinking water
Drinking water
Drinking water or potable water is water pure enough to be consumed or used with low risk of immediate or long term harm. In most developed countries, the water supplied to households, commerce and industry is all of drinking water standard, even though only a very small proportion is actually...

, irrigation
Irrigation
Irrigation may be defined as the science of artificial application of water to the land or soil. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall...

 agriculture, fire
Fire
Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products. Slower oxidative processes like rusting or digestion are not included by this definition....

 suppression, agricultural farming, both for plants and livestock, chemical manufacturing, food preparation as well as many other applications.

Chemical contact tank of FDA and NSF polyethylene construction, allows for retention time for chemical treatment chemicals to "contact" ( chemically treat ) with product water. (black tank in foreground)
Various materials are used for making a water tank: plastics (polyethylene
Polyethylene
Polyethylene or polythene is the most widely used plastic, with an annual production of approximately 80 million metric tons...

, polypropylene
Polypropylene
Polypropylene , also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications including packaging, textiles , stationery, plastic parts and reusable containers of various types, laboratory equipment, loudspeakers, automotive components, and polymer banknotes...

), fiberglass
Fiberglass
Glass fiber is a material consisting of numerous extremely fine fibers of glass.Glassmakers throughout history have experimented with glass fibers, but mass manufacture of glass fiber was only made possible with the invention of finer machine tooling...

, concrete
Concrete
Concrete is a composite construction material, composed of cement and other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement, aggregate , water and chemical admixtures.The word concrete comes from the Latin word...

, stone
Rock (geology)
In geology, rock or stone is a naturally occurring solid aggregate of minerals and/or mineraloids.The Earth's outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made of rock. In general rocks are of three types, namely, igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic...

, steel
Steel
Steel is an alloy that consists mostly of iron and has a carbon content between 0.2% and 2.1% by weight, depending on the grade. Carbon is the most common alloying material for iron, but various other alloying elements are used, such as manganese, chromium, vanadium, and tungsten...

 (welded or bolted, carbon, or stainless), Earthen ponds function as water storage.

Materials used in the manufacture of the tanks shown in picture:

Ground water tank is made of lined carbon steel, it may receive water from a water well or from surface water allowing a large volume of water to be placed in inventory and used during peak demand cycles.

Elevated Water Tank is also known as a water tower
Water tower
A water tower or elevated water tower is a large elevated drinking water storage container constructed to hold a water supply at a height sufficient to pressurize a water distribution system....

, an elevated water tower will create pressure at the ground-level outlet of 1 psi per 2.31 feet of elevation, thus a tank elevated to 70 feet creates about 30 psi of discharge pressure. 30 psi is sufficient for most domestic and industrial requirements. (background legs shown)

Water tank parameters include the general design of the tank, its materials of construction, as well as the following.

1. Location of the water tank (indoors, outdoors, above ground or underground)

2. Volume of water tank will need to hold

3. What the water will be used for.

4. Temperature of area where water will be stored, concern for freezing.

5. Pressure requirements, domestic pressures range from 35-60 PSI

6. How is the water to be delivered into and extracted, pumped out of the water tank.

7. Wind and Earthquake design considerations allow water tanks to survive seismic and high wind events.

8. Back flow prevention

9. Chemical injection for bacteria and virus control

Fire Water Tank Horizontal truck or trailer mounted water tank designed to deliver water to remote fires, where fire hydrant may not be available and a stationary tank provides standby water to fight the same type of remote fires.

Throughout history, wood
Wood
Wood is a hard, fibrous tissue found in many trees. It has been used for hundreds of thousands of years for both fuel and as a construction material. It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers embedded in a matrix of lignin which resists compression...

