Warsaw Ghetto
Overview
 
The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of all Jewish Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. It was established in the Polish capital
Warsaw
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly from the Baltic Sea and from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population in 2010 was estimated at 1,716,855 residents with a greater metropolitan area of 2,631,902 residents, making Warsaw the 10th most...

 between October and November 15, 1940, in the territory of General Government
General Government
The General Government was an area of Second Republic of Poland under Nazi German rule during World War II; designated as a separate region of the Third Reich between 1939–1945...

 of the German-occupied Poland, with over 400,000 Jews from the vicinity crammed into an area of 1.3 square miles (3.4 km²). From there, about 254,000 Ghetto residents were sent to Treblinka extermination camp
Treblinka extermination camp
Treblinka was a Nazi extermination camp in occupied Poland during World War II near the village of Treblinka in the modern-day Masovian Voivodeship of Poland. The camp, which was constructed as part of Operation Reinhard, operated between and ,. During this time, approximately 850,000 men, women...

 during the two months of summer 1942.
Unanswered Questions
Encyclopedia
The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of all Jewish Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. It was established in the Polish capital
Warsaw
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly from the Baltic Sea and from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population in 2010 was estimated at 1,716,855 residents with a greater metropolitan area of 2,631,902 residents, making Warsaw the 10th most...

 between October and November 15, 1940, in the territory of General Government
General Government
The General Government was an area of Second Republic of Poland under Nazi German rule during World War II; designated as a separate region of the Third Reich between 1939–1945...

 of the German-occupied Poland, with over 400,000 Jews from the vicinity crammed into an area of 1.3 square miles (3.4 km²). From there, about 254,000 Ghetto residents were sent to Treblinka extermination camp
Treblinka extermination camp
Treblinka was a Nazi extermination camp in occupied Poland during World War II near the village of Treblinka in the modern-day Masovian Voivodeship of Poland. The camp, which was constructed as part of Operation Reinhard, operated between and ,. During this time, approximately 850,000 men, women...

 during the two months of summer 1942. The sheer death-toll among the Jewish inhabitants of the Ghetto during the Großaktion Warschau
Grossaktion Warsaw (1942)
The Grossaktion or Gross-Aktion in Warsaw was a Nazi German operation of mass extermination of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto beginning July 22, 1942. It was a key part of the countrywide Operation Reinhard headed by the SS- und Polizeiführer Odilo Globocnik...

 would have been difficult to compare even with the liquidation of the Ghetto in spring of next year during and after the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising was the Jewish resistance that arose within the Warsaw Ghetto in German occupied Poland during World War II, and which opposed Nazi Germany's effort to transport the remaining ghetto population to Treblinka extermination camp....

 which meant annihilation of additional 50,000 people followed by the actual razing of the ghetto. With the inclusion of the Ghetto falling at least 300,000 Polish Jews lost their lives there.

Creation

The Warsaw Ghetto was established by the German Governor-General
General Government
The General Government was an area of Second Republic of Poland under Nazi German rule during World War II; designated as a separate region of the Third Reich between 1939–1945...

 Hans Frank
Hans Frank
Hans Michael Frank was a German lawyer who worked for the Nazi party during the 1920s and 1930s and later became a high-ranking official in Nazi Germany...

 on October 16, 1940. Frank ordered Jews in Warsaw
Warsaw
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly from the Baltic Sea and from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population in 2010 was estimated at 1,716,855 residents with a greater metropolitan area of 2,631,902 residents, making Warsaw the 10th most...

 and its suburbs rounded up and herded into the Ghetto. At this time, the population in the Ghetto was estimated to be 400,000 people, about 30% of the population of Warsaw; however, the size of the Ghetto was about 2.4% of the size of Warsaw. The ghetto was split into two areas, the "small ghetto", generally inhabited by richer Jews and the "large ghetto", where conditions were more difficult; the two ghettos were linked by a single footbridge. The Nazis then closed the Warsaw Ghetto to the outside world on November 16, 1940 by building a wall topped with barbed wire
Barbed wire
Barbed wire, also known as barb wire , is a type of fencing wire constructed with sharp edges or points arranged at intervals along the strand. It is used to construct inexpensive fences and is used atop walls surrounding secured property...

, and deploying armed guards.

Administration of the Ghetto

Like all the Ghettos in Poland, the Germans ascribed the administration to a Judenrat
Judenrat
Judenräte were administrative bodies during the Second World War that the Germans required Jews to form in the German occupied territory of Poland, and later in the occupied territories of the Soviet Union It is the overall term for the enforcement bodies established by the Nazi occupiers to...

 (a council of the Jews), led by an "" (the eldest). In Warsaw this role was attributed to Adam Czerniaków
Adam Czerniaków
Adam Czerniaków , born in Warsaw, Poland, was a Polish-Jewish engineer and senator to the prewar Polish Sejm for Nonpartisan Bloc for Cooperation with the Government...

, who chose a policy of collaboration with the Nazis rather than revolt. Adam Czerniaków confided his harrowing experience in several diaries. He became aware of his own tragic duplicity in July 1942 and committed suicide.

Although his personality has remained less infamous than Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski
Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski
Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski was a Polish Jew and functioned as the German Nazi-nominated head of the Ältestenrat , or Jewish authorities in the Łódź Ghetto....

, the "Ältester" of the Lodz Ghetto, Adam Czerniaków's collaboration with the Nazi policy is the paradigm of the attitude of the majority of the European Jews vis à vis Nazism. The Jewish collaboration authority was supported by a Jewish Ghetto Police
Jewish Ghetto Police
Jewish Ghetto Police , also known as the Jewish Police Service and referred to by the Jews as the Jewish Police, were the auxiliary police units organized in the Jewish ghettos of Europe by local Judenrat councils under orders of occupying German Nazis.Members of the did not have official...

. According to Lucy S. Dawidowicz:
But she adds:

Conditions

During the next year and a half, thousands of Polish Jews as well as some Romani people from smaller cities and the countryside were brought into the Ghetto, while diseases (especially typhus
Typhus
Epidemic typhus is a form of typhus so named because the disease often causes epidemics following wars and natural disasters...

), and starvation kept the inhabitants at about the same number. Average food rations in 1941 for Jews in Warsaw were limited to 186 calories, compared to 1,669 calories for gentile
Gentile
The term Gentile refers to non-Israelite peoples or nations in English translations of the Bible....

 Poles and 2,614 calories for Germans.

Unemployment was a major problem in the ghetto. Illegal workshops were created to manufacture goods to be sold illegally on the outside and raw goods were smuggled in, often by children. Hundreds of four to five year old Jewish children went across en masse to the "Aryan
Aryan race
The Aryan race is a concept historically influential in Western culture in the period of the late 19th century and early 20th century. It derives from the idea that the original speakers of the Indo-European languages and their descendants up to the present day constitute a distinctive race or...

 side," sometimes several times a day, smuggling food into the ghettos, returning with goods that often weighed more than they did. Smuggling was often the only source of subsistence for Ghetto inhabitants, who would otherwise have died of starvation. Despite the grave hardships, life in the Warsaw Ghetto was rich with educational and cultural activities, conducted by its underground organizations. Hospitals, public soup kitchens, orphanages, refugee centers and recreation facilities were formed, as well as a school system. Some schools were illegal and operated under the guise of a soup kitchen. There were secret libraries, classes for the children and even a symphony orchestra. The life in the ghetto was chronicle
Chronicle
Generally a chronicle is a historical account of facts and events ranged in chronological order, as in a time line. Typically, equal weight is given for historically important events and local events, the purpose being the recording of events that occurred, seen from the perspective of the...

d by the Oyneg Shabbos
Oyneg Shabbos (group)
Oyneg Shabbos was the code name of a group led by Jewish historian Dr. Emanuel Ringelblum in the Warsaw Ghetto during the Nazi-German occupation of Warsaw in World War II. The group, which included historians, writers, rabbis and social workers, was dedicated to chronicling life in the Ghetto...

 group. In May 1942 a propaganda film was filmed in Warsaw ghetto- the A Film Unfinished
A Film Unfinished
A Film Unfinished is a 2010 documentary film by Yael Hersonski, which re-examines the making of an unfinished 1942 Nazi propaganda film of the Warsaw Ghetto two months before its liquidation in a Nazi operation known as the Grossaktion Warsaw...

 which however was never shown.