, ceramic
Ceramic
A ceramic is an inorganic, nonmetallic solid prepared by the action of heat and subsequent cooling. Ceramic materials may have a crystalline or partly crystalline structure, or may be amorphous...

 and stone
Rock (geology)
In geology, rock or stone is a naturally occurring solid aggregate of minerals and/or mineraloids.The Earth's outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made of rock. In general rocks are of three types, namely, igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic...

 have been used as water tanks. These were all naturally occurring and manmade and some tanks are still in service.

The Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization that was located in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, consisting of what is now mainly modern-day Pakistan and northwest India...

 (3000–1500 BC) made use of granaries
Granary
A granary is a storehouse for threshed grain or animal feed. In ancient or primitive granaries, pottery is the most common use of storage in these buildings. Granaries are often built above the ground to keep the stored food away from mice and other animals.-Early origins:From ancient times grain...

 and water tanks.http://www.eapen.com/jacob/report/indus.html Medieval castle
Castle
A castle is a type of fortified structure built in Europe and the Middle East during the Middle Ages by European nobility. Scholars debate the scope of the word castle, but usually consider it to be the private fortified residence of a lord or noble...

s needed water tanks for the defenders to withstand a siege.http://www.smr.herefordshire.gov.uk A wooden water tank found at the Año Nuevo State Reserve
Año Nuevo State Reserve
Año Nuevo State Park is a state park of California, USA, encompassing Año Nuevo Island and Año Nuevo Point, which are known for their pinniped rookeries. Located in San Mateo County, the low, rocky, windswept point juts out into the Pacific Ocean about south of San Francisco and the Golden Gate...

 (California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

) was restored to functionality after being found completely overgrown with ivy
Ivy
Ivy, plural ivies is a genus of 12–15 species of evergreen climbing or ground-creeping woody plants in the family Araliaceae, native to western, central and southern Europe, Macaronesia, northwestern Africa and across central-southern Asia east to Japan and Taiwan.-Description:On level ground they...

. It had been built in 1884.http://www.parks.ca.gov/?page_id=23035

Vertical cylindrical dome top tank may hold from fifty gallons to several million gallons. Horizontal cylindrical tank are typically used for transport; this low-profile transport storage creates a low center of gravity helping to maintain equilibrium for the transport vehicle, trailer or truck.

Hydro-pneumatic tank is typically a horizontal pressurized storage tank. Pressurizing this reservoir of water creates a surge free delivery of stored water into the distribution system.

Custom configurations includ rectangular, cube shaped, cone bottom and special shapes for specific design requirements.

By design a water tank/container should do no harm to the water. Water is susceptible to a number of ambient negative influences, including bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria are a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals...

, viruses, algae
Algae
Algae are a large and diverse group of simple, typically autotrophic organisms, ranging from unicellular to multicellular forms, such as the giant kelps that grow to 65 meters in length. They are photosynthetic like plants, and "simple" because their tissues are not organized into the many...

, changes in pH
PH
In chemistry, pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. Pure water is said to be neutral, with a pH close to 7.0 at . Solutions with a pH less than 7 are said to be acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic or alkaline...

, and accumulation of minerals, accumulated gas
Gas
Gas is one of the three classical states of matter . Near absolute zero, a substance exists as a solid. As heat is added to this substance it melts into a liquid at its melting point , boils into a gas at its boiling point, and if heated high enough would enter a plasma state in which the electrons...

. A correctly designed water tank works to address and mitigate these negative effects.

Copper Poisoning: a fasely based news article, linked copper poisoning a plastic tank, the article indicated that rainwater was collected and stored in a plastic tank and that the tank did nothing to mitigate the low Ph. The water was then brought into homes with copper piping, the copper was released by the high acid rainwater and caused poisoning in humans. It is important to note that while the plastic tank is an inert container, it has no effect on the incoming water. Good practice would be to analyze any water source periodically and treat accordingly, in this case the collected acid rain should be analyzed, and ph adjusted before being brought into a domestic water supply system.