Over 100,000 of the Ghetto's residents died due to rampant disease or starvation, as well as random killings, even before the Nazis began massive deportations of the inhabitants from the Ghetto's Umschlagplatz
Umschlagplatz
In the Holocaust, the Umschlagplatz in the Warsaw Ghetto was where Jews gathered for deportation to the Treblinka extermination camp.During the Grossaktion Warsaw, beginning on July 22, 1942, Jews were deported in crowded freight cars to Treblinka. On some days as many as 7,000 Jews were deported...

to the Treblinka extermination camp
Treblinka extermination camp
Treblinka was a Nazi extermination camp in occupied Poland during World War II near the village of Treblinka in the modern-day Masovian Voivodeship of Poland. The camp, which was constructed as part of Operation Reinhard, operated between and ,. During this time, approximately 850,000 men, women...

 during the Grossaktion Warschau
Grossaktion Warsaw (1942)
The Grossaktion or Gross-Aktion in Warsaw was a Nazi German operation of mass extermination of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto beginning July 22, 1942. It was a key part of the countrywide Operation Reinhard headed by the SS- und Polizeiführer Odilo Globocnik...

, part of the countrywide Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard was the code name given to the Nazi plan to murder Polish Jews in the General Government, and marked the most deadly phase of the Holocaust, the use of extermination camps...

. Between Tisha B'Av
Tisha B'Av
|Av]],") is an annual fast day in Judaism, named for the ninth day of the month of Av in the Hebrew calendar. The fast commemorates the destruction of both the First Temple and Second Temple in Jerusalem, which occurred about 655 years apart, but on the same Hebrew calendar date...

(July 23) and Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur , also known as Day of Atonement, is the holiest and most solemn day of the year for the Jews. Its central themes are atonement and repentance. Jews traditionally observe this holy day with a 25-hour period of fasting and intensive prayer, often spending most of the day in synagogue...

(September 21) of 1942, about 254,000 Ghetto residents (or at least 300,000 by different accounts) were sent to Treblinka and murdered there. Polish resistance
Polish resistance movement in World War II
The Polish resistance movement in World War II, with the Home Army at its forefront, was the largest underground resistance in all of Nazi-occupied Europe, covering both German and Soviet zones of occupation. The Polish defence against the Nazi occupation was an important part of the European...

 officer Jan Karski
Jan Karski
Jan Karski was a Polish World War II resistance movement fighter and later scholar at Georgetown University. In 1942 and 1943 Karski reported to the Polish government in exile and the Western Allies on the situation in German-occupied Poland, especially the destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto, and...

 reported to the Western governments in 1942 on the situation in the Ghetto and on the extermination camps. By the end of 1942, it was clear that the deportations were to their deaths, and many of the remaining Jews decided to fight.

Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and destruction of the Ghetto

On January 18, 1943, after almost four months without any deportations, the Germans suddenly entered the Warsaw ghetto intent upon a further deportation. Within hours, some 600 Jews were shot and 5,000 others rounded up. The Germans expected no resistance, but preparations to resist had been going on since the previous autumn. The first instances of Jewish armed resistance began that day. The Jewish fighters had some success: the expulsion stopped after four days and the ŻOB
Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa
The Jewish Combat Organization was a World War II resistance movement, which was instrumental in engineering the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. ŻOB took part in a number of other resistance activities as well...

 and ŻZW
Zydowski Zwiazek Wojskowy
Żydowski Związek Wojskowy was an underground resistance organization operating during World War II in the area of the Warsaw Ghetto which fought during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising...

 resistance organizations took control of the Ghetto, building shelters and fighting posts and operating against Jewish collaborators.

The final battle started on the eve of Passover
Passover
Passover is a Jewish holiday and festival. It commemorates the story of the Exodus, in which the ancient Israelites were freed from slavery in Egypt...

 of April 19, 1943, when a Nazi force consisting of several thousand troops entered the ghetto. After initial setbacks, the Germans under the field command of Jürgen Stroop
Jürgen Stroop
Jürgen Stroop, , was a high-ranking Nazi Party and Gestapo official during World War II. In 1952, he was extradited to Poland, convicted of war crimes, and hanged.-Early life:Jürgen Stroop was born in Detmold, in the Principality of Lippe, German Empire, the son of a police officer...

 systematically burned and blew up the ghetto buildings, block by block, rounding up or murdering anybody they could capture. Significant resistance ended on April 23, and the Nazi operation officially ended in mid-May, symbolically culminating with the demolition of the Great Synagogue of Warsaw on May 16. According to the official report, at least 56,065 people were killed on the spot or deported to German Nazi concentration and death camps, most of them to Treblinka.

Remnants of the Ghetto today

The ghetto was almost entirely levelled during the uprising; however, a number of buildings and streets survived, mostly in the "small ghetto" area, which had been closed earlier and was not involved in the fighting. The buildings on Próżna street are the original residential buildings that once housed Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto. The buildings have largely remained empty since the war and the street is the focus for the annual Warsaw Jewish Festival. Nearby, the Nożyk Synagogue
Nozyk Synagogue
The Nożyk Synagogue is the only surviving prewar Jewish house of prayer in Warsaw, Poland. It was erected prior to 1902 and was restored after World War II...

 also survived the war, as it was used as a stables by the German Wehrmacht. The synagogue has today been restored and is once again used as a synagogue. The last remaining piece of the ghetto wall is located at ul. Złota 62. There is a small monument on a mound at ul. Mila 18 to commemorate the site of the Jewish underground headquarters during the Ghetto Uprising.

Casualties

  • Tosia Altman
    Tosia Altman
    Tova Altman worked with Mordechai Anielewicz as a member of the ŻOB during the Warsaw ghetto uprising.She initially worked as a courier, making contact with Jewish resistance groups outside of the ghetto and providing them with updates on resistance clashes, as well as providing educational...

     - ghetto resistance fighter, escaped the Ghetto in 1943 uprising through the sewers. Died afterwards after she was caught by the Gestapo
    Gestapo
    The Gestapo was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. Beginning on 20 April 1934, it was under the administration of the SS leader Heinrich Himmler in his position as Chief of German Police...

     when the celluloid factory where she hid caught fire.
  • Mordechaj Anielewicz
    Mordechaj Anielewicz
    Mordechaj Anielewicz was the leader of Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa , also known as ŻOB, during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising from January to May 1943.-Biography:Anielewicz was born into a poor family in the small town of Wyszków near Warsaw...

     - ghetto resistance leader in the ŻOB (alias Aniołek). Died in the ghetto uprising when he and many of his comrades committed suicide at their surrounded command post.
  • Dawid Moryc Apfelbaum
    Dawid Moryc Apfelbaum
    Dawid Moryc Apfelbaum , nom de guerre "Kowal" was an officer in the Polish Army and a commander of the Jewish Military Union , during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising In 1939 Apfelbaum was a Lieutenant in the...

     - ghetto resistance leader and commander of the ŻZW. Killed in action during the ghetto uprising.
  • Adam Czerniaków
    Adam Czerniaków
    Adam Czerniaków , born in Warsaw, Poland, was a Polish-Jewish engineer and senator to the prewar Polish Sejm for Nonpartisan Bloc for Cooperation with the Government...

     - engineer and senator, head of the Warsaw Judenrat
    Judenrat
    Judenräte were administrative bodies during the Second World War that the Germans required Jews to form in the German occupied territory of Poland, and later in the occupied territories of the Soviet Union It is the overall term for the enforcement bodies established by the Nazi occupiers to...

    (Jewish council). Committed suicide in 1942.
  • Yitzhak Gitterman
    Yitzhak Gitterman
    Yitzhak Gitterman was a director of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee in Poland, and a member of the underground Jewish Combat Organization....

     - director of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee
    American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee
    The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee is a worldwide Jewish relief organization headquartered in New York. It was established in 1914 and is active in more than 70 countries....

     in Poland, resistance fighter. Killed in action during the ghetto uprising.
  • Itzhak Katzenelson - teacher, poet, dramatist and resistance fighter. Executed at Auschwitz-Birkenau in 1944.
  • Janusz Korczak
    Janusz Korczak
    Janusz Korczak, the pen name of Henryk Goldszmit was a Polish-Jewish children's author, and pediatrician known as Pan Doktor or Stary Doktor...

     - children's author, pediatrician, child pedagogist and orphanage owner. Executed at Treblinka in 1942, after refusing an offer to leave his orphans and escape.
  • Simon Pullman
    Simon Pullman
    Simon Pullman was a violinist, conductor, music teacher and founder and Director of the Pullman Ensemble and Orchestra, and a seminal figure in the evolution of chamber music performance....

     - conductor of the Warsaw Ghetto symphony orchestra. Executed at Treblinka in 1942.
  • Emanuel Ringelblum
    Emanuel Ringelblum
    Emanuel Ringelblum was a Polish-Jewish historian, politician and social worker, known for his Notes from the Warsaw Ghetto, Notes on the Refugees in Zbąszyn chronicling the deportation of Jews from the town of Zbąszyń, and the so-called Ringelblum's Archives of the Warsaw Ghetto.-Before the war:He...

     - historian, politician and social worker, leader of the Ghetto chroniclers. Discovered in Warsaw and executed together with his family in 1944.
  • Kalonymus Kalman Shapira - grand rabbi of Piaseczno
    Piaseczno
    Piaseczno is a town in central Poland with 32,610 inhabitants .It is situated in the Masovian Voivodeship, approximately 16 kilometers south of Warsaw. It is a popular residential area and a suburb of Warsaw and is strongly linked to the capital, both economically and culturally...