The release of copper due to acidic water is monitored may be accomlished with a variety of technology, beginning with Ph strips and going to more sophisticated Ph monitors, indicate Ph which when acidic or caustic, some with output communication capabilities. There is no "linkage" between the plastic tank and copper poisoning, a solution to the problem is easy, monitor 'stored rainwater' with 'swimming pool strips' cheap and available at, swimming pool supply outlets. If the water is too acidic, contact state/county/local health officials to obtain advice and precise solutions and ph limits and guidelines as to what should be used to treat rainwater to be used as domestic drinking water...

Tank Volume in US Gallons
Volumes of simple tank geometry may be calculated as follows. Beginning with the fact that a cubic foot contains 7.48 gallons.
A cube or rectangle is calculated at (length) times (width) times (height) (cubic feet) times (7.48)= gallons.

For a cylinder volume is calculated at Pi (3.14) times (radius squared) times (height) (cubic feet) times(7.48)= gallons.

Articles and specifications for Water Tank applications and design considerations:
American Water Works Association
American Water Works Association
American Water Works Association was established as an international non-profit professional organization dedicated to the improvement of water quality and supply. Founded in 1881, it claims a membership of around 56,000 members worldwide as of 2010.AWWA has become the largest organization of...

 The AWWA is a reservoir of water tank knowledge; the association provides specifications for a variety of water storage tank applications as well as design. The AWWA's site provides scientific resources with which the reader will be able to develop an informed perspective on which to make decisions regarding their water tank requirements.

Other uses

Architecture
Architecture
Architecture is both the process and product of planning, designing and construction. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural and political symbols and as works of art...

 Dampening of highrise building movement by using a highly placed volume water tank, the volume of water creates an inertia movement opposite to the building movement, slowing the building's movement, sway.

See also

  • Cistern
    Cistern
    A cistern is a waterproof receptacle for holding liquids, usually water. Cisterns are often built to catch and store rainwater. Cisterns are distinguished from wells by their waterproof linings...

  • Chemical tank
    Chemical tank
    Chemical tanks are storage containers for chemicals. They come in a variety of sizes and shapes, and are used for static storage, mixing, and transport of both raw materials and finished chemical products.-Design:...

  • Domestic water system
  • Drinking water
    Drinking water
    Drinking water or potable water is water pure enough to be consumed or used with low risk of immediate or long term harm. In most developed countries, the water supplied to households, commerce and industry is all of drinking water standard, even though only a very small proportion is actually...

  • Electropump
  • Hand pump
    Hand pump
    Hand pumps are manually operated pumps; they use human power and mechanical advantage to move fluids or air from one place to another. They are widely used in every country in the world for a variety of industrial, marine, irrigation and leisure activities...

  • Household drinking water storage
    Safe Household Water Storage
    Safe household water storage is a critical component of a Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage system being promoted by the World Health Organization worldwide in areas that do not have piped drinking water. In these areas it is not uncommon for drinking water to be stored in a pot, jar,...

  • Rainwater tank
    Rainwater tank
    A rainwater tank is a water tank used to collect and store rain water runoff, typically from rooftops via rain gutters...

  • Water tower
    Water tower
    A water tower or elevated water tower is a large elevated drinking water storage container constructed to hold a water supply at a height sufficient to pressurize a water distribution system....

  • Water
    Water
    Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. A water molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state . Water also exists in a...

  • Potable water diver
    Potable water diver
    A potable water diver works in a potable water tank performing inspection and cleaning tasks.Certified commercial divers can inspect water storage tanks, towers and clearwells without draining them or taking them out of service...

  • Portable water tank
    Portable water tank
    A portable water tank is a collapsible temporary tank designed for the reserve storage of water in firefighting, emergency relief, and military applications. These tanks can be either supported or unsupported. The supported tanks have a steel or aluminum frame and range in size from 600 to 5000 US...

  • intermediate bulk container
    Intermediate bulk container
    An Intermediate bulk container is a container used for transport and storage of fluids and bulk materials. The construction of the IBC container and the materials used are chosen depending on the application, i.e...

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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