    . Executed at Trawniki
    Trawniki
    Trawniki is a village in Świdnik County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland. It is the seat of the gmina called Gmina Trawniki. It lies approximately south-east of Świdnik and south-east of the regional capital Lublin....

     during Aktion Erntefest in 1943.
  • Lidia Zamenhof
    Lidia Zamenhof
    Lidia Zamenhof was the youngest daughter of Ludwig Zamenhof, the creator of the international auxiliary language, Esperanto. She was born 29 January 1904 in Warsaw, then in the Russian Empire...

     - Esperantist, daughter of Dr. L. L. Zamenhof
    L. L. Zamenhof
    Ludwig Lazarus Zamenhof December 15, 1859 – April 14, 1917) was the inventor of Esperanto, the most successful constructed language designed for international communication.-Cultural background:...

    . Executed at Treblinka in 1942.
  • Nathalie Zand
    Nathalie Zand
    Natalia Zylberlast-Zand was a Polish Jewish neurologist.She was the daughter of David and Emilia Zylberlasta of Batawiów....

     - Neurologist and research scientist. Practised as a doctor within the ghetto. Thought to have been executed at Pawiak
    Pawiak
    Pawiak was a prison built in 1835 in Warsaw, Poland.During the January 1863 Uprising, it served as a transfer camp for Poles sentenced by Imperial Russia to deportation to Siberia....

     prison, September 1942.

Survivors

  • Icchak Cukierman
    Icchak Cukierman
    Icchak Cukierman , also known by his nom de guerre "Antek", or by the anglicised spelling Yitzhak Zuckerman, was one of the leaders of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising during World War II.Cukierman was born in Vilnius, Lithuania into a Jewish family...

     - ghetto resistance leader ("Antek"), founder of the Lohamei HaGeta'ot kibbutz in Israel
    Israel
    The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

    . Died in 1981.
  • Marek Edelman
    Marek Edelman
    Marek Edelman was a Jewish-Polish political and social activist and cardiologist.Before World War II, he was a General Jewish Labour Bund activist. During the war he co-founded the Jewish Combat Organization. He took part in the 1943 Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, becoming its leader after the death of...

     - Polish political and social activist, cardiologist. He was the last surviving leader of the ŻOB. Died in 2009.
  • Jack P. Eisner - Author of "The Survivor of the Holocaust". The young boy who hung the Jewish flag atop the burning builiding in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. ZZW fighter. Commemorator of the holocaust. Died in 2003.
  • Bronisław Geremek - Polish social historian and politician. Died in 2008.
  • Martin Gray
    Martin Gray (Holocaust survivor)
    Martin Gray, born as Mieczysław Grajewski is a Holocaust survivor and author.thumb|"Make that the wounds, if hope wins on sufferings, become the veins in which life's blood flows." Monument erected close to M-G former [[Brussels]] residence in Uccle district.In 1946 Gray emigrated to the United...

     - Soviet secret police
    NKVD
    The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the public and secret police organization of the Soviet Union that directly executed the rule of power of the Soviets, including political repression, during the era of Joseph Stalin....

     officer and American and French writer.
  • Mietek Grocher
    Mietek Grocher
    Mietek Grocher is a Polish Jewish author and speaker who survived The Holocaust. Grocher recounts the events in his 1996 book Jag överlevde ....

     - Swedish author and the Holocaust remembrance activist.
  • Ludwik Hirszfeld - Polish microbiologist and serologist. Died in 1954.
  • Zivia Lubetkin
    Zivia Lubetkin
    Zivia Lubetkin was one of the leaders of the Jewish underground in Nazi-occupied Warsaw and the only woman on the High Command of the resistance group Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa .-Pre-World War II:...

     - ghetto resistance leader, Aliyah Bet activist, later married Cukierman. Died in 1976.
  • Uri Orlev
    Uri Orlev
    Uri Orlev is an award-winning Israeli children's author and translator of Polish-Jewish origin.-Biography:Uri Orlev, born Jerzy Henryk Orlowski, was born in Warsaw, Poland. He survived the war years in the Warsaw Ghetto and the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where he was sent to after his...

     - Israeli author of the semi-autobiographical novel The Island on Bird Street
    The Island on Bird Street
    The Island on Bird Street is a 1985 semi-autobiographical children's book by Israeli author Uri Orlev, which tells the story of a young boy, Alex, and his struggle to survive alone in a ghetto during World War II...

    recounting his experiences in the Warsaw Ghetto.
  • Marcel Reich-Ranicki
    Marcel Reich-Ranicki
    Marcel Reich-Ranicki is a Polish-born German literary critic and member of the literary group Gruppe 47. He is regarded as one of the most influential contemporary literary critics in the field of German literature and therefore was in Germany often called the 'Pope of literature' .-Life:Marcel...

     - German literary critic.
  • Sol Rosenberg
    Sol Rosenberg (Louisiana businessman)
    Sol Rosenberg was a Jewish survivor of the German Nazi death and concentration camps who became an industrialist and philanthropist in Monroe, northeastern Louisiana....

     - American steel industrialist and philanthropist. Died in 2009.
  • Simcha Rotem
    Simcha Rotem
    Simcha Rotem born Szymon Rathajzer, also known as Kazik , served as the head courier of the Jewish Fighting Organization , which planned and executed the Warsaw ghetto uprising against the Nazis.-The Warsaw ghetto:In 1942 he joined the ZOB...

     - ghetto resistance fighter ("Kazik"), Berihah
    Berihah
    Bricha was the underground organized effort that helped Jewish Holocaust survivors escape post-World War II Europe to the British Mandate for Palestine in violation of the White Paper of 1939...

     activist, post-war Nazi hunter.
  • Władysław Szpilman - Polish pianist, composer and writer, subject of the film The Pianist
    The Pianist (2002 film)
    The Pianist is a 2002 biographical war film directed by Roman Polanski, starring Adrien Brody. It is an adaptation of the autobiography of the same name by Jewish-Polish musician Władysław Szpilman...

     by Roman Polanski
    Roman Polanski
    Roman Polanski is a French-Polish film director, producer, writer and actor. Having made films in Poland, Britain, France and the USA, he is considered one of the few "truly international filmmakers."...

     (survivor of the Kraków Ghetto
    Kraków Ghetto
    The Kraków Ghetto was one of five major, metropolitan Jewish ghettos created by Nazi Germany in the General Government territory for the purpose of persecution, terror, and exploitation of Polish Jews during the German occupation of Poland in World War II...

    ) based on his memoir
    The Pianist (memoir)
    The Pianist is a memoir of the Polish musician of Jewish origins Władysław Szpilman, written and elaborated by a Polish author Jerzy Waldorff, who met Szpilman in 1938 in Krynica and became a friend of him...

    . Died in 2000.
  • Menachem Mendel Taub
    Menachem Mendel Taub
    Menachem Mendel Taub, known as The Kaliver Rebbe, is a prominent Hasidic rabbi who is the Rebbe of the Kaliver Chassidic movement...

     - Kaliver rabbi in Israel.
  • Dawid Wdowiński
    Dawid Wdowinski
    Dawid Wdowiński was a psychiatrist and doctor of neurology. He was a member of the right-wing Jewish organization Hatzohar and political leader of the Żydowski Związek Wojskowy resistance organization before and during the Warsaw Ghetto uprising.Before World War II, Wdowiński was a chairman of...

     - psychiatrist, political leader of the Irgun
    Irgun
    The Irgun , or Irgun Zevai Leumi to give it its full title , was a Zionist paramilitary group that operated in Mandate Palestine between 1931 and 1948. It was an offshoot of the earlier and larger Jewish paramilitary organization haHaganah...

     in Poland, resistance leader of the ŻZW, American memoirist. Died in 1970.

Associated people

  • Władysław Bartoszewski - Polish resistance activist of the Żegota
    Zegota
    "Żegota" , also known as the "Konrad Żegota Committee", was a codename for the Polish Council to Aid Jews , an underground organization of Polish resistance in German-occupied Poland from 1942 to 1945....

     organization in Warsaw.
  • Henryk Iwański
    Henryk Iwanski
    Henryk Iwański , nom de guerre Bystry, was a member of the Polish resistance during WWII. He is known for leading one of the most daring actions of the Armia Krajowa in support of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising...

     - Polish resistance officer in the charge of support for the Ghetto. Died in 1978.
  • Jan Karski
    Jan Karski
    Jan Karski was a Polish World War II resistance movement fighter and later scholar at Georgetown University. In 1942 and 1943 Karski reported to the Polish government in exile and the Western Allies on the situation in German-occupied Poland, especially the destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto, and...

     - Polish resistance courier who reported on the Ghetto for the Allies. Died in 2000.
  • Zofia Kossak-Szczucka
    Zofia Kossak-Szczucka
    Zofia Kossak-Szczucka was a Polish writer and World War II resistance fighter. She co-founded the wartime Polish organization Żegota, set up to assist Poland's Jews in escaping the Holocaust...

     - was a Polish writer and World War II resistance fighter and co-founder of Żegota
    Zegota
    "Żegota" , also known as the "Konrad Żegota Committee", was a codename for the Polish Council to Aid Jews , an underground organization of Polish resistance in German-occupied Poland from 1942 to 1945....

    . Died in 1968.
  • Irena Sendler
    Irena Sendler
    Irena Sendler was a Polish Catholic social worker who served in the Polish Underground and the Żegota resistance organization in German-occupied Warsaw during World War II...

     - Polish resistance member who smuggled 2,500 Jewish children out of the Ghetto and helped to hide them, subject of the film The Courageous Heart of Irena Sendler
    The Courageous Heart of Irena Sendler
    The Courageous Heart of Irena Sendler is a 2009 television film directed by John Kent Harrison. The film is a co-production between United States and Poland companies...

    . Died in 2008.
  • Szmul Zygielbojm
    Szmul Zygielbojm
    Szmul Zygielbojm was a Jewish-Polish socialist politician, leader of the Bund, and a member of the National Council of the Polish government in exile...

     - Polish-Jewish socialist
    Socialism
    Socialism is an economic system characterized by social ownership of the means of production and cooperative management of the economy; or a political philosophy advocating such a system. "Social ownership" may refer to any one of, or a combination of, the following: cooperative enterprises,...

     politician. In 1943 committed suicide in London in an act of protest against the Allied indifference to the death of the Warsaw Ghetto.

See also

  • Adam Czerniaków
    Adam Czerniaków
    Adam Czerniaków , born in Warsaw, Poland, was a Polish-Jewish engineer and senator to the prewar Polish Sejm for Nonpartisan Bloc for Cooperation with the Government...

    : Jewish administrator of the Ghetto until his suicide.
  • Ghettos in occupied Europe 1939-1944
    Ghettos in occupied Europe 1939-1944
    During World War II, ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe were set up by the Third Reich in order to confine Jews and sometimes Gypsies into tightly packed areas of the cities...

  • Grossaktion Warschau
    Grossaktion Warsaw (1942)
    The Grossaktion or Gross-Aktion in Warsaw was a Nazi German operation of mass extermination of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto beginning July 22, 1942. It was a key part of the countrywide Operation Reinhard headed by the SS- und Polizeiführer Odilo Globocnik...

     - The massive deportation to Treblinka in 1942.
  • Great Synagogue in Warsaw - One of the largest synagogues in the world, demolished in 1943.
  • Group 13
    Group 13
    "The Group Thirteen" network was a Jewish collaborationist organisation in the Warsaw Ghetto during the Second World War. The Thirteen took its informal name from the address of its main office in Leszno Street 13. The group was founded in December 1940 and led by Abraham Gancwajch, the former...

     - Jewish collaborationist secret police
    Secret police
    Secret police are a police agency which operates in secrecy and beyond the law to protect the political power of an individual dictator or an authoritarian political regime....

     also known as Jewish Gestapo
    Gestapo
    The Gestapo was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. Beginning on 20 April 1934, it was under the administration of the SS leader Heinrich Himmler in his position as Chief of German Police...

    , led by Abraham Gancwajch
    Abraham Gancwajch
    Abraham Gancwajch was a prominent Jewish Nazi collaborator in Warsaw Ghetto during Second World War and a "kingpin" of the ghetto underwold.-Biography:Gancwajch was born in Częstochowa, Poland...

    .
  • Hermann Höfle
    Hermann Höfle
    Hermann Julius "Hans" Höfle was an Austrian-born SS-Sturmbannführer . He was deputy to Odilo Globocnik in the Aktion Reinhard program, serving as his main deportation and extermination expert...

     - A deputy to Globocnik.
  • Jewish Ghetto Police
    Jewish Ghetto Police
    Jewish Ghetto Police , also known as the Jewish Police Service and referred to by the Jews as the Jewish Police, were the auxiliary police units organized in the Jewish ghettos of Europe by local Judenrat councils under orders of occupying German Nazis.Members of the did not have official...

     - Jewish collaborationist police force in Warsaw Ghetto and elsewhere.
  • Jürgen Stroop
    Jürgen Stroop
    Jürgen Stroop, , was a high-ranking Nazi Party and Gestapo official during World War II. In 1952, he was extradited to Poland, convicted of war crimes, and hanged.-Early life:Jürgen Stroop was born in Detmold, in the Principality of Lippe, German Empire, the son of a police officer...

     - Nazi commander during the suppression of the uprising.
  • Mila 18
    Mila 18
    Mila 18 is a novel by Leon Uris set in German-occupied Warsaw, Poland before and during World War II. Leon Uris's work, based on real events, covers the Nazi occupation of Poland and the atrocities of systematically dehumanising and eliminating the Jewish People of Poland...

    - A book by Leon Uris
    Leon Uris
    Leon Marcus Uris was an American novelist, known for his historical fiction and the deep research that went into his novels. His two bestselling books were Exodus, published in 1958, and Trinity, in 1976.-Life:...

    .
  • Muranów
    Muranów
    Muranów is a neighborhood consisting mainly of housing estates in the districts of Śródmieście and Wola in Warsaw founded in the 17th century. The name derived from the palace belonging to Józef Bellotti, a Venetian architect...

     - a district in Warsaw
    Warsaw
    Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly from the Baltic Sea and from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population in 2010 was estimated at 1,716,855 residents with a greater metropolitan area of 2,631,902 residents, making Warsaw the 10th most...

     where the major part of the Ghetto was built.
  • Odilo Globocnik
    Odilo Globocnik
    Odilo Lotario Globocnik was a prominent Austrian Nazi and later an SS leader. He was an acquaintance of Adolf Eichmann, who played a major role in the extermination of Jews and others during the Holocaust...

     - The Nazi leader responsible for the liquidation of the Ghetto.
  • Umschlagplatz - Collection point for the deportations to extermination camps.
  • Warsaw concentration camp
    Warsaw concentration camp
    The Warsaw concentration camp was an associated group of the German Nazi concentration camps, possibly including an extermination camp, located in German-occupied Warsaw, capital city of Poland...

     - The concentration camp established in the former Ghetto.
  • Warschauer Kniefall
    Warschauer Kniefall
    Kniefall von Warschau refers to a gesture of humility and penance by social democratic Chancellor of Germany Willy Brandt towards the victims of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.-Incident:...

     - Gesture by Chancellor of Germany Willy Brandt
    Willy Brandt
    Willy Brandt, born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm , was a German politician, Mayor of West Berlin 1957–1966, Chancellor of West Germany 1969–1974, and leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany 1964–1987....

    .
  • Żagiew
    Zagiew
    Żagiew was a collaborationist Jewish organisation in German Nazi-occupied Warsaw, founded by the Germans in February 1943, during World War II at the beginning of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising...

     - A group of collaborators posing as a resistance group (see also Hotel Polski
    Hotel Polski
    Hotel Polski , opened in 1808, was a hotel in Warsaw, Poland, at 29 Długa street. In 1943, the Hotel was used by Germans as an internment place for Jews from Warsaw, where they could buy foreign affidavits and passports and, as foreign citizens, leave Warsaw...

     affair).

Fictional Representations

  • Jurek Becker
    Jurek Becker
    Jurek Becker was a Polish-born German writer, film-author and GDR dissident. His most famous novel is Jacob the Liar, which has been made into two films. He lived in Łódź during World War II for about two years and survived the Holocaust.-Childhood:Jurek Becker was born in 1937 and lived in the...

    , Jacob the Liar, Arcade Publishing, 1996, ISBN 978-1559703154
  • John Hersey
    John Hersey
    John Richard Hersey was a Pulitzer Prize-winning American writer and journalist considered one of the earliest practitioners of the so-called New Journalism, in which storytelling devices of the novel are fused with non-fiction reportage...

    , The Wall, Vintage, 1988, ISBN 978-0394756967
  • Leon Uris
    Leon Uris
    Leon Marcus Uris was an American novelist, known for his historical fiction and the deep research that went into his novels. His two bestselling books were Exodus, published in 1958, and Trinity, in 1976.-Life:...

    , Mila 18, Bantam, 1980, ISBN 978-0553147018 (originally published in 1961 by Doubleday)
  • Richard Zimler
    Richard Zimler
    Richard Zimler is a best-selling author of fiction. His books, which have earned him a 1994 National Endowment of the Arts Fellowship in Fiction and the 1998 Herodotus Award, have been published in many countries and translated into more than 20 languages...

    , The Warsaw Anagrams, Overlook Press, 2011, ISBN 978-1590200889, and Corsair, 2011, ISBN 978-1849013697

External links

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